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Socinianism = Unitarianism Socinianism (named after the Italian theologian Laelius Socinus) took...

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Socinianism = Unitarianism Socinianism (named after the Italian theologian Laelius Socinus) took hold in Poland until it was rejected by the Catholic Church. For a time, it was widely believed that it would be the main theological view in Europe. The views of the Socinians: They rejected orthodox teachings on the Trinity (They were Unitarians) They rejected orthodox teachings on the Trinity (They were Unitarians) They rejected the divinity of Jesus. They rejected the divinity of Jesus. They believed that God's omniscience was limited in regards to the future to what would definitely happen and not what might happen (contingent truth). They believed that God's omniscience was limited in regards to the future to what would definitely happen and not what might happen (contingent truth). They taught that if God knew every possible future event, human free will was impossible. They taught that if God knew every possible future event, human free will was impossible. Slide 2 Robert Bruce, King of Scots (1274-1329) In the 13th and 14th Centuries England and Scotland fought, and Scotland won its independence under Robert Bruce and became closely aligned with France. Slide 3 Patrick Hamilton (1504-1528) - The initials P H on the spot where he was martyred in front of St. Salvadors Church in Scotland. Luthers early reform movements found adherents in Scotland through the preaching of Patrick Hamilton and the spread of Tyndales New Testament in English. He was tried and burned at the stake. His final words were, Lord Jesus, receive my spirit. Slide 4 Patrick Hamilton After Patrick Hamilton was burned at the stake, it was said his face appeared in the brick on the very spot of his execution. Slide 5 Queen Mary I, a.k.a. Bloody Mary (1516-1558) However in 1553, Scotland returned to the Catholic faith under Mary I (Tudor), the daughter of Henry the VIII. She is named Bloody Mary for having almost 300 religious dissenters killed Slide 6 John Knox (c.1514-1572) Bloody Mary. persecuted Protestants and many fled to the continent, including John Knox. Knox attended Calvins pastors school in Geneva in 1554 and was a pastor there in 1555. By 1559 Knox returned to Scotland where civil war had broken out. In 1560 Calvinism won out and Knox prepared Articles of Religion which abolished the Roman Church in Scotland and established the Reformed Faith by legislative decree. Slide 7 Sculpture of John Knox on the Reformers Wall in Geneva, Switzerland Knox went further than John Calvin in advocating civil disobedience and active resistance against civil authorities who repressed freedom of religion. Slide 8 Mary I a.k.a Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots (1542-1587) When Mary Stuart returned to the throne of Scotland in 1561, Knox continued to lead Calvinism as the State religion even though Mary was a devout Catholic. Knox never won her over, but Calvinism thrived. When Mary Stuart returned to the throne of Scotland in 1561, Knox continued to lead Calvinism as the State religion even though Mary was a devout Catholic. Knox never won her over, but Calvinism thrived. Slide 9 King James I of England (1566-1625) King James I of England (1566-1625) Mary Stuarts son would become James I of England. Scotland became the most strongly Calvinistic country in the world, and Scottish Presbyterians would later migrate to America and start the Presbyterian movement there. Slide 10 Belfast, Ireland today The city of Belfast in Ulster county became the seat of Protestantism in Ireland. It was from this group that many migrated to America in the middle 1700s. Slide 11 William of Orange (1650-1702) The Dutch eventually won their battle for freedom from Spain under such leaders as William of Orange and with the aid of England, which defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. Slide 12 Jacob Arminius (1559-1609) But it was in Holland that the Reformed faith would face its first major doctrinal opposition in the form of Jacob Arminius (1559-1609) who attempted to modify Calvinism. But it was in Holland that the Reformed faith would face its first major doctrinal opposition in the form of Jacob Arminius (1559-1609) who attempted to modify Calvinism. Slide 13 Jacob Arminius (1559-1609) Arminius argued that: Arminius argued that: Gods grace enabled man to initiate salvation by cooperating with God by faith. (He elevated mans part.) Gods grace enabled man to initiate salvation by cooperating with God by faith. (He elevated mans part.) the foreknowledge of God was the basis of double predestination. the foreknowledge of God was the basis of double predestination. Christ died for all but his death was only efficient for the elect. Christ died for all but his death was only efficient for the elect. man could resist Gods grace. man could resist Gods grace. man could lose his salvation. man could lose his salvation. Slide 14 Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) Supporters of Arminius such as Hugo Grotius drew up his theological ideas in the Remonstrance of 1610. Slide 15 Assertions of the moderate Calvinistic position: Assertions of the moderate Calvinistic position: the dual truths of Gods electing grace and mans free will to exercise faith. the dual truths of Gods electing grace and mans free will to exercise faith. the unlimited atonement accomplished by Christs death. the unlimited atonement accomplished by Christs death. the total depravity of man and his inability to save himself. the total depravity of man and his inability to save himself. the irresistible grace of God, but not so as to overpower a mans will who must still exercise faith to be saved. the irresistible grace of God, but not so as to overpower a mans will who must still exercise faith to be saved. the perseverance of the saints (cant lose your salvation). the perseverance of the saints (cant lose your salvation). Slide 16 R.O.S.E.S. R = Radical depravity R = Radical depravity O = Overcoming grace O = Overcoming grace S = Sovereign grace S = Sovereign grace E = Eternal life E = Eternal life S = Singular redemption S = Singular redemption Slide 17 Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) The Anabaptist (Baptize again) movement in Switzerland was at first allied with Zwinglis movement because he supported believers baptism after faith and confession of Christ. Zwingli had felt his movement needed the support of civil authorities who favored infant baptism and so he agreedto promote it but not for salvation purposes. The Anabaptist (Baptize again) movement in Switzerland was at first allied with Zwinglis movement because he supported believers baptism after faith and confession of Christ. Zwingli had felt his movement needed the support of civil authorities who favored infant baptism and so he agreedto promote it but not for salvation purposes. Slide 18 Amish (plain people) The Swiss Brethren in Zurich came out of the Grebel Manz movement and is that to which the Amish in Pennsylvania trace their heritage. Slide 19 Menno Simons (1496-1561) The Mennonites (Brethren) in Holland and Northern Germany were founded by Menno Simons (1496-1561) a refugee from the Anabaptists who favored a pacifist position in opposition to civil disorder and rebellions of the Munster variety. The Mennonites were granted religious freedom in 1676. Slide 20 Jacob Hutter (1500-1536) The Hutterites practiced a communal form of agrarian (natural) New Testament living in Moravia under the leadership of Jacob Hutter. Slide 21 The Anabaptists greatest contributions: determining doctrine and Church practice based on the standard of the Scriptures. determining doctrine and Church practice based on the standard of the Scriptures. requiring baptism of adults. requiring baptism of adults. insisting on the total separation of Church and State. insisting on the total separation of Church and State. demanding a lifestyle of discipleship to balance doctrine and formal worship. demanding a lifestyle of discipleship to balance doctrine and formal worship. Slide 22 Anabaptist contributions (continued) practicing love (which for some led to pacifism and communal living). practicing love (which for some led to pacifism and communal living). a congregational view of Church government with the members making decisions. a congregational view of Church government with the members making decisions. freedom to decide personally what to believe and to join with others of like faith. freedom to decide personally what to believe and to join with others of like faith. Slide 23 Table Discussion What is our role as citizens in a free country to help fellow believers who are being persecuted around the world? What is our role as citizens in a free country to help fellow believers who are being persecuted around the world? What are some ideas to help them? What are some ideas to help them? Slide 24 Henry VIII (1491-1547) The Anglican Reform under Henry VIII was a struggle for supremacy between the King of England and the Pope, out of which came the Church of England. This was primarily a political reformation. Slide 25 Location of The Battle of Hastings in England England had been exposed to Christianity at an early date but by 664 A.D. Roman Catholicism was dominant. Beginning in 1066 A.D. when William of Normandy defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, the defiant attitude of English Kings toward the Pope was clearly established. England had been exposed to Christianity at an early date but by 664 A.D. Roman Catholicism was dominant. Beginning in 1066 A.D. when William of Normandy defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, the defiant attitude of English Kings toward the Pope was clearly established. Slide 26 The Latin Vulgate The Reform movement was also aided by English translations of the Bible which put the Scriptures into the hands of the common people who could now see for themselves that where the Latin Catholic Bible (Vulgate) had do penance, the accurate translation of the Greek word was repent. Slide 27 William Tyndal

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