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Sketching & Measuring Tutorial M E A S U R E TNTeditTNTview ® with TNTmips ®
Page 1: Sketching and Measuring · Sketching and Measuring Welcome to Sketching and Measuring TNTmips, TNTedit, and TNTview provide a variety of tools for sketching and measuring. These tools

Sketching& Measuring





Page 2: Sketching and Measuring · Sketching and Measuring Welcome to Sketching and Measuring TNTmips, TNTedit, and TNTview provide a variety of tools for sketching and measuring. These tools

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Sketching and Measuring

Before Getting StartedTNTmips®, TNTview®, and TNTedit™ offer sketch tools for photointerpretationand annotation and a wide selection of measurement tools. The measurementtools provide measurements for any shape you can draw and for solid color areasin a displayed or reference raster. Sketch and measuring tools are integrated intoa single GeoToolbox that lets you get measurements for any area you’ve sketchedand turn areas sketched or drawn for measurements into regions if desired. Youcan also obtain measurements or add sketch elements from GPS input. An Anno-tate tool is provided on the View toolbar for simplified sketching.

Prerequisite Skills This booklet assumes you have completed the exercises inthe Displaying Geospatial Data and TNT Product Concepts tutorial booklets.Those exercises introduce essential skills and basic techniques that are not cov-ered again here. Please consult these booklets for any review you need.

Sample Data The exercises presented in this booklet use sample data distrib-uted with the TNT products. If you do not have access to a TNT products DVD,you can download the data from MicroImages’ web site. The first exercises inthis booklet use the MEASURE Project File in the MEASURE directory of DATA. Theobjects in the CALIBRAT and SKETCH Project Files in this directory are also used.Additional objects are drawn from the BEREACROPS Project File and the July30folder in the BEREAMSS Project File in the BEREA data collection and files in theCB_DATA folder. Make a read-write copy of the sample data on your hard drive sochanges can be saved when you use these objects.

More Documentation This booklet is intended only as an introduction to thesketching, and measuring functions in TNTmips, TNTedit, and TNTview. Con-sult the Technical Guides on MicroImages’ web site for more information.

TNTmips Pro, TNTmips Basic, and TNTmips Free TNTmips comes in threeversions: TNTmips Pro, TNTmips Basic, and TNTmips Free. If you did notpurchase the professional version (which requires a software license key), youare using TNTmips Free or TNTmips Basic, which limit the size of your projectmaterials. All exercises in this booklet can be completed in TNTmips Free usingthe sample geodata provided. MicroImages, Inc. publishes a complete line ofprofessional software for advanced geospatial data visualization, analysis, andpublishing. Contact us or visit our web site for detailed product information.

You can print or read this booklet from MicroImages’ web site or from theversion you install. The web site is also your source of the newest tutorialbooklets on other topics. You can also download an installation guide, sampledata, and the latest version of TNTmips Free.


Merri P. Skrdla, Ph.D., 5 May 2013© MicroImages, Inc. 2002–2013

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Welcome to Sketching and MeasuringTNTmips, TNTedit, and TNTview provide a varietyof tools for sketching and measuring. These toolsare part of the integrated GeoToolbox that lets youseamlessly switch between selection, measuring,sketching, and region creation. You can immedi-ately get measurements for any sketch element youdraw or add any element used for measuring to asketch. Closed shapes initially drawn for measur-ing or as part of a sketch can also be converted toregions and used for selection by the GeoToolbox.Regions and element selection are described in othertutorial booklets. An Annotate tool is provided onthe View toolbar for simplified sketching.

The Sketch and Annotate tools provide a quick andconvenient means for interpretation and annotationdirectly in the Display process. You can use eithertool as your field sketching tool or in the office asan alternative to the more robust Editor. The objectcreated is in a simplified CAD format that can beopened again and added to using the Sketch or An-notate tool or can be opened in the Editor and modi-fied. Sketch objects modified in the Editor becomeCAD objects that can no longer be opened as simplesketches, but they can be added as CAD layers.

The Measure function provides tools that let youmake various types of measurements, such as thedistance between two points, the area and boundarylength of a user-defined region, and the angle be-tween two linear features. You also can perform cellsize calibration to determine distance and area mea-surements in the absence of georeference informa-tion. These measurements are reported in the unitsyou specify, which can be changed at any time.Measurements made with the available tools equateto actual distances only when the object is georefer-enced or has cell size calibration (raster objects).Measurements can be saved to a *.csv (Comma Sepa-rated Value) file that can be used in a spreadsheet ordatabase. We’ll start with the measurement tools.

The Measure tools let youintroduce cell size or scalecalibration for objects thatlack georeference informa-tion, as well as letting youmake measurements. TheSketch tools let you inter-pret and annotate in theoffice or in the field.

Page 4 describes monitorcalibration. Pages 5 and 6introduce the context-sen-sitive cursors, graphic toolsoptions, and the Measurepanel of the GeoToolbox.The exercises on pages 7–11 describe use of most ofthe measurement tools.Right mouse button optionsare discussed on page 12.Histograms, surface mea-surements, profiles, cross-sections, recording, andcalibration are described onpages 13–19. The basicsketch tools and tech-niques for photointerpretivesketching are discussed onpages 20–23. StandardAttributes and Editingsketches are described onpages 24 and 25. The An-notate tool on the View win-dow is discussed on pages26 and 27. This bookletconcludes with use ofsketch layers to enhancelayouts.

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Calibrate Your Screen SizeSTEPS

copy the files mentionedon page 2 to your localdrive for faster accessand the ability to savedisplay parameters andcalibration information

launch TNTmips left-click on the

MI/X icon inyour systemtray or right-click andchoose Preferences

click on the Measuretab, chooseyour monitortype, thenmeasure yourmonitor andenter the re-sults if thedefault mea-surement isnot accurate(if you havemultiple moni-tors, add theirdimensionstogether)

click [OK] exit the X

server and launchTNTmips again if youmade any changes

Your measurements will be correct whether or notyou have established your monitor size becausemeasurements are determined from the object’s geo-reference or cell size calibration if georefernce isabsent. Your screen dimensions do affect whether

the map scale shownat the bottom of theView window is theactual map scale ofthe display. You wantthe map scale of the

display to becorrect so thatvector styleswill display asdesigned.

Map scale isthe relation-ship betweenthe distanceon a map andthe distanceon the ground.Map scale ismost com-

monly shown as a ratio, such as 1:24,000 or1:1,000,000. The scale shown at the bottom of theView window is the number to the right of the co-lon. The larger the number, the smaller the mapscale (things closer to actual size are at a largerscale)—1:24,000 is a larger scale than 1:1,000,000.

The table below translates map scales into real worlddistances.

at 1:12000, 1" = 1000 feetat 1:120000, 1" = 10000 feetat 1:1200, 1" = 100 feetat 1:1000, 10mm = 10 metersat 1:10000, 10mm = 100 meters

This exercise for Windowsplatforms only.

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choose Main / Display choose Options / View

Options in the DisplayManager window, checkthat the Default to re-draw primary views afterany change button isturned on in the Viewpanel, and click OK

click on the Newicon and select 2DDisplay

choose CIR_COMP andROADS (in that order) fromthe MEASURE Project Filein the MEASURE data col-lection

click on theGeoToolbox icon(View window)

choose Options/GraphicTools, click on the Pri-mary Color button, andset the sliders on theRGB panel to 0% Red,40% Green, and 60%Blue (Range 0 to 100);click [OK]

set the Line Width to1 and click [OK]

Preferences and CursorsThe GeoToolbox icon is not active until you haveadded at least one layer. The tool color and widthfor the GeoToolbox and Annotate tools are set fromthe Options menu in the GeoToolbox window.Wider tool lines are desirable in many applications,but for measuring, it makes it difficult to see ex-actly where the tool is positioned. The line widthused for most illustrations in this booklet is 3 pix-els, so that the tool position is obvious. You can tryvarying tool width and color to make the tool easi-est for your use. Tool color and width changes takeeffect as soon as they are set.

The color specified here works well with the imag-ery selected in this exercise, but you may want tochange colors as you work through the booklet. Justremember if you feel you can’t quite see the tools,or if it seems like a tool is obliterating what you’retrying to look at, you can change the color or widthat any time.

TNTmips’ elastic tools make use of context-sensi-tive cursor shapes to let you know what will happenif you click the mouse in its current position whenadding elements to a sketch. Lines and polygonsuse the crosshair tool for drawing. The right-handcursor in conjunction with adiamond shape on the line in-dicates the insertion of a ver-tex in the line or polygon.The right-hand cursor and aplus sign indicate you willdrag the vertex to a new posi-tion. The left arrow indicatesthat you are going to draw a new element other thana line or polygon. The double-headed arrow indi-cates that the geometrically-described shape beingdrawn will be resized or rotated depending on ifyou are closer to a side or the rotation line. You canselect existing elements and view, add, or edit theirattributes, but you cannot edit an element’s shape.

left arrow

right hand


double-headed arrow

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GeoToolbox Measure PanelSTEPS

click on the Measuretab, then on the Rulericon and draw a line

choose Options /Measure / Units from themenu bar in theGeoToolbox window andset the Length and Posi-tion units to miles

set Options / Measure /Layer Information to AllLayers

position the cursor nearone end of the ruler andclick and drag to resizethe tool

note changes in themeasurement informa-tion reported

TNTmips’ measurement tools can be used in all dis-play modes: 2D Display, 3D Display, Display Lay-out, and Page Layout. (The GeoToolbox draws onlyin the 2D planimetric view for 3D displays, butdrawn elements appear in the 3D view.)

Measurements are determined by the georeferencefor the group you are measuring over. If the group isnot georeferenced, cell size or scale is used. In theabsence of either it is assumed that object coordi-nates are in meters. You can also use the ruler toolto establish cell size or scale calibration if the grouplacks georeference.

There are ten different tools you can use to drawpaths or areas for measurement, or you can obtainmeasurements for the active region or sketch ele-ment. These tools can take input from a GPS deviceas well as yourmouse. You canalso choose torecord the mea-surements in a*.csv or *.txt file.

The Calibrate buttonis active if the groupis not georeferenced.

Choose anothertool from the tool-bar in the Viewwindow to closethe GeoToolboxor choose File / Close andthe View Position tool be-comes active.

Choose your measurementtool from the toolbar.

Measurementand position infor-mation are up-dated every timeyou move,resize, or changetools.

The Update Histo-grams and UpdateRaster Contrasticons are active onlywhen an area tool isselected. The latterbutton requires thata raster with con-trast set be the ac-tive layer.

Units for positioninformation (Start X,Y,

Centroid X,Y...) can be setdifferently than the lengthmeasurement units.

Clear the currentgraphic tool andmeasurements.

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place the cursor at theroad intersection nearthe center of the raster

click and hold the leftmouse button whiledragging to the road in-tersection to the east

release the mouse but-ton, position the cursorover the middle of theruler (right-hand shape),and press the + key tozoom in centered on theruler

use the arrow keyswhen the cursor is thecrosshair shape for fineadjustments of the ruler’send points, getting themas close to the road in-tersections as possible check that the

Measuring with the Ruler ToolThe ruler, or caliper, tool has a marker at the “startend” to distinguish it from the other end. The head-ing reported is clockwise from North (0 to 360 de-grees) moving along the tool away from the startmarker. The Angle is measured from due East andexpressed as up to plus (counterclockwise) or mi-nus (clockwise) 180 degrees.

Like all elastic tools in TNTmips, the ruler tool usescontext sensitive cursor shapes to let you know whatthe action of the left mouse button will be. Whenthe cursor is the right-hand shape, clicking the leftmouse button and dragging, moves the whole rulertool. Clicking when the cursor is the left pointingarrow resets the ruler tool to the new position withboth ends at the same point. You then drag whileholding the left mouse button down to extend thetool from the origin. Clicking when the cursor isthe crosshair moves just the closest endpoint to theposition whereyou click.

In addition to the overall length be-tween the ruler endpoints, the Mea-sure panel reports the X and Y ex-tents, the angle of the tool, and theminimum and maximum X and Yvalues in object coordinates foreach layer if you have Options /Measure / Layer Information / AllLayers turned on.

You may haveto scroll toview all infor-mation for alllayers.

length unitsare set tomiles (Options/ Measure /Units)

look at theMeasurementpanel to seehow close youwere able tocome to thedistance be-tween sectionroads (1.0miles)

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click on the ArcWedge icon

click at the intersectionof the angled road at thecenter top of the imageand drag the mouse tothe right to pull out theprotractor tool

reposition the origin, orcentroid, of the protrac-tor as necessary so it isat the intersection of thethree roads using thearrow keys or themouse

use the left and rightdouble arrows to adjustthe position of the upperand lower arms of theprotractor so they matchthe angle between theroad to the east and thatto the northeast

click on the Arcicon and comparethe measurements youobtain

Measuring with the Protractor ToolThe Protractor tools let you measure the angle be-tween linear features on the screen. There are threedrawing tools that provide protractor-like informa-tion: the arc, arc wedge, and arc chord tools. Thearc wedge and arc chord tools provide perimeterand area measurements, as well as the angle, radius,and position information provided by the arc tool.

If the cursor is the left-arrow, clicking and draggingwill start the position / size of the tool anew. Thecrosshair or left hand cursor drags the position ofthe origin and the double-headed arrow repositionsthe arms and changes the radius of the protractor. Alarger radius helps obtain the best fit of the protrac-tor arms to the angle being measured. In this ex-ample, you will probably arrive at a different angularmeasurement between the roads if you only extendthe protractor half the way from the road intersec-tion to the raster edge because the upper line of theangle becomes slightly steeper with distance. Theprotractor arms are represented by dashed lines forthe arc and arc chord tools and by solid lines for thearc wedge tool, which is shown in the illustrationsbelow. As with other tools that provide area mea-surements, the histogram of the measured area canalso be viewed for a displayed raster or anycoregistered raster, which is demonstrated in a laterexercise.

Arc measurements

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click on the Polygonicon

click on the Controls tabthen on the Stretchicon

click at the three-roadintersection near thecenter top of the objects(used as the origin forthe Protractor in the pre-vious exercise)

click at the next inter-section to the south,holding the mouse buttonand dragging if neededuntil the tool aligns withthe road; then releasethe mouse

click at the next inter-section to the northeast,again not releasing themouse until satisfied withthe tool’s alignment

Measuring with the Polygon Tool

click at thenext intersec-tion to thenorth and re-lease themouse whensatisfied withthe tool posi-tion

click on the Measuretab, and compare yourmeasurements to thosein the sample shown

The Polygon tool functions as a planimeter to pro-vide the area and perimeter for any polygon youdraw. The X and Y extents and centroids and theminimum and maximum X and Y values are reportedin object coordinates for each layer.

This measurement tool is the same tool used fordrawing and editing lines and polygons through-out the TNT products. The start of the line is markedwith a square and the end with a circle. The closingline of the polygon is always drawn as a dashed linebetween the start and end points. Polygons andlines are easily reshaped. The right-hand cursor in-dicates a vertex will be inserted along the currentline while the crosshair indicates a new endpointwill be added. A plus sign (+) appears at an existingvertex to indicate it can be dragged.

You can adjust the position of a vertex before a lineis added to get the best fit to your reference.


You switch be-tween drawingmodes dynami-cally as youmove the cursor.

Movesthedrawnline orpolygon.

Sticky Note
Drawing Modes: Draw Stretch Stretch + Constrain Angle Stretch + Constrain Angle to Last Segment Tip: The Constrain Angle options restrict segments added after the first one to be at an angle that is a multiple of 45 degrees relative to the previous segment. This mode is intended for drawing buildings and other rectangular shapes. When the user simply clicks from one location to another the display of the constrained line is too quick to see. If you press and hold the mouse button the constraint becomes apparent.
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choose Remove All Lay-ers from the group’sright mouse button menu

click on the AddObjects icon, andselect COMPOSITE from theJULY30 folder in theBEREAMSS Project File(from the BEREA datacollection)

click on the Rec-tangle icon in theGeoToolbox window

use the tool to outline arectangular feature inthe image

examine the measure-ments reported

click on the Circletool and use thetool to outline a circularfeature, and again ex-amine the measure-ments

Measuring with Geometric Shapes

Measurements re-ported with the rect-angle tool.

Measurements reportedwith the circle tool.

The geometric measuring tools include the rect-angle, circle, ellipse, and regular polygon, as wellas those described in the protractor exercise. TheRectangle, Ellipse, and Regular Polygon tools havea dotted line that serves as a rotation handle whenthe double-headed arrow is the active cursor shape.

You can change the number of sides (segments) in aregular polygon on the Manual panel of theGeoToolbox or by using the mouse scroll wheelwhen the View window has focus. Roll the wheelforward (away from you) to increase the number ofsides and back to decrease the number of sides.

The measurements you make with these tools in-clude area and perimeter, surface area and perimeterif you have a surface layer, centroid positions (Xand Y), and the length of major and minor axes(Rectangle and Ellipse) or radius (Circle).

rotation handle

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Manual Positioning of Graphic ToolsYou can be certain you’ve positioned the measure-ment tools exactly where you want if you know thegeographic coordinates for the endpoints or verti-ces of the length or area to be measured. Knowingthe coordinates is particularly useful when thereare no obvious position indicators, such as roadintersections, on the reference imagery.

You can begin by approximately positioning thedrawing tools then editing the coordinates, or youcan directly enter all coordinates in the Manualpanel after the appropriate tool is selected from thetoolbar. Manual entry is also useful when you don’tknow the exact coordinates but know that one ver-tex should be directly north or west of another. Insuch a case, use the coordinates for the vertex youare surest of to replace the corresponding coordi-nate of the other vertex. You can copy and pastefrom one text field to another.

A crosshair marker ap-pears in the View win-dow at the vertexselected for editing.There is a Coordinatesbutton in the windowso that you can changethe coordinates forviewing and enteringyour vertex position in-formation.


with the BEREAMSS JULY30COMPOSITE raster still dis-played, click on thePolygon icon

left click at the intersec-tion of the diagonal roadwith the road one-thirdup from the bottom

next click at the inter-section of the diagonalroad and the road one-third down from the top

then click directly east atthe intersection just westof the mature (red) fieldswith center pivot irriga-tion (circular)

next click at the inter-section south of the thirdvertex that is directlyeast of the first vertex

click on the Manual tab change the entry in the

text box for the third ver-tex in the Latitude/North-ing field (Y) to match thatof the 2nd vertex (youcan copy and paste)

click on the entry forvertex 4, change theLatitude or Northing tothat of vertex 1 and theLongitude or Easting tothat of vertex 3


inserts a vertexabove the linewhere you click

enter coordinates here toadd a vertex to the end

deletes the vertex

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starting where you leftoff in the last exercise,click on the AddObjects icon, andselect BERCROPVEC in theBERCROPS Project File

check that the Options /Right Mouse Buttonsetting in theGeoToolbox windowis Choose fromMenu

click the right mousebutton over the Viewwindow canvas,choose Select Ele-ments, and verifythat the elementsselected match thesettings in the Selectpanel (the resultsshown are for theCompletely Insideoption)

click the right mousebutton over the can-vas and choose Addas Region

right-click on the nameof the vector object inthe Display Managerwindow, and chooseExtract Clipping Insidefrom the menu

Right Mouse Button OptionsThe right mouse button can be configured for a va-riety of functions when using the GeoToolbox. Youcan choose for a right-click to do the same actioneach time (select, add an element to a sketch, orrecord a measurement). Another choice is to per-form any of these three functions depending onwhich panel is currently showing. You can also

elect to pick from a menueach time and choose from avariety of functions regard-less of the current panel. Youcan change the option set atany time. Your new selectionis available the next time you

click the right mouse buttonover the View window canvas.

The settings in the Select panel,such as Completely In-side, are used when youselect elements with anarea tool. You can thenchoose to record the mea-surements and create a re-gion from the polygon

used for selecting. This re-gion can be used to extractelements from the vector ob-ject or to generate or com-bine with another region.

The full vectoris auto-matically hid-den when youextract byregion so theextracted re-sult is visible.

temporaryextractedvector layer

Extract by region is not aright mouse button function,but is provided as an ex-ample of how far you canreadily go after using theGeoToolbox and its rightmouse buttonfunctions. Formore informationon extracting byregion, see the Inter-active Region Analy-sis tutorial booklet.

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right-click on each vec-tor layer and chooseRemove Layer from themenu

right-click on the remain-ing layer and chooseView Histogram from themenu

click on the Geo-Toolbox icon*

Viewing Raster Values and HistogramsThe GeoToolbox tools work for all object types dis-played, but raster objects have additional featuresassociated with these tools, namely profiles, localhistograms, and contrast updating. Profiles workwith all of the measurement tools, while the histo-gram update feature requires use of an area mea-surement tool. You also must have a histogram viewopen before you can update the histogram to reflectjust those values within the area defined by one ofthe drawing tools or a region.

Before we look at the Histogramtool, which graphs the frequencyof cell values for the raster as awhole, we’ll take a diversion to theExamine Raster tool. Cell valuepresentation depends on the datatype of the raster object. Each cellis represented by a single value for8-bit and most other grayscale ras-ter types (except complex data).Sixteen- and 24-bit composite color rasters havered, green, and blue values enclosed in bracketsreported for each cell. You may want to try lookingat values for a variety of rasters of different datatypes.


with the BEREAMSS JULY30COMPOSITE raster still dis-played, right-click on theraster name in the Dis-play Manager, and se-lect Examine Cell Values

click around in variousspots of the raster dis-played and notice howthe Raster Inspection

window updates

The X axis of thehistogram providesthe cell values whilethe Y axis is thenumber of occur-rences.

These are summarystatistics for the ras-ter as a whole.

These values refer to thecurrent position of the ad-justable crosshair.

The horizontal or vertical bar of the crosshair can be movedwhen the cursor is the four-point arrow shape. The right hand

cursor drags both bars at thesame time. The intersection ofthe bars is placed where youclick when the cursor is across.

* Continue to the exercise on the next page.

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Viewing Local HistogramsSTEPS

click on the Circleicon and size it tomeasure one of the cen-ter pivot irrigated areasin the Berea MSS raster(or use your last circle ifit still exists)

in the open Raster His-togram window chooseFile / Raster and selectthe NIR_6 raster fromBEREAMSS JULY30

right-click on the rastername (Display Man-ager), choose View His-togram from the menuthen choose File / Ras-ter to select the RED ras-ter (band 5)

repeat the precedingstep except select theGREEN raster (band 4)

You can view histogram information for the raster(s)displayed or for other coregistered raster objects.Each time you select View Histogram from the layerright mouse button menu, you open a new RasterHistogram window. (It opens over the Display Man-ager.) The File / Raster choice in that window letsyou choose a different raster object for histogramdisplay in the open window.

Look at theseparatered, green,and bluevalues usedto createthe com-posite colorraster youare viewing.

Histogram for full com-posite color raster.

updated histogram for areaof composite color rasterinscribed by circle tool

The Update Histogramsfunction updates the val-ues in all histogram win-dows to reflect only thosecells that are inscribed bythe graphic tool or re-gion. You can change thetool selected and / or itsposition as many times asyou like or change the se-lected region and use theUpdate Histograms but-ton to see the local celldistribution and statistics.

click on the UpdateHistograms icon

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Surface MeasurementsSTEPS

right-click on the groupname and choose CloseGroup

click on the Add Terrainicon (Display Manager),and select DEM_16BIT

from the CB_ELEV

Project File (CB_DATA

folder) click on the Add

Objects icon, andselect CIR_COMP fromthe MEASURE Project File

open the GeoTool-box and check thatthe Options / Measure /Show Surface Informa-tion toggle is on

click on the polygon tooland draw a convolutedpolygon at the lowerright of the image

examine your measure-ment results comparingperimeter and surfaceperimeter, area and sur-face area, and noting theminimum and maximumZ values

These measuremententries only appearwhen the Show Sur-face Informationtoggle is on and youhave a terrain layerselected.

Additional measurement information is available ifyou are making measurements in a view with a ter-rain layer. The surface perimeter is longer than thesimple perimeter unless the ground is flat because ittraverses the ups and downs of the terrain as it fol-lows the outer edge of the shape you have drawn.Similarly, the surface area will be greater than thetwo-dimensional area because the surface neededto cover hills and valleys is included. The differ-ence between the area and surface area gives you anidea of how rugged the terrain is.

This exercise has you draw a convoluted polygonin a hilly region so you can see the difference inthese values over an extended path and area. Youcan move this polygon to the upper left of the rasterand see how the surface values are affected. To movea polygon drawn with the GeoToolbox, click on theControls tab and choose the Move Line Operation.The cursor is active for dragging whether it is thecrosshair or right-hand shape.

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ProfilesA profile graphs the cell values for visible rasterlayers along the path of any of the graphic tools.You can, for example, look at the ups and downs inan elevation raster along a length of road in anotherraster used for reference. With the calipers (ruler),line, and polygon tools, the start of the profile (leftedge) corresponds to the start of the line. With othertools, particularly the closed geometric shapes, it isless obvious where the profile begins.

A variety of display and analysis features are avail-able when viewing profiles. Display options in-clude display of the trend line for the profile, displayof the grid, and whether to fill under the curve,among others. Analysis features include display oftrend residuals, semivariograms, and first and sec-ond derivatives. The values shown in the fields atthe bottom of the window are for the current crosshairposition in the profile.

A Profile View for the bottom visible raster layer isopened by default the first time you click on theOpen Profile View button*. The next time you clickon this button, another raster layer is opened in anew window until all raster layers have separateProfile Views at which point you are prompted toselect an object to profile.


starting with the groupopen from the last exer-cise, click on theGeoToolbox icon

click on the OpenProfile View icon andcheck that the elevationobject is listed and high-lighted in the top panel ofthe Profile View window

select the Calipers(Ruler icon) and pullout the tool over astraight stretch of roadas shown

keep this group openand add to it in the nextexercise

You need toclick in theProfile Viewfor thesevalues to befilled in.

*You can select multiplerasters for profile viewing ifdesired. To add them to thesame Profile View, use theOpen icon in the ProfileView. To add them to sepa-rate Profile Views, click onthe Open Profile View iconagain. New Profile Viewsmay open on top of andobscure others.

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Cross-SectionsThe Generate Cross-Section feature requires a sur-face layer in combination with a vector object anduse of any of the graphic tools. The result is a newvector object that shows a cross section along thepath of the tool with attributes assigned from thevector polygons in the top vector layer. The defaultscale is from sea level to the surface cell value alongthe path of the tool. To emphasize differences inelevation, this value can be changed to the mini-mum elevation in the terrain or some other value.

The resulting vector object can have manifold geo-reference or be ungeoreferenced since the polygonsdo not represent areas on the surface—the polygonsare in the Z dimension. If not georeferenced, thevector is scale calibrated so you can determine the2D distance traversed across an individual polygonin the cross section. To get this distance, you canuse the measuring tools* or select the polygon andlook at the internal element details in the DisplayManager window. The difference between the Xextents is the distance traversed across the activepolygon. The maximum value for the Y extents in


click on the AddObjects icon (DisplayManager), and selectCBSOILSEXTRACT from theMEASURE Project File

use the Ruler tool todraw from the upper leftto the lower right of thevector object

click on the Gener-ate Cross-Sectionicon, turn off the Gener-ate Manifold Georefer-ence toggle, then clickOK

save the new vectorobject in your MEASURE

Project File use the Ruler to draw

from the lower left to theupper right of the vectorobject, and generate asecond cross-section

The lower left to upper right diagonal (bot-tom) crosses many more polygons thanthe opposite diagonal (left).

the active element informa-tion is the maximum eleva-tion from the base Z valuetraversed by the segment inthat polygon.

The cross-section includes only those stretches of the toolthat cross both the surface and vector layers. With multiplevector layers, the active layer or the top vector layer if theactive layer is not a vector, is used for the cross-section at-tributes. The cross-sections shown do not have manifoldgeoreference.

* To be able to measure orselect these polygons, youneed to generate yourcross sections in a layoutand turn on the View resultsin new group toggle. TheShow results in new windowtoggle, opens a new view todisplay the results.

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Recording MeasurementsSTEPS

click on the Newicon, choose 2DDisplay, and selectBEREAMSS JULY30 COMPOSITE

open the GeoTool-box and chooseOptions / Right MouseButton / Record Mea-surement

click on the Circleicon; position andsize the tool to measureone of the center pivotirrigated fields

click the right mousebutton, create a newfile named MEASURE

(File Type .csv), clickOK, and note mes-sage at bottom ofGeoToolbox

move the circle tool toanother field, resize ifnecessary, and clickthe right mouse button

change to the Rec-tangle tool; measureand record three fields

change to the Rulertool and record twomore measurements

close the GeoToolbox,then choose Tools / Mis-cellaneous / Edit TextFiles from the main TNTmenu and open the filecreated in step 4 (besure to setFiles to All,txt is the de-fault)

Recording measurements writes all the informationshown in the Measure panel (without layer infor-mation). You can include a measurement ID num-ber, which is automatically incremented or up to 15characters of identifying text by typing into the IDfield at the bottom of the Measure panel. If identi-fying text is to the left of the ID number, the numberwill continue to increment with each measurementrecorded. You indicate whether to auto-incrementthe ID number on the Measure cascade of theGeoToolbox Options menu. A line to identify each

of the entries is added to thefile when you switch fromone measurement tool to an-other. The default file typefor recorded measurements is*.csv. You can also save therecorded measurements to afile with a .txt extension, butthat does not change the con-tents of the file. TNT’s texteditor will open files with ei-

ther extension to review the contents.

You can assign recording measurements as the solefunction of the right mouse button when using theGeoToolbox if desired. There is also a Record but-ton on the GeoToolbox’s Measure panel if you wantto mix recording measurements with adding ele-ments to a sketch or creating a region. You canchoose to start a new file for recorded measurementsusing File / Measurement Record in the GeoToolbox.

Recorded mea-surements(*.csv file)opened in Micro-soft Excel.

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Calibrating Cell Size or Object ScaleCell size is derived directly from georeference in-formation for geospatial data in the TNT products.You may, however, have objects for which georefer-encing makes little sense, such as an architecturaldrawing or biological imagery. You can calibratesuch objects using the Ruler tool stretched betweentwo features a known distance apart. The Calibrateoption is only active in the absence of georeferenceinformation.

Once accurately calibrated, you can make reliablemeasurements of components of the object if it hassuitable geometry. Suitable geometry for an objectwithout georeference is similar to that for an objectwith georeference—the angle of image capture ordrawing cannot be oblique. In the scanned photo-graph of the virus-infected algal lawn provided assample data, the camera angle was orthogonal tothe plane of the petri dish, which makes it suitablefor measurements once calibrated. The obliquedrawing of the space shuttle shown is not suitablefor measurements. If you calibrate to the 60-footlength of the payload bay, the overall measurementfor the shuttle is about 20 feet too long.


click on the Newicon, choose 2DDisplay, and select thePBCV_1 object from theCALIBRAT Project File

click on the Geo-Toolbox icon thenon the Ruler icon,and pull out the toolso it stretches from oneinside edge of the petridish to the other

click on [Calibrate] set the Units option

menu to millimeters andenter 89 in the Distancefield then click on [OK]

now use the Ruler tool tomeasure other dis-tances, such as thedistance betweenplaques (clear areas);you may want to changeunits

change to the Circle tooland obtain area mea-surements for some ofthe plaques

The actual distance betweenthe ends of the tool is easilydetermined with a ruler andthe original petri dish.

Oblique drawingsare not suitable formeasurements.

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Sketch Objects and the Sketch PanelThe Sketch tool lets you interpret objects in under-lying layers by drawing lines, polygons, circles, rect-angles, and ellipses and adding text. Each elementcan have an individually assigned drawing styleand an attached attribute. The sketch object cre-ated can be used in any process that accepts CADobjects. The drawing styles assigned when thesketch is created are always used when the sketch isopened in the Sketch tool and can be used when theobject is selected elsewhere if you choose By Ele-ment for the drawing style. Your sketches in thisand the following exercise will identify areas ofvarying turbidity and vegetation types in the rightarm of this lake.

The style controls for sketch elements are on theSketch panel along with buttons to add an element,delete the last element added, open a previouslysaved sketch, and assign attributes. Because stylesare assigned by element as your sketch is drawn,you need to set the drawing style to what you wantbefore you add the element. Changing individualelement styles can be accomplished in TNT’s Edi-tor, but the sketch object is transformed to a full-

featured CAD object at the same time,which means it cannot subsequently beused for sketching.


click on the New2D icon, choose2D Display, and selectthe HAYWARD object in theSKETCH Project File

click on the Geo-Toolbox icon

click on the Polygonicon then on theSketch tab, and theOpen Sketch icon,then select CHABOT fromthe SKETCH Project File(contains no elementsbut has the attributetable set up)

turn on the Clear ToolAfter Add toggle from theSketch menu openedfrom the Options menuin the GeoToolbox

set the border and fillstyles to solid with a lightgreen for both

See Editing Vector Geo-data tutorial for more aboutthe Line / Polygon tool.

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Photointerpretive SketchingSTEPS

zoom in (press the +key) so the area of mod-erate turbidity showncan be clearly seen

draw around this area(the Stretch drawingmode is recommended)

click the right mousebutton when you aredone drawing around themoderate turbidity area,and enter “moderate” inthe prompt window

change the Line and FillColors to a darkergreen, and draw aroundthe area of higher turbid-ity shown

click the right mousebutton to add this newpolygon to the sketchand enter “high” in theprompt window

The level of detail you should put into a sketchdepends on the conditions and its intended use. Ifyou’re sketching in the field and intend to convert asketch to CAD or vector format, you may want todraw around the features carefully to avoid laterediting or you may want just an ap-proximate sketch to be edited fur-ther in an office setting. If all youwant is ground truth information,you can just add text, with or with-out callout lines.

In this example, we’re looking for a sketch accurateenough to evaluate whether areas of turbidity(cloudiness in the water) are in-creasing or decreasing over time.Such a goal requires a fair amountof care when drawing and a judge-ment call for the low / moderate andmoderate / high turbidity bound-aries. When the area of high turbidity is drawn as afilled polygon, the algal bloomlocations (brightest red) areobscured. To also interpretthese areas, hide the currentsketch layer and draw aroundthem. A new sketch layer iscreated in the default sketch location* because yourfirst sketch is hidden.

algal bloom



* Hover the mouse over thenew sketch layer name tosee the complete defaultpath.

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Sketching with Geometric ToolsThe geometric sketching tools are often ideal forsketches that identify agricultural crops since fieldsare often circular (center pivot irrigation) or rectan-gular. The tools persist at the same size in the samelocation after you add an element to a sketch unlessyou turn this feature off, which you did in theexcersize on page 20 (when Options / Sketch / ClearTool After Add is toggled on, tools do not persist).When the tool is not cleared, it is very easy to delin-eate a number of areas with the same dimensions,such as the center pivots in the object used for refer-ence in this exercise.

In the last exercise, you hid a sketch layer, whichenabled you to see behind what you had alreadysketched, and initiated the creation of a new sketch


right click on the groupname and choose Re-move All Layers

click on the AddObjects icon, andselect the JULY30 COMPOS-ITE raster in the BEREAMSS

Project File open the GeoToolbox,

click on the OpenSketch icon, createa new file and namethe object WHEATPIVOTS

turn off the Options/Sketch/Clear Tool AfterAdd toggle

click on the Circleicon, set the lineand fill color to orangeand use the tool to out-line the leftmost of thethree dark green fieldsjust above and to theright of the center

click the right mousebutton to add the circleto the sketch when thetool is sized and posi-tioned properly

move the tool to the ad-jacent field and clickthe right mouse buttonagain, repeat with thethird dark green field

click on the OpenSketch icon, thenenter SOYBEANS in theNew Object Name field

change the line and fillcolor to blue, move thetool to the next centerpivot (red), click the rightmouse button, then con-tinue adding circles asshown

layer. You can alsostart a new sketchlayer by clicking onthe Open Sketchicon and naming anew object ratherthan selecting a pre-viously saved ob-ject. You can createas many sketch ob-jects as desired.

You can delete thelast element addedto a sketch if you are

unhappy with its matchto the feature being

sketched. You can step back through the previ-ously added elements by repeatedly clicking onthe Delete Last Element icon if you decide you’reunhappy with more than one element. You can de-lete the last element added even after a sketch issaved, closed, and opened again.

Note a standard attributes table is created for thesketch layer and added to as each element is drawn.

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Adding Text to a SketchIn most photointerpretive sketches, you may wantto add annotations to identify areas you havesketched around or even areas you have not delin-eated. The sketches you made on the previous pageprovide a couple of different examples for annota-tion placement without callout lines.

The text function of the sketch tool has three partsthat act together—the text crosshair cursor, the set-tings on the Sketch panel, and entries on the Con-trols panel. The font and characteristics can only beset from the Sketch panel. The position can be setusing the text crosshair or by GPS input from theControls panel. The size can be set using either theAscender Height field on the Sketch panel or byresizing the text crosshair. The text crosshair ac-cepts keyboard input whenever the View windowhas focus. You can also enter the desired text on theControls panel of the GeoToolbox.

click on the WHEATPIVOT

layer name to make itthe active layer

click on the Texticon, position themouse near the middleof the leftmost pivotsketched, and click

type wheat while theView window has focus

click on the cyan tile inthe Foreground Colorpalette

set the Ascender Heightto 12 Points at a User-Defined scale of 120000

click on the AddSketch Elementicon or right-click overthe image

now click on the SOY-BEANS layer name tomake it the activesketch layer

reposition the textcrosshair between thetwo rows with soybeanpivots, type soybeans,and right-click

keep open for next exer-cise

The textBack-groundColor isused onlyfor the out-line withEnhancedstyle text.

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Standard Attributes with Sketch LayersSTEPS

click on the Ruler tool,and set the color tobe the same as forthe soybeans text

draw lines from thesoybeans text to thethree soybean fields

expand the Soy-beans layer (click onthe +) in the DisplayManager window

expand the databasein the Display Man-ager to show thetable

click in the check box toopen the table

choose Table / Switch toSingle Record view

choose the select tool inthe GeoToolbox

click on line and circleelements and view asso-ciated statistics

close the GeoToolbox

Because annotations are not di-rectly associated with other ele-ments in a sketch, leader line editingis not an integral part of generatingthe annotation as it is when editing

vector labels. If you want leader lines, simply addline elements to your sketch. They are added in

this exercise so you can see that dif-ferent fields are filled out in the CADstandard statistics table that is auto-matically generated by the processfor different element types. Annota-tions can have colored frames with

transparency if desired like dynamic labels and la-bel elements.

Unlike vector objects, which have separate point,line, and polygon databases, CAD objects have asingle database for all element types. As a result inthe standard statistics table, not all fields apply toeach element type. The fields that do not apply tothe marked elements have zeroes for the value inthe standard statistics table. When you select a textelement, all field values are zero.

statistics for linestatistics for circle

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Editing SketchesYou can add a sketch as a CAD layer in the displayprocess. When added as a CAD layer, you can se-lectively turn off element types for drawing andyou can change the drawing style if you draw allelements of a particular type in the same style. Theobject itself remains a sketch object when thechanges introduced are simply display parametersor database changes. You can viewand edit database parameterswhether the object is opened as asketch or added as a CAD layer. Ifadded as an editable CAD layer inTNT’s Editor, the object created bysaving is a full-featured CAD ob-ject, which can no longer beopened as a sketch.

Editing a sketch is like editingany CAD object; choose to edit aselected element, and the tool usedto add the sketch element opensso you can edit it. You can alsoedit the assigned element stylewhile editing the element.


remove both sketchlayers from theprevious exercise

choose Add/Layer/CADin the Display Manager,and select WHEATPIVOTS

note the elements drawn click on the Layer

Controls icon forthe WHEATPIVOTS layer

set Select to By Type(Elements panel), clickon [Specify], turn offText, and click [OK]

set the Style optionmenu to All Same andclick [OK], note thechanges, then exit Dis-play

choose Main / Edit fromthe TNT menu

click on the AddObjects icon (EditorLayer Manager window)and select the HAYWARD

object then the CHABOT

sketch (p. 18) click on the Edit

Reference Layericon for the CHABOT layer(Chabot should be inbold, click on name ifnot)

click on the EditElement icon inthe Operations panel ofthe CAD Tools window

click on the moderateturbidity polygon, thenright-click

drag and insert verticesto edit the polygon for abetter fit as necessary

save your edited object

A sketch can be altered inthe Editor like any otherobject type, but the resultis no longer asketch. This edit-ing capability isabsent in TNTview.

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Annotate Tool SettingsSTEPS

open the Display pro-cess and add the Hay-ward object used in thelast exercise

click on the Anno-tate tool in the Viewwindow

click on the Action/Set-tings icon thatappeared in theView window tool-bar and set yourpreferred linedrawing mode(Draw or Stretch)

The Annotate tool lets you do simple sketchingoperations without having to open the GeoToolbox.When you click on the Annotate tool, seven icons

are added to theView window

toolbar. Your View window must be wide enough toaccommodate at least three of these icons or noneof the Annotation tools will appear.

The Action/Settings icon lets you controldrawing and saving of elements in yourannotation sketch, The Delete Last Anno-tation choice lets you sequentially deletethe last annotations made. Clear DrawingTool lets you clear a drawing tool before

the element is added. All drawing tools are auto-matically cleared after an element is added. Openlets you select either a sketch object created withthe GeoToolbox or one created with the Annota-tion tool. If the object was initially created in theGeoToolbox, the Delete Last Annotation choice isinitially inactive. Save to lets you save somewhereother than the default location. Save as KML doesnot have a default location for the KML file andprompts you to save initially in the directly fromwhich you opened your sketch or your last useddirectory.

Additional icons appear depending on the drawingtool you select. For example, an icon to set colorappears for all annotation tools. The downwardarrow to the right of this icon drops down the colorpalette. For points and lines there is only one coloricon. For polygons there are two: fill color andborder color. For lines and polygons there is also aline weight icon. This line weight remains con-stant as you zoom in and out (the same as if you hadset the scale for a line style to None). For text thereare Fill Color, Outline Color, and Font icons. Youcan set the outline color to be No Outline.

You cannot add attributes toelements when using theAnnotation tool.

The default location for sav-ing annotaions isC:\\Documents andSettins\yourname\MyDocuments\Sketches. Thefile in this location is namedYYYMMDD_hhmmss. Tochange this location useSave to.

BorderColor Line



The Fill Color icon is usedto set the color of pointsand lines, as well as poly-gons.

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Drawing with the Annotate ToolSTEPS

click on the Pointicon and position apoint in the lake aboveand to the left of the is-land

click on the Texticon

click on the TextColor icon andchoose a dark but brightcolor, such as blue

click on the OutlineColor icon, turn offthe No Outline toggle,then choose white asthe outline color

note that the cur-rently selected fontis shown in the ToolTip,click on the Font icon ifyou would like to selecta different font

enter Lake Chabot asthe text

switch to the Line tool,pick white as the color,and connect the text tothe point

Point elements in annotations are always added asfilled circles. Their size is not adjustable and theyremain a constant size as you zoom in and out. Ifyou want control over size when zooming or wantto assign attributes, you need to use the GeoToolbox.You can, however, use text to identify your pointsin lieu of assigning attributes.

You can control the size and positioning of textusing the text tool itself. Drag the + at the upper leftof the tool to increase or decrease the text size whenthe cursor is the double arrow shape. You can repo-sition the text when the cursor is the right hand shape.Choosing a contrasting outline color makes the textvisible over light and dark backgrounds.

Polygons and polygonlabels get larger as

you zoomin. Anno-tation pointremainsthe samesize.

annotation point

zoomedin oncefromabove

Annotationpoint added(top). Identi-fying textand leaderline added(bottom)

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Using Sketches in Layout DesignSTEPS

in the Displayprocess, click on theOpen Display icon, andselect SKETCHINLAYOUT fromthe SKETCH Project File

click on the Geo-Toolbox, then onthe Rectangle tool

check that Options/RightMouse button is set toSketch (GeoToolbox)

make sure FullHaywardis the active group, clickon the Sketch tab

set the Fill Style to Noneand Line width to 1screen pixel

locate the area ofFullHayward that is en-larged, inscribe it, andclick the right mousebutton to add the rect-angle

draw a rectangle aroundthe enlarged area group,right-click, and answerYes to the prompt

click on the Ruler icon,change the color tomatch your box color,draw a line between theupper left corners of thetwo rectangles, andright-click

draw a line between therectangles’ lower rightcorners and right-click

keep this layout and theGeoToolbox open for thenext exercise

Layouts may need sketch elements to tie differentgroups together, such as when one group is an en-largement of part of another group. When you usethe Sketch tool to draw between groups, the sketchis added to the “active” group. Sketches that ex-tend beyond the extents of the layers in a groupchange the extents of the group as a whole and maycause repositioning of groups on the page depend-ing on how the group attachments are specified.

The layout used as the starting point for this exer-cise has its attachments specified so that the grouppositions on the page will not be affected by addi-tion of the sketch elements.

The margin (red) isshown in page layoutmode. The edge ofthe page is also ap-parent when the Viewwindow backgroundis a color other thanwhite.

Tool thickness isindependent of thewidth of sketch lines.You set the former

under Options / Graphic Tools and the latter on theSketch panel. If you want the sketch lines to be thickeror thinner after the sketch is completed, add the sketchas a CAD layer, set the drawing style to All Same andchange the line width.

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Sketches and Group ClippingSTEPS

click on the Haywardlayer name in the Dis-play Manager to make itthe active layer

click on the Settingsicon for the FullHaywardgroup

click on the Match Layerbutton on the Clippingpanel and turn on theClip toggle button

check that the Options/Sketch/Clip Sketch ifGroup is Clipped toggleis off in the GeoToolbox,and redraw

choose Options/Sketchin the GeoToolbox andturn the Clip Sketch ifGroup is Clipped toggleon, then redraw andnote the change

set the GeoToolboxRight Mouse Button op-tions back to Choosefrom Menu

The lefthand group in this layouthas been clipped to match the ras-ter extents. The sketch layer is notclipped above (toggle off). The ClipSketch if Group is Clipped Toggle ison at the right.

Sketches are often outside the group they refer toand you may not want the clipping that is appliedto the geospatial layers in the group applied to thesketch. The example in this exercise is not particu-larly meaningful, but you have just made a sketchthat could be clipped so it may as well be used forthis purpose. Typically the sort of sketch you wouldnot want to clip with the group would contain an-notations for fea-tures that are presentin the group afterclipping. You couldalso have a specialeffect in mind thatincludes imagery in the central portion of the lay-out and sketch elements extending out from theimagery.

The sketch tool is useful both in the office and inthe field and is available with the free TNTatlas.Sketching and measuring are only two aspects ofthe powerful, integrated GeoToolbox. For additionalinformation on this powerful tool see the Interac-tive Region Analysis and Operating with a GPS Unittutorials.

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Advanced Software for Geospatial Analysis



MicroImages, Inc.

IndexAnnotate tool in View window ...... 26–27arc tools ..................................................... 8CAD objects ....................................... 3, 25Calibrate button ................................. 6, 19caliper tool ................................................ 7cell size calibration ................................... 3cell value examination ........................... 13clipping .................................................... 2 9context sensitive cursors ..................... 5, 8cross-sections .......................................... 17editing sketches ....................................... 25extract by region .................................... 12geometric shapes .................................... 10GeoToolbox ................................ 3, 12, 25graphic tool settings .......................... 5, 26group clipping ........................................ 2 7manual positioning ................................. 11measurement tools ...................... 6–11, 19

polygon tool ............................................. 9profile views ........................................... 1 6protractor tool ........................................... 8raster histograms .............................. 13, 14recording measurements ........................ 18right mouse button options ................... 1 2ruler ............................................................ 7scale calibration ........................................ 3screen calibration ...................................... 4sketch annotation .................................... 23sketch element attributes ................. 21, 24sketch objects ........................ 3, 20, 21, 25sketches in layouts .................................. 2 8sketching .......................................... 20–25standard attributes .................................. 2 4surface layers ................................... 15–17text annotation in Sketch tool ............... 2 3Update Histograms function ................. 13

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