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Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis...

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Skeletal System Skeletal System Diseases Diseases and Disorders and Disorders
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Page 1: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Skeletal SystemSkeletal System

DiseasesDiseases and Disordersand Disorders

Page 2: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

ArthritisArthritis

RheumatoidRheumatoid

OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis

Juvenile Rheumatoid ArthritisJuvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

Page 3: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Rheumatoid ArthritisRheumatoid Arthritis

Chronic disease Chronic disease Joints become inflamed and painfulJoints become inflamed and painful Small joints of hands and feet Small joints of hands and feet

affected first and moves to larger affected first and moves to larger jointsjoints

More common in womenMore common in women ETIOLOGY – Thought to be ETIOLOGY – Thought to be

autoimmuneautoimmune

Page 4: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Rheumatoid ArthritisRheumatoid Arthritis

Diagnosed by blood test – Diagnosed by blood test – rheumatoid factor present ANDrheumatoid factor present AND

X-rays – boney changesX-rays – boney changes TX: Heat and medications to TX: Heat and medications to

reduce inflammation and painreduce inflammation and pain

Page 5: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Rheumatoid ArthritisRheumatoid Arthritis

Page 6: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Rheumatoid ArthritisRheumatoid Arthritis

Page 7: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis

Chronic diseaseChronic disease Joints have loss of articular Joints have loss of articular

cartilage and hypertrophy of bone cartilage and hypertrophy of bone at articular surfacesat articular surfaces

Mainly in hips and knees of older Mainly in hips and knees of older peoplepeople

ETIOLOGY: Can be due to “old” ETIOLOGY: Can be due to “old” injuriesinjuries

Page 8: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis

Tx: Medication to reduce pain Tx: Medication to reduce pain and inflammationand inflammation

Physical Therapy to loosen Physical Therapy to loosen impaired jointsimpaired joints

Most common reason for joint Most common reason for joint replacement surgeryreplacement surgery

Page 9: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Normal Knee Knee with Normal Knee Knee with OAOA

OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis

Page 10: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritisNormal knee in figure 1Normal knee in figure 1

Narrow joint space and bone spur in figure 2Narrow joint space and bone spur in figure 2

Page 11: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Juvenile Rheumatoid ArthritisArthritis

Most common form of arthritis in Most common form of arthritis in children under age 16children under age 16

Joint pain, swelling, and stiffnessJoint pain, swelling, and stiffness Fever, rash, swollen lymph glandsFever, rash, swollen lymph glands Can cause growth problems and Can cause growth problems and

eye inflammationeye inflammation ETIOLOGY: AutoimmuneETIOLOGY: Autoimmune

Page 12: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Juvenile Rheumatoid Juvenile Rheumatoid ArthritisArthritis

TreatmentTreatment

Controlling painControlling pain

Improving functionImproving function

Preventing joint damagePreventing joint damage

Page 13: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

JRAJRAKelly Rouba, a communications and emergency management specialist for the state of New Jersey, has been coping with JRA from a very young age, and her experiences inspired her to write the book Juvenile Arthritis: The Ultimate Teen Guide.

Page 14: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis

Infection or inflammation of a Infection or inflammation of a bonebone

FeverFever Pain in area of infectionPain in area of infection Swelling, warmth and redness Swelling, warmth and redness

over area of infectionover area of infection

Page 15: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis

ETIOLOGY: Most cases are caused ETIOLOGY: Most cases are caused by Staphylococcus bacteriaby Staphylococcus bacteria

Can enter through the Can enter through the bloodstreambloodstream

Nearby infection such as an Nearby infection such as an infected puncture woundinfected puncture wound

Direct contamination such as with Direct contamination such as with a compound fracture and surgeriesa compound fracture and surgeries

Page 16: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis

TreatmentTreatment Antibiotics through IV for 4 to 6 Antibiotics through IV for 4 to 6

weeksweeks

Surgery to removed infected bone Surgery to removed infected bone

Page 17: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteomyelitisOsteomyelitis

Osteomyelitis of proximal phalanx of 4Osteomyelitis of proximal phalanx of 4thth digit.digit.

Page 18: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoporosisOsteoporosis

New bone growth does not keep New bone growth does not keep up with old bone removalup with old bone removal

Bones become weak and brittleBones become weak and brittle Bending over or coughing can Bending over or coughing can

cause fracturecause fracture Hip, wrist and spine – most Hip, wrist and spine – most

common places of fracturecommon places of fracture

Page 19: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoporosisOsteoporosis

SymptomsSymptoms Asymptomatic in early stagesAsymptomatic in early stages Back painBack pain Loss of heightLoss of height Stooped postureStooped posture Bone fractures occur more easily Bone fractures occur more easily

than expectedthan expected

Page 20: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoporosisOsteoporosis

TreatmentTreatment BisphosphonatesBisphosphonates

Estrogen in post menopausal Estrogen in post menopausal women women

Page 21: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

OsteoporosisOsteoporosisNormal Bone Osteoporotic Normal Bone Osteoporotic BoneBone

Page 22: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Carpal TunnelCarpal Tunnel

Compression of median nerve on Compression of median nerve on anterior side of wrist.anterior side of wrist.

Burning, tingling, and itching Burning, tingling, and itching numbness of palm, thumb, index numbness of palm, thumb, index and 3and 3rdrd fingers, and radial side of fingers, and radial side of the 4the 4thth finger finger

Page 23: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Carpal TunnelCarpal Tunnel

ETIOLOGYETIOLOGY Predisposition: Carpal tunnel Predisposition: Carpal tunnel

smaller in some peoplesmaller in some people Injury to wristInjury to wrist Repetitive movements of wristRepetitive movements of wrist Vibrating hand toolsVibrating hand tools IdiopathicIdiopathic

Page 24: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Carpal TunnelCarpal Tunnel

TreatmentTreatment Anti-inflammatory medicationsAnti-inflammatory medications Cortisone injection into carpal Cortisone injection into carpal

tunneltunnel Splints to immobilizeSplints to immobilize If above does not work, surgical If above does not work, surgical

release of carpal ligamentrelease of carpal ligament

Page 25: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Carpal TunnelCarpal Tunnel

Page 26: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Ankylosing SpondylitisAnkylosing Spondylitis

Inflammatory disease that can Inflammatory disease that can cause vertebrae to fusecause vertebrae to fuse

Can result in hunched forward Can result in hunched forward postureposture

Page 27: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Ankylosing SpondylitisAnkylosing Spondylitis

EtiologyEtiology

No known specific causeNo known specific cause

Appears to be geneticAppears to be genetic

Page 28: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Ankylosing SpondylitisAnkylosing Spondylitis

TreatmentTreatment Medication to reduce pain, Medication to reduce pain,

inflammation and stiffnessinflammation and stiffness

Physical Therapy for Physical Therapy for strengthening and flexibilitystrengthening and flexibility

Page 29: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Ankylosing SpondylitisAnkylosing Spondylitis

Progression of Ankylosing SpondylitisProgression of Ankylosing Spondylitis

Page 30: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

ScoliosisScoliosis

Lateral curvature of the spineLateral curvature of the spine TreatmentTreatment

Bracing to prevent progressionBracing to prevent progression Surgery: fusion of vertebraeSurgery: fusion of vertebrae Harrington rods if child is still Harrington rods if child is still

growing.growing.– Rods can be lengthened every 6 Rods can be lengthened every 6

monthsmonths

Page 31: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Scoliosis-before/afterScoliosis-before/after

Page 32: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Kyphosis- humpbackKyphosis- humpbackoften due to often due to osteoporosisosteoporosis

Page 33: Skeletal System Diseases and Disorders. Arthritis Rheumatoid Rheumatoid Osteoarthritis Osteoarthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Juvenile Rheumatoid.

Lordosis-swaybackLordosis-swayback


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