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Solar PV Technologies

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Solar PV Technologies
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  • Solar PV Technologies: A Few Key Issues

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    Amitabh Verma, Ph.DVice President- Technology

    Solar Power Business

  • Outline Technology as profitability driver Importance of meteorological data Selection of modules for power plants Pros and cons of thin film modules Inverter choices for power plants Module layout options Concentration photovoltaic

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    Concentration photovoltaic Operation and Maintenance

    1

  • Profitability Through Design

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP 2

  • Comparison of Satellite and Ground Based Data

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    MOS is Model Output Statistics which takes into account

    ground based data and satellite data

    3

  • How Predictable is Year-To-Year Radiation Data?

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    Brightening Dimming Brightening

    Very few weather stations in the world have 40-50 years radiation data

    4

  • Measurement Uncertainty

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP 5

  • 34

    5

    6

    7

    8G

    H

    I

    (

    k

    W

    h

    /

    m

    2

    /

    d

    a

    y

    )

    MNRE NASA Meteonorm

    Global Horizontal Incidence (GHI) for Jodhpur

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    0

    1

    2

    Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    Months

    NASA data is based on Satellite Imaging

    Meteonorm is based on Satellite Imaging and weather station MNRE is based on weather station NASA was different than MNRE and Meteonorm in ANOVA analysis

    6

  • 20

    25

    30

    35

    40

    A

    m

    b

    i

    e

    n

    t

    t

    e

    m

    p

    .

    (

    o

    C

    )

    MNRE 24 h average MNRE day time average NASA 24 h average Meteonorm 24 h average

    Ambient Temperature for Jodhpur

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    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    Jan Feb Mar Apl May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

    A

    m

    b

    i

    e

    n

    t

    t

    e

    m

    p

    .

    (

    Months

    7

  • Variation of Plant Output with GHI and Ambient Temp.

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP 8

  • 1694

    1678

    1709

    1620

    1640

    1660

    1680

    1700

    1720E

    n

    e

    r

    g

    y

    O

    u

    t

    p

    u

    t

    (

    M

    W

    h

    )

    Plant Output per MWp Using Different Weather Data

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    1593

    1520

    1540

    1560

    1580

    1600

    MNRE-24 h MNRE-Day Temp NASA Meteonorm

    E

    n

    e

    r

    g

    y

    O

    u

    t

    p

    u

    t

    (

    M

    W

    h

    )

    Weather Data

    9

  • 18.5 18.3

    17.2

    18.7

    26.4 26

    23.4

    26.9

    20

    25

    30

    I

    R

    R

    (

    %

    )

    Project IRR (Pre-tax) Equity IRR (Pre-tax)

    Project Return

    CONFIDENTIALADITYA BIRLA GROUP

    0

    5

    10

    15

    MNRE-24 h MNRE-Day Temp NASA Meteonorm

    I

    R

    R

    (

    %

    )

    Weather data

    10

  • Uncertainty in Yield Calculation

    Parameters % Uncertainties Remarks

    Year-to-Year climate variability 4%

    Solar resource estimation in the

    horizontal plane5%

    This is due to variation in irradiance and

    temperature data

    Radiation in the plane of array 3%

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    Power rating of modules 3% Variability due to manufacturing

    Losses due to dirt 2%

    Other sources of error 5%The losses in inverter, cable and transformers

    have uncertainty

    Annual Uncertainty 8.4%

    Monte Carlo Simulation has to be done to calculate the probabilistic generation value

    11

  • Inverters

    Grid

    Schematic of MW Solar Park

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    AC Panel

    Inverters

    Combiner box with string monitoring , DC switch and Surge Protector

    AC Switch AC Ckt Breaker Step upTransformer

    Data Monitoring

    Power Socket

    S

    e

    n

    s

    o

    r

    12

  • 4.00%

    5.00%

    6.00%

    7.00%

    Total Loss Pareto

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    Near

    Shading

    on

    Global

    IAM

    Factor on

    Global

    Non-STC

    Operatio

    n

    Soiling

    DC Array

    Variabilit

    y

    Module

    Mismatc

    h

    DC Cable

    Loss

    Inverter

    Efficiency

    Inverter

    Limitatio

    n

    Inverter

    Cooling

    Data

    Acquisiti

    on & Aux

    MV

    Transfor

    mers

    AC Cable

    Loss

    HV

    Transfor

    mer

    Series1 1.60% 1.90% 6.10% 3.00% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 1.62% 0.09% 0.41% 0.12% 1.06% 1.00% 0.47%

    0.00%

    1.00%

    2.00%

    3.00%

    Total loss to the tune of 22%

    13

  • Effect of Temperature on the Output

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  • Module Type Temp. Coeff.Module

    Efficiency (%)Tolerance

    Relative Module

    Price

    Mono-crystalline Silicon -0.41%/0C 14-20 3% 1.1

    Multi-crystalline silicon -0.46%/0C 13-18 3% 1.0

    Increasing

    Area

    Crystalline or Thin Film Module

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    Cadmium Telluride Thin

    Film-0.30%/0C 10-11 5% 0.90

    Micromorph Silicon -0.25%/0 C 6-7 5% 0.75

    Amorphous Silicon Thin

    Film (Single Junction)-0.18%/0 C 5-6 5% 0.70

    15

  • Cd-Te Module Multi-crystalline Module

    I-V Characteristic of Modules

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    Mono-crystalline Module Amorphous Silicon Module

    16

  • Visual Identification of Different Modules

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    Mono-Crystalline Multi-Crystalline Amorphous Si Cadmium Telluride

    17

  • Module Type

    Module

    Wattage

    (Wp)

    No. of

    Modules

    No. of

    Modules in

    series

    No. of

    Strings

    Total Module

    Area

    Annual

    Energy

    (kWh)

    Excess

    Energy

    Compared

    to Multi-

    crystalline Si

    PR

    SunPower 210 23184 18 1323 29627 8847762 0.88% 77.7

    Mono-

    Crystalline 210 23805 15 1587 39629 8806077 0.40% 77.4

    5 MWp Plant Design with Different Modules

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    Crystalline

    silicon

    210 23805 15 1587 39629 8806077 0.40% 77.4

    Multi-

    Crystalline

    Silicon

    21023805 23 1035 38025 8770840 0 77.1

    Cd-Te 80 62946 9 6944 44997 8954308 2.1% 78.7

    Micromorph

    Silicon445 11235 3 3745 64264 9033976 3.0% 79.4

    Location: Rajasthan and Central Inverter. All other parameters being same

    18

  • Degradation rate

    Reliability Area available

    O&M cost

    Bankability Installation cost

    BoS cost such as structure,

    Module TypeDegradation

    Rate (%/Year)Exposure Year

    Mono-crystalline

    Silicon0.30 8

    Multi-Crystalline

    Miscellaneous Considerations for Module Selection

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    BoS cost such as structure, cable and string monitor

    As per a study by Sandia lab

    the module replacement ratefor crystalline module is 0.05%

    and for thin films approx. 1%

    Multi-Crystalline

    Silicon0.5 9

    Amorphous

    Silicon0.7-1.4 7-12

    Cd-Te 0.70 10

    19

  • Around 65% of Non-Module Costs Scale with Module Efficiency

    65%

    35%100%

    (Rs.40/Wp)

    Halving efficiency

    increases non-module costs by 65% and module costs must decrease correspondingly to

    maintain competitiveness on a systems level

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    systems level

    Efficiency

    dependent non-

    module

    costs

    Efficiency

    independent non-module

    costs

    Total non-

    module cost

    20

  • c-Si reference

    module12.8%

    Nominal module

    efficiency (%)Normalized module

    efficiency (%)Yield at

    Rajasthan(kWh/kWp)

    176212.8%

    Thin Film Vs Crystalline Silicon

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    Micromorph Si thin

    film module 7.8% 1807 8.0%

    Taking into account Rajasthan irradiation and

    temperature statistics, the normalized efficiency of a micromorph thin film module is 8% vs.

    12.8.0% for a c-Si module

    21

  • Entitlement of Thin Film Module Cost TakingCrystalline Silicon System Cost as Reference

    Rs.120/Wp Rs.14/Wp

    Rs.41.6/Wp

    26x(12.8/8.0)

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    Rs.64.4/Wp

    Efficiency

    dependent non-

    module costs

    Deduced thin

    film Si module

    price

    Efficiency

    independent

    non-module

    costs

    Total systems

    cost

    Thin film module shall be20% cheaper than

    Crystalline silicon moduleso as to meet the system

    level cost.

    22

  • Choice of Inverters

    Maximize efficiency and performance

    Maximize reliability and durability Leverage scale of mass produced AC components Easy to install Special training not required for installation Less risk/hazard

    Inverter CTQs

    + A large number of power pointtrackers improve the yield

    + High DC system voltage range

    + Inverter integrated withmodule

    + Module level MPPT

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    Central Inverter String Inverter Micro-inverter

    and Three phase is now possible

    in

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