Major Stressors That Affect the Academic Aspect of Freshman Nursing Students in Lyceum of the Philippine University College students, especially freshmen, are a group particularly prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. They must adjust to being away from home for the first time, maintaining a high level of academic achievement, and adapting a new social environment. And college students, regardless of year in school, often deal with pressures related to finding a job or a potential life partner. These stressors do not cause anxiety or tension by themselves. Instead, stress results from the interaction between stressors and the individual's perception and reaction to those stressors. The amount of stress experienced may be influenced by the individual's ability to effectively cope with stressful events and situations. If stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness and nervousness, as well as sleeplessness and excessive worrying may result. It is important that stress intervention programs be designed to address stress of college students. However, in order to design an effective intervention, the stressors specific to college students must be determined (Wright, 2007). People define stress in many ways. They usually define it according to the events or situations that may occur in their life. Stress is defined as a mental or physical tension or strain. Stress is an individual phenomenon, unique to each person and setting (Hudd et al., 2000). Perlin (1985) has suggested that there are two major types of stressors: life events and chronic strains. Life events research considers the extent to which the accumulation of a series of experiences can create a stressful impact. Stress from chronic strain results in role overload; conflicting roles in an individuals life that produce competing, and potentially conflicting demands over time. There are many stressors that a freshmen student has to face especially now that the programs of a new curriculum. They are in the position of much higher demand and expectation of the profession. The purpose of this study is to determine what sources of stress are most prevalent among college students, and to examine the nature of this stressors.Failure to resolve student stress in the long run could have serious professional and personal consequences. The studys primary objective is to identify the sources of stress in undergraduate nursing students. The researchers want to assess whether there are any differences among students in terms of their year level of nursing school in their experience of stress sources and to determine the most and least common coping strategies used by these nursing students. By conducting this study, researchers, as present nursing students will develop the sense of management of their stress, so that they would not be vulnerable to this condition. It will also be beneficial to the College of nursing so that it will be a basis for proposing programs regarding the psychological aspect of their students and for the faculty to devise a plan of action to help students cope with their stresses.
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Objectives of the Study This study aims to determine the major stressor experience by the freshmen nursing students of the Lyceum of the Philippines University Batangas. It specifically will determine the following: 1) the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of gender, sibling position, and monthly income; 2) the major stressor that can affect the academic aspect of freshmen (3) the effect of stress in terms of physical, emotional, psychological and social; and 4) the significant relationship between the respondents profile variable and the sources and effects of their stress. Literature on Objective 1 Stress is a factor that happens to affect everyones life. Daily events in life can be stressful, such as getting up and going to work everyday or going to the grocery store to buy a meal. Stress can also be a factor in other areas in a persons life. Stress can affect a persons self-esteem in ways people would believe it would not. When a person is stressed most of the time the person focuses so much on the stressor such that he does not realize the stress he has may affect other aspect in his life. One setting that can affect a person causing him stress is college. The transition from living at home where your parents take care of your needs to living away from home where you are now responsible for yourself. This transition alone can be a very stressful event or situation. Stress can have devastating consequences in individual cases and there is some suggestion that personality variables may play a part in stress-susceptibility. In addition, research investigating the influence of age on stress and coping has produced conflicting results. Some researchers have argued that coping styles are consolidated during adolescence, while others have found age differences in the types of problems, differences in coping resources, and differences in coping strategies used by adolescents compared to adult samples. Although it is generally acknowledged that many students experience adjustment difficulties upon entering postsecondary education, the nature of stress and coping may be relative to students' ages and developmental levels. Therefore, the extent to which age may be an influence on students' experiences of emotional distress and coping remains a central issue for investigators of student adjustment (Arthur, 2005) Some gender differences also have been reported. Kleinke, Staneski, and Mason (2005) found that depressed male college students were more likely to suppress depressive responses through isolation and escape, whereas depressed female college students tended to engage in selfblame, distraction through television, emotional discharge through crying, and seeking help from other people. Males who scored low on depression measures used humor and
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ignored the stressful situation, whereas females who scored low on depression used more self-initiated coping such as cutting back activities and exercise. In the study of Nurse Education Today (2008) they examined reported stress in 12 areas commonly reported to cause stress to nursing students. A questionnaire was distributed to 110 third-year nursing students, and the results indicate that stress exists for students in both the clinical and academic aspects of the program. Financial constraints and academic-related concerns emerged as the most stressful areas for the students. A third of the students reported that relationships with teachers and staff on the ward cause some degree of stress. Factor analysis revealed that five factors emerged as sources of stress. Firstly, academic stress factors. The second and third components concern relationships, the former involving teaching-related staff, and the latter involving the clinical experience. The last two components suggest that finance and death of patients are independent sources of stress. Major restructuring is about to take place in nurse education in Ireland, with the introduction of degree preparation for all nursing students in 2002. It is imperative that those involved with nursing students, both in the clinical area and in education settings, take cognisance of the stress that current students face. Recommendations for educators include adequate support structures for clinical areas, preceptorship programmes and the availability of student counseling services. Literature on Objective 2 The dynamic relationship between the person and environment in stress perception and reaction is especially magnified in college students. The problems and situations encountered by college students may differ from those faced by their nonstudent peers. The environment in which college students live is quite different. While jobs outside of the university setting involve their own sources of stress, such as evaluation by superiors and striving for goals, the continuous evaluation that college students are subjected to, such as weekly tests and papers, is one which is not often seen by non-students. The pressure to earn good grades and to earn a degree is very high. Earning high grades is not the only source of stress for college students. Other potential sources of stress include excessive homework, unclear assignments, and uncomfortable classrooms. In addition to academic requirements, relations with faculty members and time pressures may also be sources of stress. Relationships with family and friends, eating and sleeping habits, and loneliness may affect some students adversely (Wright, 2007). Assessment of stress levels in college students is a topic often examined by researchers. This scale contains items that persist across time to create stress, such as interpersonal conflicts, self-esteem problems, and money problems. They evaluated these stressors in relation to how many times a student had to deal with them on a weekly basis. They found that in regard to chronic stress, first-year students scored higher than other students. Similar
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studies have examined sources of stress among both undergraduate and graduate student (Gadzella, 2004). While many specific events and situations have been implicated as stressors for college students, more research is needed to investigate the nature of these of these stressors for college students, and which stressors are most prevalent in college students lives. It is unclear whether most stressors result from interpersonal relationships or academics. In addition, research is needed to clarify whether these stressors are mostly daily hassles or major live events. When stress is perceived negatively or becomes