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States of Consciousness. Waking Consciousness Consciousness our awareness of ourselves and our...

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States of Consciousness
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States of Consciousness

Waking Consciousness

Consciousnessour awareness of ourselves and our environments

Sleep and Dreams Biological Rhythms

periodic physiological fluctuations Circadian Rhythm

the biological clock regular bodily rhythms that occur

on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature

Sleep and Dreams REM (Rapid Eye Movement) Sleep

recurring sleep stage vivid dreams “paradoxical sleep”

muscles are generally relaxed, but other body systems are active

Sleep periodic, natural, reversible loss

of consciousness

Sleep and Dreams Measuring sleep activity

Brain Waves and Sleep Stages

Alpha Waves slow waves of a

relaxed, awake brain

Delta Waves large, slow waves

of deep sleep Hallucinations

false sensory experiences

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4

3

2

1

Sleepstages

Awake

Hours of sleep

REM

Stages in a Typical Night’s Sleep

Hours of sleep

Minutesof Stage 4 and REM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 80

10

15

20

25

5

Decreasing Stage 4

Increasing REM

Sleep Deprivation

Effects of Sleep Loss fatigue impaired

concentration depressed

immune system greater

vulnerability to accidents

Sleep Deprivation

2,400

2,700

2,600

2,500

2,800

Spring time change(hour sleep loss)

3,600

4,200

4000

3,800

Fall time change(hour sleep gained)

Less sleep,more accidents

More sleep,fewer accidents

Monday before time change Monday after time change

Accident frequency

Sleep Disorders Insomnia

persistent problems in falling or staying asleep

Narcolepsy uncontrollable sleep attacks

Sleep Apnea temporary cessation of

breathing momentary re-awakenings

Night Terrors and Nightmares

Night Terrors occur within 2

or 3 hours of falling asleep, usually during Stage 4

high arousal-- appearance of being terrified

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4

3

2

1

Sleepstages

Awake

Hours of sleep

REM

Dreams: Freud Dreams

sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts passing through a sleeping person’s mind

hallucinatory imagery discontinuities incongruities delusional acceptance of the content difficulties remembering

Dreams: Freud Sigmund Freud--The Interpretation of

Dreams (1900) wish fulfillment discharge otherwise unacceptable

feelings Manifest Content

remembered story line Latent Content

underlying meaning

Dreams

As Information Processinghelps facilitate memories

REM ReboundREM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation

Early Beliefs Dreams were believed to be omens from God or the gods

Sigmund Freud Dreams are the Royal Road to the unconscious and a place for Wish fulfillment.

Carl Jung Dreams are an expression of the personal unconscious through the archetypes of the collective unconscious.

Alfred Adler Dreams were a way of addressing our insecurities. In a dream we can safely face things that would otherwise scare us.

Calvin Hall Dreams contain maps which the dreamer follows to anticipate difficulties and obstacles. He also thought that meaningful predictions can be made about the dreamer's behavior and lifestyle

Edgar Cayce Through dreaming, people are given access to their spirit, and further, that all possible questions could be answered from the inner consciousness given the proper awareness

Ann Faraday Dreams are warnings of something about to happen

Allan Hobson /Robert McCarley

Dreaming is a simple and unimportant by-product of random stimulation of brain cells activated during REM sleep.

Francis Crick/Mitchinson

Dreaming is like a computer in that it was "off-line" during dreaming. During this phase, the brain supposedly sifts through information gathered throughout the day and throws out all unwanted material.

Sleep Across the Lifespan

Hypnosisa social interaction in which one person (the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors will spontaneously occur

Posthypnotic Amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis

induced by the hypnotist’s suggestion

Hypnosis

Unhypnotized persons can also do this

Hypnosis

Orne & Evans (1965)control group instructed to “pretend”

unhypnotized subjects performed the same acts as the hypnotized ones

Hypnosis

Posthypnotic Suggestion suggestion to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized

used by some clinicians to control undesired symptoms and behaviors

Hypnosis Dissociation

a split in consciousness allows some thoughts and

behaviors to occur simultaneously with others

Hidden Observer Hilgard’s term describing a

hypnotized subject’s awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis

Explaining Hypnosis

Near-Death Experiences

Near-Death Experience an altered state of

consciousness reported after a close brush with death

often similar to drug-induced hallucinations

Near-Death Experiences

Dualism the presumption that mind and body are two distinct entities that interact

Monism the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing

Drugs and Consciousness Psychoactive Drug

a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood

Physical Dependence physiological need for a drug,

marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms

Psychological Dependence a psychological need to use a drug

Dependence and Addiction

Tolerance diminishing

effect with regular use

Withdrawal discomfort and

distress that follow discontinued use

Small Large

Drug dose

Littleeffect

Bigeffect

Drugeffect

Response tofirst exposure

After repeatedexposure, moredrug is neededto produce same effect

Psychoactive Drugs Depressants

drugs that reduce neural activity slow body functions

alcohol, barbiturates, opiates Stimulants

drugs that excite neural activity speed up body functions

caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine

Psychoactive Drugs

Hallucinogenspsychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory inputLSD

Psychoactive Drugs

Barbituratesdrugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement

Psychoactive Drugs

Opiatesopium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)

opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety

Psychoactive Drugs

Amphetaminesdrugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded-up body functions and associated energy and mood changes

Cocaine Euphoria and Crash

Psychoactive Drugs

Ecstasy (MDMA) synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen

both short-term and long-term health risks

THC the major active ingredient in marijuana

triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations

Psychoactive Drugs

LSD lysergic acid diethylamidea powerful hallucinogenic drugalso known as acid

Psychoactive Drugs

Trends in Drug Use

1975 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99Year

80%

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

High schoolseniors

reportingdrug use

Alcohol

Marijuana/hashish

Cocaine

Perceived Marijuana Risk

‘75 ‘77 ‘79 ‘81 ‘83 ‘85 ‘87 ‘89 ‘91 ‘93 ‘95 ‘97 ‘99Year

100%

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

Percentof

twelfthgraders

Perceived “great risk ofharm” in marijuana use

Used marijuana


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