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Semi-ring Porous and Some Diffuse Porous Hardwoods

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FW1035 Lab Lecture 2

SemiSemi-Ring Porous and Diffuse Porous Species

SemiSemi-ring porous hardwoods

Butternut Black walnut Cottonwood/aspen Black cherry Birch1

Diffuse porous hardwoods (some)

Butternut - Juglans cinerea (Juglandaceae)

Lives to around 75 years. Its nuts are highly sought after, moreso than its 2 lumber.

Butternut - Juglans cinerea (Juglandaceae)

ID features:

Low to moderate density (SG=0.38) Light brown color - often streaky Pores: solitary or short radial ores: multiples Longitudinal parenchyma: apotracheal banded or diffuse in aggregate Rays: indistinct (1-4 seriate) ays: (1Miscellaneous: fluted growth iscellaneous: rings3


highhigh-grade exposed architectural wood work (church altars, boat interiors, elevators) low grades used for boxes and crates

Fluted Growth Rings in Butternut


Black Walnut - Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae)

Nuts commonly picked for food. Wood highly prized for its straight grain. Because of heavy logging, this tree is now scarce in the US. Gunstocks are a specialty use of walnut wood.


Black Walnut - Juglans nigra (Juglandaceae)

ID features:

ModerateModerate-high density (SG=0.55) Color: chocolate to purplish brown (heartwood) - very distinctive! Pores: solitary or short radial multiples Longitudinal parenchyma: apotracheal banded or diffuse in aggregate Rays : indistinct (1-4 seriate) (1High grade furniture, high grade architectural woodwork, gun stocks (easy to carve, smooth 6 finish)


Diffuse Porous Hardwoods


Black Cherry Prunus serotina (Rosaceae)

High quality, large trees are used for furniture and veneer. Common on the east coast. The fruit can be used to flavor drinks and other foods.


Black Cherry Prunus serotina (Rosaceae)

Moderate density (SG=0.50) Distinct, rich reddish-brown color is very reddishcharacteristic Pores are indistinct except for an initial row of larger earlywood pores Rays are distinct on the cross section and on the radial planes due to relatively large number and the color contrast Ray fleck is quite obvious (light on dark) Ray ends in sapwood may look like hard maple Gum ducts may be present as dark streaks on longitudinal surfaces or as tangential rows of dark spots on the crosscross-section9

Uses for black cherry wood

High grade furniture and cabinetry

Often one of the most expensive domestic wood species

Architectural woodwork Pallets and packagingGum Ducts10

Cottonwood/Aspen Populus spp. (Salicaceae)

Bigtooth Aspen range.


Native ranges vary greatly by species.

Cottonwood/Aspen Populus spp. (Salicaceae) (Salicaceae)

Sometimes classified as semi-ring semiporous Common Populus species:

Eastern cottonwood Populus deltoides Quaking aspen Populus tremuloides Balsam polpar Populus balsamifera Bigtooth poplar Populus grandidentata

Woods of these species cant be reliably separated by hand lens features The willows have similar macroanatomy (but, heterocellular rays in Salix spp., homocellular in Populus spp.) 12

Cottonwood/Aspen Populus spp. (Salicaceae)

ID features:

Low to moderate density (SG=0.33(SG=0.33-0.40) Color: creamy yellow (aspens) to light gray-brown (cottonwoods) grayPores: small, largest barely visible to the naked eye Rays: indistinct - barely visible with hand lens (uniseriate) Miscellaneous: marginal parenchyma, but not as distinct as in yellow-poplar. Growth yellowrings often distinguished by band of dense latewood13

Uses for Aspen/Cottonwood

WaferWafer-based composites Inexpensive furniture Pallets and crates Pulp and paper


Birch - Betula spp. (Betulaceae)

Yellow Birch Inner bark smells and tastes like wintergreen. Range of yellow birch

Paper Birch


Birch - Betula spp. (Betulaceae) Betulaceae)All birch species have similar anatomy Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch) Betula papyrifera (paper birch)

ID features: Moderate to high density (SG=0.55-0.62) (SG=0.55 Color: light brown to dark reddish-brown reddish Pores: often appear as white dots, diameter is clearly larger than the largest rays Rays: relatively narrow, indistinct with the naked eye (1-5 seriate) (1 Ray ends: indistinct Often confused with maples! Pith flecks common in paper birch Uses: high-grade plywood, flooring, furniture, door highskins, pallets/packaging 16

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1 Semi-Ring Porous and Semi-Ring Porous and Diffuse Porous Species Diffuse Porous Species Semi-ring porous hardwoods Semi-ring porous hardwoods Butternut Butternut Black walnut Black walnut Diffuse porous hardwoods Diffuse porous hardwoods (some) (some) Cottonwood/aspen Cottonwood/aspen Black cherry Black cherry Birch Birch FW1035 Lab Lecture 2
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