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  • AsphaltPavementRecyclingwithReclaimedAsphaltPavement(RAP)

    StephenJ.Cooper

    FederalHighwayAdministration

    NWPMA,18th AnnualFallPavementConference

    October20,2011

    Portland,OR

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    Acknowledgements

    Contact Information:Contact Information:Audrey CopelandAudrey Copeland

    Turner Fairbank Highway Research CenterTurner Fairbank Highway Research CenterEmail: Email: [email protected]@dot.gov

    Phone: 202.493.3097Phone: 202.493.3097

    John BukowskiJohn BukowskiOffice of InfrastructureOffice of Infrastructure

    Email: Email: [email protected]@dot.govPhone: 202.366.1287Phone: 202.366.1287

    www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/rap

  • Whatweregoingtotalkabout

    RecycledMaterialsand

    theValueofRAP

    StateofthePractice

    Howfarhavewecome?

    NationalEfforttoIncrease

    RAP

    LongtermPavementPerformanceofRAPMixtures

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    WhatisRAP? ReclaimedAsphaltPavement

    Removedand/or

    reprocessedpavement

    materialscontaining:

    ~binder(5%)

    ~aggregates(95%)

    HighRAPis>25%by

    weightofmix.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup5

    FHWARecycledMaterialsPolicy

    Recycled/ReUsematerialsareviableresources Recycledmaterialsshouldget1st consideration Consideruseofrecycledmaterialsearlyintheplanning/designprocess

    Economicbenefitsshouldbeconsideredinthematerialselectionprocess

    Restrictingtheuseofmaterialsshouldbetechnicallybased

    Materialshouldnotadverselyimpacttheenvironmentandshouldperformasintended

  • TheultimatevalueofRAPisinitsuse:

    RAPasaroadbed/basematerial Roughlyequaltogranularbasewithsomeadditionalvalue

    RAPinnewpavement Replacesportionofexpensivevirginbinderandaggregate

    Virginaggregate+asphaltvalue costs

    6

  • UseofRecyclePavementintheUseofRecyclePavementintheUnitedStatesUnitedStates

    1925..01970..01976..3%198085.15% (some 50%)2000..15%2010..25-30% (some 50%)

  • WhyRecycleAsphalt? PavementBenefits

    EconomicPayoff

    EnergySavings

    NaturalResourceConservation

    Milling (Cold Planing) of an Asphalt Pavement

  • PavementBenefitsMilling

    Removescrackedandagedpavementlayers

    Improvespavementsmoothnessandcrossslopes

    Maintainscurbheights,drainageinlets,andbridgeclearances

    Createsaroughtexturethatbondsbetterwiththeoverlay

  • EconomicsofHMARecycling

  • 11

    AsphaltProductionCostCategories

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    90

    100

    Material Plant Production Trucking Lay Down

    Perc

    ent (

    %) o

    f Cos

    t

    Greatest Potential for Cost Savings isin the Materials Category

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    Materialssavingswilldependon...

    Virginbindercost

    Asphaltcontentofthemixdesign

    Aggregatecost

    RAPcost

    AsphaltcontentoftheRAP

    PercentageofRAP

    12

  • 13

    ReportedAsphaltTons

    NAPA 1010 Survey

  • AsphaltBinderPricesSource:CTDOT

    14

  • RecyclingEconomicsExample

    Aggregate:$10.00/ton

    Asphalt:$500.00/ton

    MixDesignACContent:5.0%

    $10x.95=$9.50

    $500x.05=$25.00

    TotalMix$34.50

  • RecyclingEconomicsExample Aggregate:$10.00/ton Asphalt:$500.00/ton RAP:$6.00/ton(5%ACinRAP) MixDesign

    ACContent:5.0% RAPcontent20%(19%rock,1%AC)

    $10.00x.76=$7.60$500.00x.04=$20.00$6.00x.20=$1.20TotalMix$28.80

  • RecyclingEconomicsExample

    VirginMix:$34.50/ton

    RecycledMix:$28.80/ton

    @20%RAP:Savings=16.5%

  • EnergySavings

  • EnergyConsumptionRelatedtoRoadConstructionandMaint.

    MJ/tonne

    Source: The Environmental Road of the Future, Life Cycle Cost Analysis, Chappat and Bilal, Colas Group 2003, p.34

  • NaturalResourceConservation

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup21

    NaturalResourceConservation

    Less and Less Quality Aggregates

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

  • StateofthePractice

  • FHWARAPinAsphaltMixtures:StateofthePractice

    24

  • StateofDeployment2009ReclaimedAsphaltPavement

    States that Permitmore than 25% RAP

    States that Usemore than 20% RAP

    Over 80% State DOTs permitted high RAP (> 25%) in the intermediate and surface layers.

    About 42% actually used more than 20% RAP in the intermediate and surface layers.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    Howfarhavewecome In2007

    Over60%StateDOTspermitted highRAP(>25%)intheintermediateandsurfacelayers.

    About25%actuallyused highRAPintheintermediateandsurfacelayers.

    Theaverageasphaltmixtureuses12%RAP.

    Since2007 21Stateshaveincreased

    amountofRAPpermitted

    23StatesnowhaveexperiencewithhighRAPmixes

    11StateshaveexperiencewithhighRAPandWarmMixAsphaltmixes

  • RAP

    NNAPA 2010 Survey

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    So,whydoes

  • OtherRoadblocks

    Presenceofdust

    Consistency/variability

    ofRAP

    LackofQualityControl(QC)bycontractor

    Durability,especiallyinthesurfacelayers Raveling

    29

  • 30

    CurrentGuidelines

    AASHTOM323 StandardSpecificationforSuperpaveTM VolumetricMixDesign

    BasedonsignificantblendingbetweenvirginandRAPbinder Effectsofplantproductionunknown Callsforvirginbindersthatmaybemoreexpensive,hardtoget Blendingchartanalysisistimeconsuming!

    Recommended Virgin Asphalt Binder GradeRecommended Virgin Asphalt Binder Grade Percent (%) RAPPercent (%) RAPNo change in binder selectionNo change in binder selection < 15< 15Select virgin binder grade one Select virgin binder grade one gradegrade softer than softer than normalnormal 15 15 2525

    Follow recommendations from blending chartsFollow recommendations from blending charts > 25> 25

  • NationalEfforttoIncreaseRAPUse

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    NationalEffort

    Public&IndustryWorkingGroups

    FundedCoordinatedResearchandDemonstrationProjects NCHRPProjects

    CooperativeAgreements

    MobileTestingLaboratories

    TurnerFairbankHighwayResearchCenterLabs

    ResearchDeployment&TechnologyTransferforDisseminationandEducation WorkshopsandSymposiums

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    HMA Asphalt Pavement Recycling HMA Asphalt Pavement Recycling Expert Task GroupExpert Task Group

    Advance the use of RAP & RAS in Advance the use of RAP & RAS in asphalt paving applications by asphalt paving applications by providing highway agencies with providing highway agencies with critical information regarding the use critical information regarding the use of RAP & RAS, technical guidance on of RAP & RAS, technical guidance on highhigh--RAP projects, and direction on RAP projects, and direction on research activities.research activities.

    The members consist of representatives The members consist of representatives from highway agencies, industry, and from highway agencies, industry, and academiaacademia..

    Website: www.moreRAP.us

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup3434

    High RAP Mix DesignHigh RAP Mix Design

    NCHRP946MixDesignandEvaluationProcedureforHighReclaimedAsphaltPavementContentinHotMixAsphalt

    Objective:Develop mix design method and specification for HMA containing up to50% RAP.

  • Summaryofongoingresearch ExperienceanddatasupportstheproperuseofhighRAPcanprovidesimilarorbetterperformancethanvirginmixes,butavailableplantandfielddataissporadic.

    OngoingresearchresultsindicatehighRAPuseispossiblewithoutadverselyaffectingperformance.

    Morestudiesareneededwithemphasisonplantmixturesandfieldperformance.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup3636

    IncreasingRAPUse

    Thequestionwereposing

    HowmuchRAPcanweallowinthemixandmeetspecificationandconstructabilityrequirements?

    Biggestimpactcanbemadeinprocessingandproduction.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup37

    IssuestoConsiderwhenIncreasingRAP

    AdditionalProcessing&QualityControl(QC) MillIntelligently ProcessingRAP StockpileManagement

    CharacterizingRAP

    ChangingBinderGrade

    MixDesign

    Blending/CominglingofVirginandRAPBinder

    Performance

  • LongTermPavementPerformanceofRAPMixtures

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup39

    SPS5ProjectLocations

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    EvaluatingRAPPerformance

    LongTermPavementPerformanceSPS5sections 18U.S.statesandCanadianprovidences

    Atleast30%RAP

    Milledandnonmilledsurface

    50and125mmthick

    Projectrangeinagefrom6to17years

  • Long-Term Performance of RAP in HMA

    CA

    AZ

    CO

    NM

    TX

    OK AR

    LA

    MO KY

    AL GA

    FL

    VA

    OH

    MI

    VTAK

    MT

    NV

    MEWA

    OR

    UTKS

    IDWY

    ND

    SD

    MN

    NE

    WI

    IAIL IN

    MS

    TNSC

    NC

    WV

    PA

    NY

    CTNJDEMD

    DC

    MANH

    PR

    HI

    RI

    No significant difference in performance of virgin and recycled pavement sections.

    Well-designed pavement with high RAP (35%) can perform well during life span.

    Average age of virgin mixes is 11 years.For 3050% RAP content, the average age ranges from 1013 years.

    in all 3 environmental zones, long term performance of RAP likely to be comparable to other treatments.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroupat Auburn University

    42

    Fatigue Cracking

    29%

    10%61%

    Virgin performedsignificantly betterthan RAP

    RAP performedsignificantly betterthan Virgin

    Differencebetween Virginand RAPinsignificant

    Longitudinal Cracking

    15%

    10%

    75%

    Virgin performedsignificantly betterthan RAP

    RAP performedsignificantly betterthan Virgin

    Differencebetween Virginand RAPinsignificant

    Block Cracking

    3% 1%

    96%

    Virgin performedsignificantly betterthan RAP

    RAP performedsignificantly betterthan Virgin

    Differencebetween Virginand RAPinsignificant

    Raveling

    7%

    15%

    78%

    Virgin performedsignificantly betterthan RAP

    RAP performedsignificantly betterthan Virgin

    Differencebetween Virginand RAPinsignificant

    RAP Mix Performed As Well As or Significantly Better than Virgin Mix

    Fatigue Cracking 71%Longitudinal Cracking 85 %Block Cracking 97 %Raveling 93 %

    LTPPStudyResults

  • 43

    LongtermPerformanceofRAPPavements

    HighpercentagesofRAPhavesuccessfullybeenusedformorethan30years.

    Longtermperformanceofrecycledasphaltpavementsnotwelldocumented.

    RecycledasphaltmixturesdesignedusingestablishedmixdesignproceduresandproducedwithappropriateQC/QAmeasuresperformcomparablytoconventionalmixtures.

  • TNDOTVideo

  • 454545

    Thoughts

    ProbablythegreatestsingleupfrontcostsavingmeasureavailabletoUShighwayagenciestodayisincreasingtheuseofRAPintheconstructionandrehabilitationofasphaltpavements.

    ThemajorityofStateDOTsusebetween10and20%RAP,buthavepotentialtouseupto30%.

    ContractorscaneffectivelyuseRAPoftenandinhighamountswithprocessingandproductionbestpractices.

  • FHWARAPExpertTaskGroup

    Keep Moving ForwardKeep Moving Forward

    46

    Get out of my way Daddy, I dont need your help anymore!

    Get

  • Contact Information:Contact Information:

    Stephen J. CooperStephen J. CooperOffice of Technical Services (OTS)Office of Technical Services (OTS)

    FHWA Resource Center FHWA Resource Center -- BaltimoreBaltimore10 S. Howard Street, Baltimore, MD 2120110 S. Howard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201

    Email: Email: [email protected]@dot.govPhone: 443.257.7145Phone: 443.257.7145

    Thank You

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