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States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level...

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States of Consciousness
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Page 1: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

States of Consciousness

Page 2: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Levels of Consciousness

We know that various levels exists beyond the conscious level.

• Mere-exposure effect

• Priming

• Blind sight

Taiwanese Letter Example

Page 3: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Levels of Consciousness

• Conscious Level

• Nonconscious Level

• Preconscious Level

• Subconscious Level

• Unconscious Level

Page 4: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Sleep• Sleep is a state of

consciousness.

• We are less aware of our surroundings.

• Circadian Rhythm

Page 5: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Sleep Cycle

• Use an EEG machine to measure stages of sleep.

• When you are the onset of sleep you experience alpha waves.

• Produces mild hallucinations, like a feeling of falling.

Click dude for alphaWaves.

Click to see an awake brain.

Page 6: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Stage 1

• Kind of awake and kind of asleep.

• Only lasts a few minutes, and you usually only experience it once a night.

• Your brain produces Theta Waves.

Click the couple to see Theta Waves

Page 7: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Stage 2

• More Theta Waves that get progressively slower.

• Begin to show sleep spindles…shortbursts of rapid brain waves.

Click image to see Stage Two of sleep.

Page 8: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Stages 3 and 4

• Slow wave sleep.

• You produce Delta waves.

• If awoken you will be very groggy.

• Vital for restoring body’s growth hormones and good overall health.

Click boys to see deep sleep.

From stage 4, your brain begins to speed up and you go to stage 3, then 2….then ……

Page 9: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

REM Sleep

• Rapid Eye Movement

• Often called paradoxical sleep.

• Brain is very active.

• Dreams usually occur in REM.

• Body is essentially paralyzed.

• REM Rebound

Click boy dreaming to see REM sleep.

Page 10: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Sleep Disorders

Page 11: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Insomnia

• Persistent problems falling asleep

• Effects 10% of the population

• Primary versus Secondary Insomnia

Page 12: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Narcolepsy

• Suffer from sleeplessness and may fall asleep at unpredictable or inappropriate times.

• Directly into REM sleep

• Less than .001 % of population.

Click above to see Skeeter the narcoleptic dog.

Page 13: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Sleep Apnea• A person stops

breathing during their sleep.

• Wake up momentarily, gasps for air, then falls back asleep.

• Very common, especially in heavy males.

• Can be fatal.

Page 14: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Night Terrors

• Wake up screaming and have no idea why.

• Not a nightmare.

• Most common in children (boys) between ages 2-8.

Page 15: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Somnambulism

• Sleep Walking• Most often occurs

during the first few hours of sleeping and in stage 4 (deep sleep).

• If you have had night terrors, you are more likely to sleep walk when older.

Page 16: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Dreams

Page 17: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Freud’s Theory of Dreams

• Dreams are a roadway into our unconscious.

• Manifest Content (storyline)

• Latent Content (underlying meaning)

Page 18: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Activation-Synthesis Theory

• Our Cerebral Cortex is trying to interpret random electrical activity we have while sleeping.

• That is why dreams sometimes make no sense.

• Biological Theory.

Page 19: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Information-Processing Theory

• Dreams are a way to deal with the stresses of everyday life.

• We tend to dream more when we are more stressed.

Page 20: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Hypnosis

Page 21: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Hypnosis

• Altered state of consciousness?

• Posthypnotic suggestion

• Posthypnotic amnesia

Page 22: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Hypnotic Theories

Role Theory• Hypnosis is NOT an

altered state of consciousness.

• Different people have various state of hypnotic suggestibility.

• A social phenomenon where people want to believe.

• Work better on people with richer fantasy lives.

State Theory

• Hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

• Dramatic health benefits

• It works for pain best.

Page 23: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Dissociation Theory

• Theory by Ernest Hilgard.

• We voluntarily divide our consciousness up.

• Ice Water Experiment.

• We have a hidden observer, a level of us that is always aware.

Page 24: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Drugs

Page 25: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have
Page 26: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Drugs• Our brain is

protected by a layer of capillaries called the blood-brain barrier.

• The drugs that are small enough to pass through are called psychoactive drugs.

Page 27: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Drugs are either….

• Agonists• Antagonists• Reuptake inhibitorsIf a drug is used often,

a tolerance is created for the drug.

Thus you need more of the drug to feel the same effect.

If you stop using a drug you can develop withdrawal symptoms.

Page 28: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Stimulants• Speed up body

processes.

• More powerful ones (like cocaine) give people feelings of invincibility.

Page 29: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Depressants

• Slows down body processes.

• Alcohol

• Anxiolytics (barbiturates and tranquilizers)

Page 30: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Alcohol

• More than 86 billion dollars are spent annually on alcoholic beverages.

• Alcohol is involved in 60% of ALL crimes.

• Alcohol is involved in over 70% of sexually related crimes.

• Is it worth the cost?

Page 31: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Hallucinogens

• Psychedelics• Causes changes in

perceptions of reality

• LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms and marijuana.

• Reverse tolerance or synergistic effect

Page 32: States of Consciousness · States of Consciousness. ... Levels of Consciousness •Conscious Level ... altered state of consciousness. • Different people have

Opiates

• Has depressive and hallucinogenic qualities.

• Agonist for endorphins.

• Derived from poppy plant.

• Morphine, heroin, methadone and codeine.

• All these drugs cross the placental barrier….teratogens.


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