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Serguei L. Katrechko Moscow, Russia, s ss s kkkk aaaa tttt rrrr eeee cccc hhhh kkkk oooo @@@@ gggg...

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Transcendentalism as a Special Transcendentalism as a Special Type of Philosophizing Type of Philosophizing Serguei L. Katrechko Serguei L. Katrechko Moscow, Russia, [email protected] http://www.facebook.com/skatrechko «… The revival of transcendentalism can be the [possible] ‘get-out’ (resolve, output) for the contemporary philosophy» Alexander Ogurtsov (2011)
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Serguei L. Katrechko Moscow, Russia, s ss s kkkk aaaa tttt rrrr eeee cccc hhhh kkkk oooo @@@@ gggg mmmm aaaa iiii llll.... cccc oooo mmmm hhhh tttt tttt pppp :::: //// //// wwww wwww wwww.... ffff aaaa cccc eeee bbbb oooo oooo kkkk.... cccc oooo mmmm //// ssss kkkk aaaa tttt rrrr eeee cccc hhhh kkkk oooo The revival of transcendentalism can be the [possible] get-out (resolve, o utput ) for the contemporary philosophy Alexander Ogurtsov (2011) Slide 2 In the second half of the XX-th century the second (after Neo-Kantianism) discovery of Kant, associated with conceptual change in the understanding of transcendentalism the transition from the traditional ontological theory (interpretation) of two objects/worlds to the theory of two aspects (** Rohlf, 2010) based on epistemic or /and semantic reading of Critique, arises. ** Rohlf, M. 2010, Immanuel Kant: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/kant/ Slide 3 In this regard, R.Hanna writes that the development of contemporary philosophy (in the face of two major traditions: analytic and continental ones) is largely predetermined by Kants transcendentalism, and the -th century may be named as the post-Kantian century (** Hanna, 2007). ** Hanna, R. 2007, Kant in the twentieth century (http://spot.colorado.edu/~rhanna/kant_in_the_twentieth_century_proofs_dec07.pdf).http://spot.colorado.edu/~rhanna/kant_in_the_twentieth_century_proofs_dec07.pdf M.Foucault says that Kant stands at the beginning of a new method of philosophizing" (inaugural lecture of 1970). Alexander Ogurtsov (known Russian philosopher) emphasize that only the revival of transcendentalism ([as "removal" of alternative of naturalism (Back to things!) and constructivism (All is our construction!) can be the get-out for the contemporary philosophy/philosophy of science (see epigraph). Slide 4 This allows me to consider Kant's transcendentalism not just as one of the particular philosophical theory, but as the basis of a new transcendental paradigm of philosophy (philosophizing). (The following discussion board (in Russian) is devoted to development of the contemporary transcendentalism: http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/)http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/ Slide 5 Transcendental shift: first phase/stage Part 1. Transcendental shift: first phase/stage Part 1. Transcendental shift: first phase/stage As the starting point for our interpretation of the transcendentalism we take the classical paradigm of epistemology, for which the main question is the relation of a subject to an object what can be represented in binary scheme S(ubject) O(bject). On this scale we also mark the result of our knowledge or of the interaction between the subject (S) and the object (O) in the process of cognition the experience (or experienced knowledge; germ. Erfahrung) [1], which is located in the middle of the scale. In this case the original binary scheme turns into a ternary one: S Erfahrung . As the starting point for our interpretation of the transcendentalism we take the classical paradigm of epistemology, for which the main question is the relation of a subject to an object what can be represented in binary scheme S(ubject) O(bject). On this scale we also mark the result of our knowledge or of the interaction between the subject (S) and the object (O) in the process of cognition the experience (or experienced knowledge; germ. Erfahrung) [1], which is located in the middle of the scale. In this case the original binary scheme turns into a ternary one: S Erfahrung . [1] [1] Kant equates Erfahrung and Empirische Erkenntnis [1478]. [1] Object Subject Object Subject Thing (O) Erfahrung Consciousness Thing (O) Erfahrung Consciousness (S) Slide 6 Transcendental shift: first phase/stage A ccording to key [ 25] of Critique, where transcendental philosophy (TPh) is defined as knowledge which is not so much occupied with objects as with the mode of our cognition of these objects, so far as this mode of cognition is possible a priori, the transition to transcendentalism is based on transcendental shift from [empirical] studies of the objects (things) to the middle of the scale in the direction to the subject, to the intermediate between subject and object area of experienced knowledge, which is the area of the transcendental-ness (or transcendentality). A ccording to key [ 25] of Critique, where transcendental philosophy (TPh) is defined as knowledge which is not so much occupied with objects as with the mode of our cognition of these objects, so far as this mode of cognition is possible a priori, the transition to transcendentalism is based on transcendental shift from [empirical] studies of the objects (things) to the middle of the scale in the direction to the subject, to the intermediate between subject and object area of experienced knowledge, which is the area of the transcendental-ness (or transcendentality). In this case the transcendental shift does not displace the intention of study to the right limit to the analysis of the [empirical] subject, i.e. does not immerse us in the study of the content of consciousness, but stops at the middle area, area of the transcendentality, which Kant calls the mode of cognition or faculty of cognition [1]. In this case the transcendental shift does not displace the intention of study to the right limit to the analysis of the [empirical] subject, i.e. does not immerse us in the study of the content of consciousness, but stops at the middle area, area of the transcendentality, which Kant calls the mode of cognition or faculty of cognition [1]. [1] [1] Also see Kants notes from Prolegomena: The word "transcendental," which with me means a reference of our cognition, i.e., not to things, but only to the cognitive faculty. [1] Also see Kants notes from Prolegomena: The word "transcendental," which with me means a reference of our cognition, i.e., not to things, but only to the cognitive faculty. [1] Slide 7 Transcendental shift: first phase/stage Slide 8 In the beginning of my talk I noted two possible interpretations of Kants transcendentalism. First of them, the theory of two objects is false. In this case transcendental shift displaces transcendental in the area of subjectivity. Transcendentalism of Kant turns into phenomenalism of Berkeley. In the beginning of my talk I noted two possible interpretations of Kants transcendentalism. First of them, the theory of two objects is false. In this case transcendental shift displaces transcendental in the area of subjectivity. Transcendentalism of Kant turns into phenomenalism of Berkeley. Object Erfahrung Subject Object Erfahrung Subject transcendental shift transcendental shift The second (modern) interpretation, the theory of two aspects [1] is correct. The area of the transcendental are located in the middle of epistemic scale: the transcendental is not objective (transcendent) or subjective (immanent): The second (modern) interpretation, the theory of two aspects [1] is correct. The area of the transcendental are located in the middle of epistemic scale: the transcendental is not objective (transcendent) or subjective (immanent): [1] Object Erfahrung Subject transcendental shift transcendental shift [1] [1] In two aspects-theory Kantian thing-in-itself and thing-as-it-appears-to-us are considered not as two distinct ontological entities, but as "two sides" [ XIX footnote] or "two modes of representation (the sensible and the intellectual)" [ XXVII] of the same thing. [1] Slide 9 Transcendental shift: first phase/stage Thereby Kant's characteristic of transcendentalism as the research of our mode of cognition should be understood not subjective-psychologically, in terms of analysis of human faculties of cognition, but cognitive-semantically as a solution of the problem of objectiveness of a priori representations, i.e. the possibility of their use in human experience. Kant tells about the semantic orientation of transcendentalism in a letter to M. Herz (21.02.1772), in which he at the first time explicates the idea of his Critique as a response to the following semantic question: What is the ground of the relation of that in us which we call representation to the object? Thereby Kant's characteristic of transcendentalism as the research of our mode of cognition should be understood not subjective-psychologically, in terms of analysis of human faculties of cognition, but cognitive-semantically as a solution of the problem of objectiveness of a priori representations, i.e. the possibility of their use in human experience. Kant tells about the semantic orientation of transcendentalism in a letter to M. Herz (21.02.1772), in which he at the first time explicates the idea of his Critique as a response to the following semantic question: What is the ground of the relation of that in us which we call representation to the object? Thus Kants transcendentalism is connected with the solution of the main transcendental question about the objectivity of a priori representations. Thus Kants transcendentalism is connected with the solution of the main transcendental question about the objectivity of a priori representations. Slide 10 On the way to transcendental metaphysics (XXIII WCP ) Part 2. Transcendental paradigm of philosophizing Part 2. Transcendental paradigm of philosophizing However, the first phase of the transcendental shift does not yet characterize the specifics of Kant's transcendentalism, but sets a range of a la transcendental concepts. However, the first phase of the transcendental shift does not yet characterize the specifics of Kant's transcendentalism, but sets a range of a la transcendental concepts. Thus Kant stands at the origins of the transcendental paradigm of philosophizing, the transition to which is connected with overcoming both objectal (Antiquity) and a subjectal (Modern Era) points of view and moving of intention of research to the middle between object and subject area which Kant associates with experience/Erfahrung. Thus Kant stands at the origins of the transcendental paradigm of philosophizing, the transition to which is connected with overcoming both objectal (Antiquity) and a subjectal (Modern Era) points of view and moving of intention of research to the middle between object and subject area which Kant associates with experience/Erfahrung. 2 Slide 11 Three paradigms o Metaphysics (XXIII WCP) Three paradigms of Metaphysics (from my talk On the way to transcendental metaphysics on XXIII World Congress of Philosophy; 2013) Three paradigms of Metaphysics (from my talk On the way to transcendental metaphysics on XXIII World Congress of Philosophy; 2013) The development of philosophy includes two historical modes or paradigms of metaphysics. The development of philosophy includes two historical modes or paradigms of metaphysics. European metaphysics begins with Parmenides discover of the meta-physical reality of the Unity in its difference from the physical reality of the Plurality. This fact of the birth of metaphysics defines its first boarder or mode. Metaphysics becomes here research of Unity (Being) intent to investigate the first principle of being. Thus, Parmenid starts an ontological mode of metaphysics which is further developed by Plato, Aristotle, and other great thinkers of the Antiquity and the Middle Ages. European metaphysics begins with Parmenides discover of the meta-physical reality of the Unity in its difference from the physical reality of the Plurality. This fact of the birth of metaphysics defines its first boarder or mode. Metaphysics becomes here research of Unity (Being) intent to investigate the first principle of being. Thus, Parmenid starts an ontological mode of metaphysics which is further developed by Plato, Aristotle, and other great thinkers of the Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Slide 12 Three paradigms o Metaphysics (XXIII WCP) This mode of metaphysics can be called the metaphysics of the object(s) or the metaphysics of thing(s). The main subject or theme (but no subject in philosophical sense) of this metaphysics is the study of existing things. This mode of metaphysics can be called the metaphysics of the object(s) or the metaphysics of thing(s). The main subject or theme (but no subject in philosophical sense) of this metaphysics is the study of existing things. But more precise this type of metaphysics can be called the (ontological) transcendent metaphysics, because it postulates the existence of a transcendent reality. But more precise this type of metaphysics can be called the (ontological) transcendent metaphysics, because it postulates the existence of a transcendent reality. This is metaphysics as meta--physics This is metaphysics as meta--physics Slide 13 Three paradigms o Metaphysics (XXIII WCP) The second mode of metaphysics will be associated with the epistemological/epistemic turn in modern era, with the discovery by Descartes a new type of reality our (human) subjective reality, reality of our consciousness or Cogito. The second mode of metaphysics will be associated with the epistemological/epistemic turn in modern era, with the discovery by Descartes a new type of reality our (human) subjective reality, reality of our consciousness or Cogito. This mode of metaphysics is the metaphysics of the (conscious) subject and can be called epistemological meta--psychology. This mode of metaphysics is the metaphysics of the (conscious) subject and can be called epistemological meta--psychology. It is immanent metaphysics It is immanent metaphysics Slide 14 Three paradigms o Metaphysics (XXIII WCP) A third type or paradigm of metaphysics is based on Kantian philosophy and linked with its transcendental shift. A third type or paradigm of metaphysics is based on Kantian philosophy and linked with its transcendental shift. Kant defines transcendental shift in the understanding of the subject of metaphysics as the transition from analysis of objects (things) to analysis of our mode of its cognition. Kant defines transcendental shift in the understanding of the subject of metaphysics as the transition from analysis of objects (things) to analysis of our mode of its cognition. This is shift from the Object (things) toward the Subject (cogito), but it isnt the transition to the Subject as such. It is shift to the middle area between the Object and the Subject, to the area of transcendentality This is shift from the Object (things) toward the Subject (cogito), but it isnt the transition to the Subject as such. It is shift to the middle area between the Object and the Subject, to the area of transcendentality Slide 15 Three paradigms o Metaphysics (XXIII WCP) Kant named this area Experience (Erfahrung), but it is possible to name it Knowledge (Erkenntnis), because knowledge is located between the object and subject of cognition Kant named this area Experience (Erfahrung), but it is possible to name it Knowledge (Erkenntnis), because knowledge is located between the object and subject of cognition Object Erfahrung Subject Object Erfahrung Subject Erkenntnis Erkenntnis Compare with concept of three worlds of Popper or intentional reality of Husserl. Compare with concept of three worlds of Popper or intentional reality of Husserl. Cognition of this area belongs to transcendental philosophy. Cognition of this area belongs to transcendental philosophy. This is third transcendental mode of metaphysics. Slide 16 Transcendental paradigm of philosophizing If the thing appears to be the main object of the study of ancient paradigm of philosophy, or the metaphysics of a object (transcendent metaphysics; metaphysics), and the consciousness/cogito appears to be the object of the classical paradigm of Modern Era, or the metaphysics of a subject (immanent metaphysics; metapsychology), than the middle area of Erfahrung is the object of transcendental type of philosophizing, or Kants transcendental metaphysics: If the thing appears to be the main object of the study of ancient paradigm of philosophy, or the metaphysics of a object (transcendent metaphysics; metaphysics), and the consciousness/cogito appears to be the object of the classical paradigm of Modern Era, or the metaphysics of a subject (immanent metaphysics; metapsychology), than the middle area of Erfahrung is the object of transcendental type of philosophizing, or Kants transcendental metaphysics: Object Erfahrung/Erkenntnis Subject Object Erfahrung/Erkenntnis Subject Transcendent --- Transcendental --- Immanent Transcendent --- Transcendental --- Immanent metaphysics metaphysics metaphysics metaphysics metaphysics metaphysics Slide 17 Transcendental paradigm of philosophizing Slide 18 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage Part 3. Transcendental shift: metaphysical stage Part 3. Transcendental shift: metaphysical stage We now proceed to further analysis of Kant's transcendental shift, to the analysis of his second metaphysical phase, with which the specifics of Kants own transcendentalism should be linked. We now proceed to further analysis of Kant's transcendental shift, to the analysis of his second metaphysical phase, with which the specifics of Kants own transcendentalism should be linked. This specifics is largely predetermined by Kants new method of thought [CPR, B XVIII], or transcendental method (Cohen, Natorp) This specifics is largely predetermined by Kants new method of thought [CPR, B XVIII], or transcendental method (Cohen, Natorp). Thus important thing for the Kantian transcendentalism which distinguishes it from traditional metaphysics is that this is not only the subject which changes, but also the method or style of philosophizing. Thus important thing for the Kantian transcendentalism which distinguishes it from traditional metaphysics is that this is not only the subject which changes, but also the method or style of philosophizing. Slide 19 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage Like any metaphysical method, the transcendental method is in the universalization of the empirically given by its liberation from particular conditions. Like any metaphysical method, the transcendental method is in the universalization of the empirically given by its liberation from particular conditions. In this sense, Kant builds the metaphysics of possible experience, which acts as the transcendental generalization of (empirical) experience. In this sense, Kant builds the metaphysics of possible experience, which acts as the transcendental generalization of (empirical) experience. The new method of thought is based on transition from the empirical perspective to the transcendental perspective (H.Allison) The new method of thought is based on transition from the empirical perspective to the transcendental perspective (H.Allison) Slide 20 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage What is the transcendental perspective (TrP) ? What is the transcendental perspective (TrP) ? In this regard Kant writes the following: In this regard Kant writes the following: The transcendental use [of a conception] is this, that it is referred to things in general and to itself [= thing-in-itself], but the empirical use, when merely to phenomena [= empirical things, or things-as-it-appears-to-us] [CPR, B298] The transcendental use [of a conception] is this, that it is referred to things in general and to itself [= thing-in-itself], but the empirical use, when merely to phenomena [= empirical things, or things-as-it-appears-to-us] [CPR, B298] Thereby the transcendental perspective is based on transition from empirical (concrete, real) things to ( abstract, possible) thing-in-general. Thereby the transcendental perspective is based on transition from empirical (concrete, real) things to ( abstract, possible) thing-in-general. Slide 21 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage As a result of this (= TrP), the empirical subject and object are converted to, respectively, a/the (?) consciousness-in-general, or transcendental subject (transcendental unity of apperception; TUA) and a/the (?) object-in-general, or transcendental object (TO), the relation between which predefines the possible experience. Or the possible experience is conceptualized by Kant as interaction of object-in-general (= transcendental object) and consciousness-in-general (= transcendental subject). Let's notice that TUA and TO are introduced by Kant in a correlative manner: the transcendental unity of apperception that all the manifold, given in intuition is united into a conception of the [transcendental] object [B140; Comp. [ 2501]. Slide 22 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage The transition to the transcendental metaphysics is associated with transcendental generalization of empirical experience, in the result of which the structure of "transcendental S transcendental O", encompassing the empirical relation S O, is formed: Emp.object Expirience/Erfahrung Emp.Subject Emp.object Expirience/Erfahrung Emp.Subject Trans.object Emp.Ob -- possible Exp. -- Emp.Sub Trans.Subject Trans.object Emp.Ob -- possible Exp. -- Emp.Sub Trans.Subject Slide 23 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage R emark. However, Kants subjective and objective things-in-themselves, which act as kind of left and right limits of the epistemic scale, should be distinguished from transcendental subject and object. The thing-in-itself and noumenal I are not transcendental but transcendent. According to Kant, their function is negative and is to specify all the cognitive scale the same way as a numerical scale is given through marks "plus" and "minus" of infinity (+ and ), i.e. to mark the limits of our possible cognition. At the same time they are inaccessible for cognition. Transcendental subject (TUA) and object (TO) as the constitutive elements of the possible experience on the scale are between empirical-phenomenal (immanent) and transcendent. Considering this, the transcendental shift can be represented as follows: Slide 24 Transcendental shift: metaphysical phase/stage Schematically the full transcendental shift can be represented as follows: Slide 25 Transcendental ontology Part 4. Transcendental ontology (as a model of objectivity) Part 4. Transcendental ontology (as a model of objectivity) Transcendental (but not transcendent) ontology is the metaphysics of any possible experience. Transcendental (but not transcendent) ontology is the metaphysics of any possible experience. Slide 26 Transcendental ontology There are three important parts of transcendental ontology: There are three important parts of transcendental ontology: -- Kants copernican revolution; -- Kants copernican revolution; -- Kant's doctrine of a/the transcendental object; -- Kant's doctrine of a/the transcendental object; -- Kant's doctrine of categories. -- Kant's doctrine of categories. The essence of transcendental ontology is that it is the ontology of transcendental area (see the diagram of Part 1). The essence of transcendental ontology is that it is the ontology of transcendental area (see the diagram of Part 1). Thus, Kant rejects the possibility of transcendent ontology: how things in themselves actually we cant know. Thus, Kant rejects the possibility of transcendent ontology: how things in themselves actually we cant know. In this regard, Rae Langton says about Kantian epistemic humility. In this regard, Rae Langton says about Kantian epistemic humility. Slide 27 Transcendental ontology The Kantian transcendental thing/object stands as objective function of our representation of the world and lies (together with categories) as a base of the transcendental ontology/. The Kantian transcendental thing/object stands as objective function of our representation of the world and lies (together with categories) as a base of the transcendental ontology/. The essence of transcendental ontology (as a model of objectivity) can be expressed by the thesis: We cognize not [physical] things, but we cognize the phenomena thing-ly [objectively] (E. Cassirer). The essence of transcendental ontology (as a model of objectivity) can be expressed by the thesis: We cognize not [physical] things, but we cognize the phenomena thing-ly [objectively] (E. Cassirer). Thus every thing consists empirical content and transcendental form or thing-form, which is a form of transcendental object. Thus every thing consists empirical content and transcendental form or thing-form, which is a form of transcendental object. Slide 28 Thank you for your attentions! Slide 29 Serguei L. Katrechko Serguei L. Katrechko [email protected] [email protected] [email protected] http://www.facebook.com/skatrechko http://www.facebook.com/skatrechko http://www.facebook.com/skatrechko See my talk/paper/presentation: See my talk/paper/presentation: http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/21-115-5425-16- 1407605896; http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/21-115-5425-16- 1407605896; http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/21-115-5425-16- 1407605896 http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/forum/21-115-5425-16- 1407605896 http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katrechko_ALWS_.doc http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katrechko_ALWS_.doc http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katrechko_ALWS_.doc http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014_1.ppt http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014_1.ppt http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014_1.ppt http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014.ppt http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014.ppt http://transcendental.ucoz.ru/_fr/1/katr_ALWS2014.ppt


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