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Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia...

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1 Sistem Pencernaan
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Page 1: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

1

Sistem Pencernaan

Page 2: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

2

Digestion

• Processing of food

• Types

– Mechanical (physical)• Chew

• Tear

• Grind

• Mash

• Mix

– Chemical• Catabolic reactions

• Enzymatic hydrolysis

– Carbohydrate

– Protein

– Lipid

Page 3: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

3

Digestion

• Phases

– Ingestion

– Movement

– Digestion

– Absorption

– Further digestion

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4

Digestive System Organization

• Gastrointestinal (Gl) tract (Alimentary canal)

– Tube within a tube

– Direct link/path between organs

– Structures• Mouth

• Oral Cavity

• Pharynx

• Esophagus

• Stomach

• Duedenum

• Jejenum

• kIleum

• Cecum

• Ascending colon

• Transverse colon

Page 5: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

5

Digestive System Organization

• Descending colon

• Sigmoid colon

• Rectum

• Anus

• Accessory structures– Not in tube path

– Organs

• Teeth

• Tongue

• Salivary glands

• Liver

• Gall bladder

• Pancreas

Page 6: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

6

Anatomy of the Mouth and

Throat

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7

Human Deciduous and

Permanent Teeth

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8

Dorsal Surface of the Tongue

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The Major Salivary Glands

Page 10: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Deglutition (swallowing)

• Sequence– Voluntary stage

• Push food to back of mouth

– Pharyngeal stage

• Raise

– Soft palate

– Larynx + hyoid

– Tongue to soft palate

– Esophageal stage

• Contract pharyngeal muscles

• Open esophagus

• Start peristalsis

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11

Deglutition (swallowing)

• Control– Nerves

• Glossopharyngeal

• Vagus

• Accessory

– Brain stem

• Deglutition center

– Medulla oblongata

– Pons

– Disorders

• Dysphagia

• Aphagia

Page 12: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Esophagus

• Usually collapsed (closed)

• 3 constrictions

– Aortic arch

– Left primary bronchus

– Diaphragm

• Surrounded by

– SNS plexus

– Blood vessels

• Functions

– Secrete mucous

– Transport food

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13

Peristalsis and Segmentation

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Esophagus

• Sphincters

– Upper

– Lower

• Abnormalities

– Achalasia

– Atresia

– Hernia

– Barret’s esophagus

– Esophageal varices

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15

Stomach

• Usually “J” shaped

• Left side, anterior to the spleen

• Mucous membrane

– G cells – make gastrin

– Goblet cells – make mucous

– Gastric pit – Oxyntic gland – Parietal cells – Make HCl

– Chief cells – Zymogenic cells• Pepsin

• Gastric lipase

Page 16: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

16

Anatomy of the Stomach

Page 17: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Stomach

• 3 muscle layers– Oblique

– Circular

– Longitudinal

• Regions– Cardiac sphincter

– Fundus

– Antrum (pylorus)

– Pyloric sphincter

• Vascular

• Inner surface thrown into folds – Rugae

• Contains enzymes that work best at pH 1-2

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18

Stomach

• Functions– Mix food

– Reservoir

– Start digestion of

• Protein

• Nucleic acids

• Fats

– Activates some enzymes

– Destroy some bacteria

– Makes intrinsic factor – B 12 absorption

– Destroys some bacteria

– Absorbs

• Alcohol

• Water

• Lipophilic acid

• B 12

Page 19: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

19

Small Intestine

• Extends from pyloric

sphincter ileocecal

valve

• Regions

– Duodenum

– Jejenum

– Ileum

• Movements

– Segmentation

– Peristalsis

Page 20: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

20

Small Intestine

• Histology

– Intestinal glands – Intestinal enzymes

– Duodenal glands – Alkaline mucous

– Paneth cells – Lysozyme

– Microvilli

– Lacteals

– Plica circularis

– Smooth muscle

– Lymphatic tissue – GALT

– Vascular

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Small Intestine

• Absorbs– 80% ingested water

– Electrolytes

– Vitamins

– Minerals

– Carbonates

• Active/facilitated transport

• Monosaccharides

– Proteins

• Di-/tripeptides

• Amino acids

– Lipids

• Monoglycerides

• Fatty acids

• Micelles

• Chylomicrons

Page 22: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

22

Structure of the Villi in the

Small Intestine

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Small Intestine

• Secretes digestive enzymes– Peptidases

• Amino-

• Di-

• Tri-

– Sucrases

– Maltase

– Lactase

– Saccharidases

• Di-

• Tri-

– Lipase

– Nucleases

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Small Intestine

• Control

• Requires pancreatic

enzymes & bile to

complete digestion

Page 25: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

25

Large Intestine

• Extends from ileocecal valve to anus

• Regions

– Cecum – Appendix

– Colon

• Ascending

• Transverse

• Descending

– Rectum

– Anal canal

Page 26: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Anatomy of the Large Intestine

Page 27: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Large Intestine

• Histology

– No villi

– No permanent circular folds

– Smooth muscle

• Taeniae coli

• Haustra

– Epiploic appendages

– Otherwise like rest of Gl tract

Page 28: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

28

Large Intestine

• Functions

– Mechanical digestion

• Haustral churning

• Peristalsis

• Reflexes

– Gastroileal

– Gastrocolic

– Chemical digestion –

Bacterial digestion

• Ferment carbohydrates

• Protein/amino acid

breakdown

– Absorbs•More water

•Vitamins

– B

– K

– Concentrate/eliminate wastes

Page 29: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

29

Feces Formation and Defecation

• Chyme dehydrated to form feces

• Feces composition– Water

– Inorganic salts

– Epithelial cells

– Bacteria

– Byproducts of digestion

• Defecation– Peristalsis pushes feces

into rectum

– Rectal walls stretch

• Control

– Parasympathetic

– Voluntary

Page 30: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Liver

• Location

– R. Hypochondrium

– Epigastric region

• 4 Lobes

– Left

– Quadrate

– Caudate

– Right

• Each lobe has lobules – Contains hepatocytes –Surround sinusoids – Feed into central vein

Page 31: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

31

Liver

• Functions– Makes bile

• Detergent – emulsifies fats

• Release promoted by:

– Vagus n.

– CCK

– Secretin

• Contains

– Water

– Bile salts

– Bile pigments

– Electrolytes

– Cholesterol

– Lecithin

Page 32: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Liver

– Detoxifies/removes

• Drugs

• Alcohol

– Stores

• Gycolgen

• Vitamins (A, D, E, K)

• Fe and other minerals

• Cholesterol

– Activates vitamin D

– Fetal RBC production

– Phagocytosis

– Metabolizes absorbed food molecules

• Carbohydrates

• Proteins

• Lipids

Page 33: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

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Liver

• Dual blood supply

– Hepatic portal vein

• Direct input from small

intestine

– Hepatic artery/vein

• Direct links to heart

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The Duodenum and Related

Organs

Page 35: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

35

The Organs and Positions in the

Abdominal Cavity

Page 36: Sistem Pencernaan - file.upi.edufile.upi.edu/Direktori/FPOK/JUR._PEND._KESEHATAN... · –Atresia –Hernia –Barret’s esophagus –Esophageal varices. 15 Stomach •Usually “J”

36

Structures of the Alimentary

Canal


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