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Solvay Process

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Solvay Process Jonathan Bauer Keith Sager Uche Onyewuenyi Lam Nguyen
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Page 1: Solvay Process

Solvay Process

Jonathan Bauer

Keith Sager

Uche Onyewuenyi

Lam Nguyen

Page 2: Solvay Process

Background

Developed by Ernest Solvay in the 1860s

Worldwide production in 2005 was 42 billion kilograms

Equivalent to 13 lbs per person per year

Raw materials are salt brine and limestone from mines

In 1884 the Solvay Brothers (Ernest and Alfred) created a joint venture to in the United States called the Solvay Process Company

There are no more solvay processing plants in North America

Natural deposits of trona (Na3(CO3)(HCO3)·2H2O) are cheaper

Page 3: Solvay Process

Applications of Soda Ash

Glass making

Soda-lime glass

Cheaper, can be re-softened and re-melted

Good for recycling

Soap and Detergent

Cheaper alternative to lye (NaOH)

Common alkali in many chemical factories

Page 4: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 5: Solvay Process

Kiln

Temperature = 950 – 1100°CCaCO3

CaOCO2

Page 6: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 7: Solvay Process

Ammonia Absorber

No reaction takes place

Ammonia mixes with brine

Mushroom shape baffles

Controls flow of brine for proper mixing and saturation

Brine

NH3

Ammonia and Brine

Page 8: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 9: Solvay Process

Solvay Tower

Temperature is 0°C

Mushroom baffle plates

Breaks up CO2

Controls flow through tower

Lower part of tower is cooled because reaction is exothermic

Vacuum filter at tower bottom

NH4Cl

NaHCO3

Page 10: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 11: Solvay Process

Water Bed

Calcium oxide comes from kiln

Calcium hydroxide is sent to ammonia recovery tower

Page 12: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 13: Solvay Process

Ammonia Recovery Tower

Overall reaction for water bed and recovery tower

CaCl2 and H2O fall out bottom of tower

Temperature is 100°C

Ca(OH)2

NH4ClNH3

Page 14: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 15: Solvay Process

Heater (Calcifier)

Rotary heater at 300°C

Carbon dioxide is recirculated with kiln product and sent to solvay tower

Final product is recovered as a solid

NaHCO3

Na2CO3

CO2

Page 16: Solvay Process

BRINE

CO2

CaCO3

NaH

CO3

Na2CO3

CaONH4Cl

NH

3

AMMONIA BRINE

Ca(OH

)2

AMMONIA ABSORBER SOLVAY

TOWER

KILN

WATER BED

AMMONIA RECOVERY

TOWERHEATER

Page 17: Solvay Process

Chemical Reactions Summary

Page 18: Solvay Process

Thermodynamics

Overall Process

Reaction 1

Reaction 2

Reaction 3

Reaction 4

Page 19: Solvay Process

Questions?


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