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Section1 TB METEO

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    CEA NLS sect1TB 1

    CAE NLS-AMSTERDAM

    METEOROLOGIE/

    Meteorology

    Onno Hungerink en Tijmen de Boer

    (senior aviation forecasters)

    In aviation: MET

    Met office

    Met people

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    Purpose of study:

    Understand the atmosphere and its hazards

    Basic knowledge to make better decisions

    Better understanding weather: Flightsafety

    Better understanding weather: Flight economics

    In all aviation operations, not only in the air, weather is

    involved!

    i.e. One of the major input parameters on ATC operations on

    Schiphol is the Weather (wx)

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    Flightsafety

    Table showing weather related/influenced accidents UK

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    What is Meteorology?

    MeteorosEverything that soares or glidesin the air The word Meteorology is first used byAristoteles.

    Everything that deals with atmosphere and

    weather, so also climate.

    The met* is occupied with the physical,

    dynamical and chemical state of the

    atmosphere.

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    Kinds of Meteorology:

    Synoptical* Meteorology

    The weatherchart, forecasts and warnings.

    Physical Meteorology

    What is the speed of a falling hailstone* or how and how

    fast grows a raindrop?

    Dynamical Meteorology *

    Get horizontal and vertical movements in formulas and

    start computing Computers

    Climatology

    How high shall we built that dike?

    How much snow will fall on that flat roof ..and how

    often?

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    Kinds of Meteorology:

    Different classification:

    General MeteorologyRadio/televisionthe general public

    General forecasts and warnings

    Mostly one day to more days ahead, few details.

    Maritime MeteorologyGale warnings, sea state and swell, wateropzet* etc.

    Aviation Meteorology

    Special forecasts and warnings for Pilots

    Much detail, relative short term.

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    The atmosphereThe air is a mix of several gases:

    Stikstof (nitrogen) 78 % (by volume)

    Zuurstof (oxygen) 21 %

    Argon(argon) 0,9 %

    Kooldioxide (carbon dioxide)0,03 % Neon (neon) 0,002 %

    Waterdamp (watervapour) 0 to 4%

    Sporengassen (trace gasses), zoals Helium, Krypton,,Waterstof, Ozon*,

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    CO2 Increase since 1750

    260

    280

    300

    320

    340

    360

    1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000Tijd --->

    CO2in

    ppm

    Now 370

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    THE ATMOSPHERE

    DEFINITIONS

    TEMPERATURE

    PRESSURE

    LAYERS

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    There are a few more or less horizontal layers,which height and thichness are depending on

    Temperature

    Every layer is called a sphere (Sfeer).

    Two spheres are seperated by a pause (pauze)

    A pause is characterized by different T-

    behavior.

    A pause is called to the lower sphere.

    Classification of the atmosphere

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    Classification of the atmosphere

    From earth surface (SFC) up:

    Troposphere 0 - 13 km Tropopause 13 km*

    Stratosphere 13 - 50 km

    Stratopause 50 km Mesosphere 50 - 80 km

    Mesopause 80 km Thermosphere 80 km

    Thermopause ca. 500 km Exosphere ca. 500 km - ca. 1000 km Space

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    Some characteristics of the TROPOSPHERE

    The biggist part of the mass of the atmosphere is in the

    lower troposphere.

    Tot de tropopauze neemt de temperatuur mettoenemende hoogte gemiddeld af met 2 0C/1000 ft (0,60C/100 m)

    Bijna alle weer speelt zich in de troposfeer af

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    The atmosphere

    NB:

    What is T doing?

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    Tropopauze:

    Lowest level of the atmospere at which thevertical lapse rate decreases to less then, or equal

    to 0,6 C/1000ft over a distance of at least 2 km.

    latidude height temperature

    equator 16 km -80 C

    mid latitude 11 km -50 C

    Poles 8 km -40 C

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    VERANDERING VAN DE TROPOPAUZEHOOGTE

    MET DE SEIZOENEN

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    HOOGTEVERSCHILLEN VAN DE TROPOPAUZE IN DE

    VERSCHILLENDE KLIMAATGORDELS

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    50 090

    5

    10

    15

    20

    kmBreaks in tropopause

    The tropopause has a leaf like constructionMainly caused by airmasses, cold and warm.*

    latitude

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    Melting point Boiling point

    Celsius(C) 0 100

    Fahrenheit(F) 32 212

    Kelvin(K) 273 373

    Temperature:

    In aviation units in degrees Celsius (C)

    In science in Kelvin (K)*

    Conversion from Cesius to Fahrenheit:9

    32

    5

    FC

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    2.3 transfer of heat

    Electromagnetic radiation

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    4TE Stefan Boltzmann law

    T

    2897max Wien displacement law

    C d t i ithi

    b d d b t

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    Conduct ionoccurs within a body and between

    bodies in actual contact with each other.

    Convect ioninvolves motion of mass, which

    carries the heat, from one region of space toanother.

    Radiationis heat transfer by electromagnetic

    radiation, with no need for matter to be present

    in the space between the bodies.Latent heat

    The liberation of latent heat plays also a role in

    heat transfer.

    If rising air reaches its condensation level

    condensation occurs and latent heat is

    liberated, compensating partly the consumed

    energy for expansion.

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    Radiation

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    A B

    winter

    (90/-52,5/)-23,5=14/

    C D

    zomer

    (90/-52,5/)+23,5/=61/

    2

    1

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    june decembe

    r

    Circling earth around the sun

    Annual variation of temperature

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    Diurnal variation of the temperature

    0 6 12 14 18 24

    temperature

    Solar radiation

    Terrestrial radiation

    minimum

    maximum

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    3.ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

    1

    5

    10

    1013hpa

    500hpa

    200hpakm.

    700hpa

    900hpa

    The pressure of the atmosphere at any point is the weight of

    the air which lies vertically above unit area centred at thepoint.

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    - 1 hectopascal = 1 hPa= 100 Pascal

    1 hPa= 100 N /m2

    - Anarode barometer

    - isobar: line connecting points of equal pressure

    - RT

    p

    = atmosperic density(kg/m3)

    R= Reynolds constant

    T= temperaure(K)

    - Near the surface: 1hPa 27ft

    - Near 500hPa level: 1hPa 48ft

    -pressure reduces more rapidly w ith increasing

    height in co ld air than in warm air.

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    Internat ional Standard A tmosphere (ISA)

    Mean sea level (MSL): -pressure= 1013.25 hPa

    -temperature= 15C=288K

    -density= 1.225kg/m3

    Tropopause: -height: 11km

    -temperature: -56.5C

    From MSL to 11km: -vertical lapse rate of the temperature: decrease of 6.5C

    per km (-2C/1000ft)

    From 11km up to 20km: -constant temperature = -56.5C

    From 20km up to 32km: -increasing temperature with height of about 1C/1000m

    (0.3C/1000ft)

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    Standard temperature in degree Celsius for a given flight

    level

    ).(1000

    2feetFLinTT groundFL

    Eq.: Tground = 15 C

    TFL100 = 1520 = -5 C

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    Pressure

    (hPa)

    Height

    (FL)

    Temperature

    (C)

    Density

    (kg/m3)

    1013,25 msl +15 1.225

    850 FL050 +5 1.063

    700 FL100 -5 0.908

    500 FL180 -21 0.692

    400 FL240 -33 0.577

    300 FL300 -45 0.457

    250 FL340 -52 0.395

    200 FL390 -56.5 0.322

    150 FL450 -56.5 0.241

    Standard pressure levels, equivalent standard flight

    levels, temperatures and density

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    Altimetry

    The pressure altimeter is an instrument for measuring

    pressure, i.e. an aneroid barometer with its scale

    graduated to read height in feet instead of pressure.

    Aircraft altimeters are calibrated for ISA-values so that all

    altimeters will read the same altitude for the samepressure.

    The alt imeter measures the dis tancebetween the

    aircraft and a certain reference level.

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    Correction for pressure variation

    -If the flight is towards an area of higher pressure, the altimeter

    underreads

    -If the flight is towards an area of lower pressure, the altimeter

    overreads.

    - When flying with winds from port (links) in the n-ern

    hemisphere, the altimeter tends to overread.

    - When flying with winds from starboard (right) in the n-ernhemisphere, the altimeter tends to underread.

    HIGH TO LOW, LOOK OUT BELOW

    LOW TO HIGH, LOOK AT THE SKY

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    Correction for temperature variation

    - If the atmosphere is colder than the standard atmosphere, the

    altimeter will read too high (the aircraft will be lower than the

    indicated altitude).

    - If the atmosphere is warmer than the standard atmosphere,

    the altimeter will read too low.

    increase (decrease) of 3C increase (decrease) of 1% of the height

    i.c. temperature FL300 3 C higher ISA truth height 30.300 ft.

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