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Spira Penta Orbis

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METHODOLOGY RESEARCH

THE RELATIONSHIP OF DRINKING BEERAND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASEIN MEN AGED 30 TO 40 YEARS OLD. (Spira Penta Orbis 9th Nov 2011)

GROUP 1

NAMENIM

Fawza Nabila FaudziC11110858

Ahmad Farhan HasbiC11110869

Mohamad Luqman Hadi bin IsmailC11110880

Mohamad Fareez Hairi Mohd SaupiC11110846

Gadis M.P Randa C11110801

Luke Michael C11110835

Miftah Farid AsmaunC11110812

Ahmad NurFakhriC11110823

METHODOLOGY RESEARCH, DEPT OF PATHOLOGY ANATOMYFACULTY OF MEDICINEUNIVERSITY OF HASANUDDIN2011RESEARCH TITLE: THE RELATIONSHIP OF DRINKING BEER AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN MEN AGED 30 TO 40 YEARS OLD.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS:1. What is the importance of this research study?2. What is the effect of drinking beer to coronary artery disease?3. Is there any difference between low/moderate beer drinker and high beer drinker towards risk of coronary artery disease?4. What are the contents of beer that can cause coronary artery disease?5. What is coronary artery disease?6. Is there any scientific evidence to prove this research study?

FOX LION PHENOMENON:The fox: Amount of beer consumed per dayThe lion: Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Smoking In our research study, the lion will be chased out as this will affect the final results of our research study.

VARIABLES:a) Independent variable: Amount of beer consumed per dayb) Dependent variable: Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD)c) Controlled variable : Hypertension, Diabetes, Dyslipidemia, Smoking (EXCLUDE)

EXCLUSION AND INCLUSION CRITERIA:a) Inclusion criteria: We only include samples that are men and their age is between 30 to 40 years old. b) Exclusion criteria: Exclusion criteria is the confounding factor. In this case, the confounding factor or the thing that should be exclude are samples that smoking, samples that have diabetes, samples that have dyslipidemia and samples that have hypertension. The major risk factors of CAD are high level LDL in blood, hypertension, smoking and others.[footnoteRef:1] So, if we do not exclude these factors, it will affect the final results of this research study. [1: S.GORINSTEIN et al. Moderate beer consumption and the blood coagulation in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Internal Medicine 241: 47-51, 1997]

OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONa) Heavy beer drinkerHeavy drinking indicates usual intake of more than 3 drinks per day of wine, liquor or beer. In absolute terms, amount of pure alcohol consumed >30g/day are considered as heavy drinking [footnoteRef:2] [2: DHARAM PA. Cardioprotective Effects of Light Moderate Consumption of Alcohol: A Review of Putative Mechanisms. Alcohol & Alcoholism 37: 409-415, 2002]

b) Moderate beer drinker The recommended daily limits for moderate alcohol consumption are no more than two drinks for men or one drink for women per day [footnoteRef:3] [3: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 2006. Young Adult Drinking. ]

c) Coronary artery disease (CAD)Risk of coronary artery disease is measured using exercise cardiac stress test (ECST).A positivetest was defined as horizontal and segmental ST depression or elevation of 0.1 mV .[footnoteRef:4] [4: ALAN GB, VICTOR SB, ROBERT HP, EDWARD SO, YIHONG K: Graded Exercise Stress Tests in Angiographically Documented Coronary Artery Disease. Circulation 49: 348-356, 1974]

SPIRAL PENTA ORBIS APPROACH 1. Construct Conceptual Writing Framework Coronary Artery Disease(CAD)

High beer drinking(>3 glass/day)

2. Explore the Dynamic Potential of Each Variable

Beera) Beer contains alcohol

Whenever available, we extracted information on amount of alcohol consumed, using grams of alcohol per day as the common unit of measure. When a study did not specifically report the grams of alcohol per unit, we used 12.5 g/drink for analysis. We standardized portions as a 12 oz (355ml) bottle or can of beer, a 5 oz (148 ml) glass of wine, and 1.5 oz (44 ml) glass of 80 proof (40% alcohol) distilled spirits. Volume of intake was categorized as 3 glass/day) [3]

[3]Diabetes MellitusCirculating adipokine level elevatedInsulin resistanceHigh amount of MALTOSEDyslipidemiaTNF- is released in greater quantitiesObese Increased source of carbohydrateHigh amount of BARLEY

Relationship linkageConfounding factorThe correct experimental pathway

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METHODOLOGY RESEARCH THE RELATIONSHIP OF DRINKING BEER AND CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE IN MEN AGED 30 TO 40 YEARS OLD. (Spira Penta Orbis – 9 th Nov 2011) GROUP 1 NAME NIM Fawza Nabila Faudzi C11110858 Ahmad Farhan Hasbi C11110869 Mohamad Luqman Hadi bin Ismail C11110880 Mohamad Fareez Hairi Mohd Saupi C11110846 Gadis M.P Randa C11110801 Luke Michael C11110835 Miftah Farid Asmaun C11110812 Ahmad NurFakhri C11110823
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