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skripsi asli 1

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A. The Background of Study

Language has important function in communication. Though language, we can improve our knowledge, language is so many function in the life of human being. William A. Haviland states that Language is a sound system that when combined according to certain rules that lead to meaning can be captured by everyone who speaks in the language1. By this function English as medium in international communication has played its rules and shown its important in a lot international activities. English is an international language spoken by almost millions of people all over the world. In Indonesia, English has been taught since junior high school even from elementary school up to universities. All student should study it so that they may be able to communicate with other people from other countries. As we know that most of books available in the libraries are written in English. If the student do not have any background of knowledge in English, they will encounter a lot of complain of difficulties. They face this condition when they study at university or other higher institution. There are four skills in English in they are: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Grammar a part of English skills that should be learnt by all of leaner. One of the problems in learning


http://carapedia.com/pengertian_definisi_bahasa_menurut_para_ahli_info494.html accessed on January 28-2012



English is about how discriminate situating of preposition on, in, at, and etc, we know that preposition is one of part of speech which is very important in mastering English.

In grammar preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase, for instance, "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa". In English, the most used prepositions are "in at" and "on". In brief, a preposition indicates a relation between things mentioned in a sentence.2 The fenomenon that occured in the field that are many student do not understand about preposition and how to put the preposition well in context. Sometime they are very difficult to use on, in, at, and act how to put those in the simple sentence. The writer do this research because he want to know the ability of students in using proper preposition on in, at, and etc contextually, to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh.

B. Research Questions Considering what the writer has discussed in the background, the problem of study can be stated the follow: 1. How is the ability of students in using of preposition on in, at, and etc contextually to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh? 2. What are the problem faced by the students about preposition on in, at, and etc contextually to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh?


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preposition_and_postposition taked on mey 08-2011


C. Purpose of Study The purposes of study in this research are: a. To find out what the problem face by students to use preposition on in, at, and etc contextual to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh b. To find out the the ability of students to use preposition on in, at, and etc to the eight student at MTsN Geudubang Aceh. D. Significance of Study In this research, the writer wants to write the benefit of doing this research as below: 1. To provide information of students to understand their writing in using preposition 2. To be useful for teacher in dealing with students errors 3. To be useful for teacher to arrange new methods of teaching 4. To be beneficial for students to write better writing in good arrangement of tense. 5. To be useful for students to make self correction 6. To increase English department students competence in mastering grammar 7. To be useful for the researcher to avoid doing the errors in using preposition


E. Limitation of Problem

In this research, the writer only focuses two kind of preposition, there are, preposition of place (on, in, at and over) and preposition of time (on, in, at and over)

F. Terminology a. Preposition According to Winston Churchill preposition is a part of speech that introduces a prepositional phrase. For example, in the sentence "The cat sleeps on the sofa", the word "on" is a preposition, introducing the prepositional phrase "on the sofa". In English, the most used prepositions are "in at" and "on". b. Analysis The word analysis is the adaptation of the English word, which means the description of analysis, elaboration, separation, examination in detail. Hasan Sadily the Encyclopedia defines the word analysis "means an examination of something by making all the basic elements and relationships between the elements concerned.3 the analysis can also be interpreted as an investigation of an event, essays, deeds and so on to find out the real situation, causes, and so the case sits. 4

3 4

Ar. Adi Candra dan Pius Abdillah, op. cit., p. 20. Hasan Sadily, Ensiklopedia (Jakarta: Ikhtiar Baru Van Houve, 1980), p, 206.



LITERATURE REVIEW Preposition are always followed by a noun or a noun phrase and indicate, preposition describe position of noun. The writer state that prepositions are short words that are usually located before the noun and a few prepositions followed by a gerund Verb. Martin Parrot states that many learners often see prepositions as a major problem5. There are so many prepositions in English (many more than in a lot of other language) and a learner often have to make choices and distinctions that are not necessary in their own language.6 Many choices have little or nothing to do with meaning, and are therefore particularly difficult to remember.7 The statement above indicates that many students still difficult how to put correct preposition. Even though some of the students have already known of preposition, they still can make the wrong pattern in put the preposition well. The errors can be found in students constructing the context whether in that context should be used preposition. It also can be happened in choosing others kind of preposition in others situation or context.

Martin Parrot, Grammar for English Language Teachers, (Printed in United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press, 2000 ) P. 83 6Ibid., 7 Ibid.,5



A. Definition of Preposition Frank Marcella said that preposition is classified as a part of speech in traditional grammar8. A preposition may be defined as connecting word showing the relation of a noun or a noun substitute to some other word in the sentence (the squirrel in the tree; the preposition in shows the relationship between the squirrel and the tree.) Over ninety percent of preposition usage involves these nine prepositions: With To From at in of by for on

Prepositions cause problems because sometimes they can be used interchangeably (He sat on the chair: He sat in the chair), because prepositions are often combined with verbs to create phrasal verbs (to look after someone; to look down on someone), and because a single preposition can be used to express several different ideas (He is tall for his age; I swam for an hour)9 B. Function of Preposition The main functions of preposition are: starting a prepositional phrase, i.e., a phrase which consists of prepositional and noun, or other elements that function like a noun, pronoun, numeral, gerunds, noun phrase and others.10


Frank Marcella..Modern English : a Practical Reference Guide, ( New York University 1972) p. 163

9 http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/reading-writing/on-line/prep-def.html. accessed on October 2011 10 Hilman Fariz Mukti, about preposition p.352 Accessed on October 11- 2011


The writer state that preposition is to explain position of something, preposition is very important to explain relation a thing to another thing, preposition is used to communicate between one word of the other word, for instance:


The pen is in the cupboard The ruler is on the table He looks at me

From the example above we can see the relation between one thing to other thing. The firs relation between a pen and cupboard, the second relation between rulers and the table, and the third is relation between the persons with the first person, the relation is place or position of a noun.

C. Kind of Preposition Prepositions are used to express a number of relationships, including time, location, manner, means, quantity, purpose, and state or condition. 11 The following outline demonstrates the uses of common prepositions.

1. Prepositions for Time. (In, on, at) Prepositions used for time of different natures are in, on at etc.12 Preposition Time Nature In 1. Month or Year. e.g. in January, in 1985 2. Particular time of day or month or year11http://rwc.hunter.cuny.edu/reading-writing/on-line/prep-def.html.

Accessed on 22-

October 200112

Ibid.Accessed 22 October 2011




e.g. in morning, in evening, in first week of January, in summer, in winter 3. Century or specific time in past etc e.g. in 21st century, in stone age, in past, in future, in present 1. Day e.g. on Monday 2. Date e.g. on 5th of March, March 5 3. Particular day e.g. on Independence Day, on my birthday, 1. Time of clock e.g. at 5 Oclock, at 7:30 PM 2. Short and precise time e.g. at noon, at sunset, at lunch time, at bed time, at the moment, at the same time

Examples: - He was born in 1945. - She will go to New York on 25th of March. - The concert will begin at 7 Oclock. - He gets up early in the morning. - We enjoyed a lot in the summer. - The president will deliver speech to public on Independence Day.

2. Preposition for Place. (In, on, at) Prepositions in, on or at are usually used for dif

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