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SKIDMORE & SMITH Modern Latin America 7th Edition

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ModernLoti nAmericaSEVENTHEDITIONThomasE. SkidmoreProfessorEmeritus, Bruwtl UniversityPeterH. SmithU"iversity oj C"lijomi", S"" Die>;"JamesN. GreenBrohlnUniversityNewYork OxfunlOXFORDUNIVERSITYPRESS2010OxfordUniversit}' Inc.. publishes works lhat furtherOxf(lrdUniversity'sobjective of excellenceinresearch, scholarship. :lmledllc:lti(ln.With offices inAUSlria I\r;\7il ChileIlungary Italy J;\panS\"it"erland ThailandOxford N\,w YorkAuckland C'lPC TownKualaLumpur MadridNewDelhi ShanghaiArgentinaGuatemalaSouthKoreaDar es Salaam Hong Kong Kar;\chiMelbourne Mexico City N;\irobiTaipei TM(lnloCzechRepublic France GreecePoland Portugal SingaporeTurkey Ukraine VietnamForDavid. ja11lrs, Rolw,.,andJonat/mll, ,",elcr. Snslw. AmalldaandSonyaCopyright1984. 19R9. 1992. 1997.2001. 200S. 2010 by OxfordUniversityPress. Inc.Published by OxfordUniv{'I'sity Inc1911Avenue. New Y(lrk, New York1(}()16http://www.ollp.comOxfordi" aregislerell trademark of OxfordUni\'ersit)' PressAll rightsre"('rvcd. Nopart of this pubHC:lliol\ 1l1;l.y be reproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem, or tr;msmilled. inanyformor by :lllYmC:lfltlf pulitil;dconJlict, uldsucial 1I""t' 1':vl'l1wllt'rt' IIIUtkrllhave struck, asint\J1cxicoR PART ONE ANn CONTEXTSAccordingtosuchviews, L.,tin Amcricacould not achicvedemocracybecausedark-skinned peoples (I ndians and blacks) were unsuited for it; because passionateLalintempers wouldnot stand it; hecause tropical climates somehow preventedit;or becauseRomanCatholic doctrines inhibitedit.E.,chchargehadits refutation: dictatorial rule nourishedin predominantlywhite countries. such as Argentina, as well as among mixed-blood societies. such asMexico; it appeared in temperate climes, such as Chile. not only in the tropics, suchas Cuha;it gained support fromnonCatholics and non practicing Catholics, whileIllany fervent worshippers fought for liberty; and, as shown byauthoritarianregimes outside Latin America, such as Hitler's Germany or Stalin's SovietUnion. dictatorship is not restricted to any single temperament. Such explanationsdid not merelyprovetobeinadequate. Whencarriedtoextremes, theyhelpedjustify rapidly increasing U.S. and European penetration-financial, cultural.military-of the '"backward" repuhlics10the south.Th" scholarly scene improvedinthe late1950s and early1960s, whenNorthAmeric"n social scientists formulated "modernization theory." As applied to LatinAmerica. this approach held that economicgrowth would generate thesocialchange thatwould in turn make possible more developed" politics. The transitionfroma rural toan urbansocietywouldbringachangeinvalues. Peoplewouldbegin torelate toand participatein thevoluntaryorganizalions that authentic(.lemocracy requires.Most important, a middle class would emerge-to play both aprogressiveand moderatingrole. L.,tin Americaand itscitizenries were not soinherently fromEurope andNorthAmerica. Insteadtheywere simply

Modernizationadepts thought thehistorical record showedthisprocesswaswell underwa), inLatinAmerica. OneoptimisticU.S. scholar maintainedinthe1950s that the"middlesectors"had"bccome stabilizers andharmonizersandintheprocess havelearnedthe dangers of dealing innbsolutcpostulates." Similarly.the;luthor ofa latc 1970s historytextbook saw"I.atin Amcrican historysinceindependence asmoderni7,ationgrowingslowlyagainst thcresistance of oldin."tilutions andReality, however. proved harsher. Instead ofspreadinggeneral prosperity,economic growth in the1960s and1970s generally made income distribution morelInequnl. The gapin livingstandards lJetween cityandcountrysidegrew. Themiddle strata, relativelyprivileged, forgeda sense of "class consciousness"which,in crilicalmoments of decision. ledthem to join the ruling classes in oppositiontothe popular masses. Politics took an authoritarian turn, producing militarygovernments. Andin stark contradiction of modernizationtheory.these patternsemergedintheInost developed-andmost rapidly developing-countries of thecontinent.Whathad gone wrong?Two sets ofnnswers came forlh. One group ofscholars focused on the culturaltraditions of Latin America and their Spanish and Portuguese origins. Theseanalysts argued, ineffect. that antidemocraticpolitics wasa product of aRomanCatholic and Mediterranean worldview thaI stressed the need for harmony. order,I" \Vhyl.llI1lAIIWI!t.IJ'/and Ihe elimination of conniel. I.atin Alllrric;l's Cflll ... lillllil'II'" WI'It' IUT('I .1'.demncnlticasthey appeared. parlypoliticswnsnol ;1" rt'l'n'''clll.ltin' :1" it IIlIgh!havelooked. TheNorth!\mcriC;1n and Ellrnpc;11l nculcllli(. (1l1l1l11111l1ty, :1(111\ It'dhy its ownmyopia andbi;1ses, hnd simpl)' misrcadIhl' soti;1ll.h I...A second group of scholars accepledlllodC'rnizat i(11l thel u'y ..lillk ing III ""NI"economiccauses wilh polilk";11 oulcomes hl11 turncd the;111"",n l1p..idc d"wl1I.atin Amcrica'seconomicdevel0plllC'llt W;1", Willi 1I1,1Il'ld thl' IUltillll \11' a slrongcenlral guvernll\l:.'llt ill c1use.tllt.trtU' \\'illtthl' C:lI hulic l :hUl dl, ,lIldl.ibt'rals, who espomel! limited ,1I111 [hI.' 01derical1:,II.:h Ihe othl,;'rul causingIh,,'I.nll,vl,tll;l:,>,:1 rdurntolisJli::.p,IJlil'traditioll. Spl'l:illcal1y illln'ded [u prumote aristucratic ideab.protect the1\'g,11 l'llvlkgn011I111il'll Yalld Ihl: lIltlrdl, andc",:aleacOIISli[utiulial llIOli.1,,,1,)' (I'l'rll.lll::' hy illlpIHlillg.1 ElIft'pl'i111 prillLe), III reply, Libl.:'rabarguedthat1\1l'.\ll"lIl'l'lkdIUl:lIlhr.lll the01 lll\h.ll'rni'l.alioll, nottradilioll.Till' .. l.lllllull lH11l illllni UIII ill lie Illid- Iwhell;:tSalll;t'\111',1'>Illlglll Ivrl'llli.'nbhtill' [rl'il::.ury (alldhispolitical by vft lor'!>IIJllldll"n V.tlle)' (tllday:'>tluthl'fll Nl'wMl'xiLuan,,1Ari'l.OIl:l), whichllll' UlIIIl'l1SI;11I.'::. W;lllll'.Ilor huilding a railroad10 newly acquired Cidilornia, '1'111:'dn.billilwas widd)' Lrilidz\,da::. a bl'lfil)':ll of nationalresolvl', :llll!it prompled tltl'Iqll)u::.i[ioll tilSanlaAnnafrolll puwt:rin 1855,'1 hi .. illili.llnl a IllIlIUItUUU:' I'l'riud relllt'lllbl,;'rl,;'d ill Mexi..:o as 1.11 Uefurlllll(111l' IklllJ'lIl), CiVilian k'd Libl'ral governmenls elwcled a St.:I';es of sweeping .tilllnl .11 buildinga Ill'Wsud,,1orda, (Joe key llIeasureabolishnl theIJ lilil"r)' dlldI'Lt.:k:.ia:'>1ic.. Ij/lt'f'US, Ille ::.pedal displ'nsations "kricsfrolll havingIv slandIrial ill eivilcourts, Anothl,;'J' prohlblh::d ecdeslastlGl1alld dvil institutiuns from uwning properly nut directly ust'd ill dayto-da),tllll'r,tlillll:>: litisIlll'aFlI that [hI.'chun:h (oulJkct:pits dlllrches, monaslerk,s, and.. ,'IHill.11 il's, hUI wuuld have [II ;uK"lion off the milssiw holdings lhilt II had,llCtllllubtt'dovnthl' It'lIlurks. (This wus not soci.. 1 revolution: Ihelands were.. oldIII wl'altllYhllt'I'willliv:;, llot landle:'>s pl'OIlS, Infact, thisprovisionwurkl,;'d10!II".l,llllllt:lJ[ ullhl' pUlIr, ::.inll' it rt''1uirl,dthe sa1l' ofpropt'rties held b), ('jidos,Ihl'\/\itEXlt'(':TllI'T,lllllllg4ol.ll{l'vultlli'lll 51LUIlllllLJllill Iandhuldings 01 Indian vilbgl,;'s.) t\ Ihird illitiil[ivt.' trallskrrnl [Ill' 01 rl.gistr), IWIIl Iht: church hi Iht: :-.Ialc: all hirth:'>. lllarriages, adoplions,alldWl'l'e 1I1'1ICdilrtii Itl IwIt'gisll'rnl by civil rUllcl jUlia IIII J1'157 1lillSI ofthl'Sl' provisitJlIs 10lll1 lclIllI,i1l}' dl'lll.'.1P'l':-.idcllI ill IH(lJ.Pt',lU' :;1 ill plOwdih thl' lOtlllllT lJ.lJlkruplcy, Ju.irodl'ddrnl a two-}'ear 1Il0raiuriullI IIll Mexicu':,> loreigll lkbl--[hll .. "arning tIl\'wlilthvI'lrt'ditors.Sct'kingtoit:-. t'lllpir\' ;llIdFr,llICl',undt'rj':l1Ipcror Napolt:oll III, cOlll11lellll:,d :l1)'l'.lf w.,r III oel-Up;ltIUll. (Me,,,, ka II klllporaril)' halh,dthe Frl'lh.hadv.tlll-l tow.lrd (V!l'xily[Ilis hdray;ll, r"laxillliliallill May IMb7. 1\11 111110rgiviJlg JU:'lfl'l. IIrdt'rl,d hi::. l'Xt'lllliOJl Ihl'folluwingIl10tlth, 'I'bus elldt:'dMexicu'sl'xllt'ril'llt.ewilhmOllardl)',Tltt' reMlInplioJl01pU\Vl'r b)' Liberabillwh.. [ h.ls (oHll' It) hl'knuwlI asthe "restoredrl'publi..:: ju;ira, amirqHluliLalll.ohurl::.alll'll1l'led10 Sl'lNkxiLo Oil lill' p:l\h of Hludernij'..1tiVtl, Ikdel..leottla tldrdlenJl .1::' presidl.'ut ill jul}'IJU:II't'Z prvlllOll'd l'XlellSivl' l:LOnUIl1IC i1lld t'duLativJlillrdonn::.,weill sowdllhathe rail for a fuunhtillie ill 11:0 I, ill une ollhe lilusillollydl'ctiollSor thl' nindeentll cell [ury, AsCongressst'all,;'dJu.irez's triUlllph, OJlt:'or Ihelosers,PorfirioDiaz, rt.-fused 10acct:'pl the result alld angrily prociaillH:d thill indefinilt'reeleclion vI' the chil'ft'Xl'clItiVt: endangeredIhl' coulilry's prindplt's alldinslitu[ions,Tht' l1i:lzuprisingwasquicklypul dUWII, !lowt'Vt:r, andSd)ilsti,lll I.l'rdodlA 'I"'j"da suc of thenineleenth century. InMexico lhe writers. technocrats. andintellecluallyinclinedpolitician!> whonrticulalcdthe!>e doctrines earnedthelabelof the cicHtijiros, underliningtheir supposedlinktopositivist philosophy.Dinprovedhiscommandof politicsinthai mosl fundamental of w::Iys: heslayedinpower farlonger Ihan:lTlYwouldhave daredtopredict. 1:01'Ihree andahalf decades he held the presidency, with only one interruption (Manuel Gon1..;'le7.: liebelieved Ihat he was givingMexico the preciolls gift ofpolilicalslahility. which he saw as indispensable for economic growth. If that required SOlllerepression,it was (or a good cause. A shrewdpolitician. Diaz hadthe constilutionamended.time and again, so lhat he could be reelectedto the presidency-blithelycflntradiclinghis priordenunciationsofin office. Di,,7o knewhow 10 :lppenlln the privileged sectors. how 10 make thcmloyal. how toorche51ratetheirfor the economic schemes Ih"t would raise their country 10 n"civilized"level.Ecomllliicdevelopmen1 was Ibilro:hl .. WClC .ikin): 1':'. lIlIpl,ni:l7.11r!>llriedto huilcllhemwithpublk (umls,httl hy I.lte IXHO Ill' l'cg. '1 g,.IIIIIII)'.concessions toforeigners. InonlyfOil I' }'e:lfSIhe tr.ILk inopl'l.1111>1l gl('wIll .. "750 miles to )(,00 miles.Mexicoreached12.000 mile.. of 11',..., k hr''lOll.h l}:lIlllh(oreignhuilt, m

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