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    Study of Impact of Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) Project interventions on Students’

    Learning Outcomes

    A Project Sponsored

    by State Project Director (SSA) cum DSE,

    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Society, Chandigarh Administration.

    2016-17

    Dr. Jatinder Grover Principal Investigator, Associate Professor, Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh. Contact: 09855425672; 08427297000 Email:[email protected]: [email protected]

    Dr. Kanwalpreet Kaur, Co-investigator Assistant Professor, Institute of Educational Technology & Vocational Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh. Contact: 09814159535 Email: [email protected] [email protected]

    PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH.

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    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    The Department of Education, Panjab University Chandigarh has been

    assigned the research project entitled as ‘Study of Impact of Building as Learning

    Aid (BaLA) interventions on Students’ Learning Outcomes’ by the State Project

    Director (SSA) cum DSE, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Society, Chandigarh

    Administration.

    We are thankful to Sh. Rubinder Singh Brar, State Project Director (SSA)

    cum DSE, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Society, Chandigarh Administration for

    providing an opportunity to undertake this research study.

    We acknowledge the support extended by the Sh. Chanchal Singh,

    Deputy State Project Director, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Society, Chandigarh

    Administration from time to time to complete the work. We are also thankful to the

    Ms. Rajni Mahajan, State Pedagogy Coordinator, Chandigarh Administration for

    support and cooperation to timely complete the work.

    Our heartfelt thanks are due to the all the Principals, teachers and

    students of schools who participated in the study for their active support and

    cooperation to the field investigators in collecting the data and for providing

    relevant information.

    We extremely thankful to the Vice- Chancellor; the Registrar; Chairperson,

    Department of Education; and Chief-Coordinator, Institute of Educational

    Technology and Vocational Education; Panjab University, Chandigarh for allowing

    us to carry on this project of contemporary relevance and document the facts for

    public knowledge.

    We are grateful to all the field investigators and research scholars who

    have helped a lot to complete this work in time.

    (Jatinder Grover) (Kanwalpreet Kaur)

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    CONTENTS

    Chapters Contents Page No. Acknowledgement 1 Chapter- I Building as Learning Aid Scheme: A Glance 3 - 19

    1.1. Introduction 3

    1.2 Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) 4

    1.3 Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009 5

    1.4 Current Status of Elementary Education in India 6

    1.5 Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) 8

    1.6 BaLA – its Roots and the spread in India 11

    1.7 Development of BaLA Concepts in Schools 13

    1.8 Elements of BaLA Scheme 15

    1.9 Significance of BaLA Scheme: 17

    Chapter - II Method and Procedure of Study 20 - 27

    2.1. Objectives of the Study 20

    2.2. Method of Study 20

    2.3 Area and Sample of Study: 21

    2.4 Tools used for the Study

    2.4.1. Achievement Test for Grade-III Students:

    2.4.2 Achievement Test for Grade-IV and V

    Students

    22

    2.5 Procedure of the Study 26 Chapter- III BaLA Interventions and Learning Outcomes of

    Primary School Students 28 - 63

    3.1 Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III

    Students on different Learning Parameters 28

    3.2 Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-IV

    Students on different Learning Parameters 39

    3.3 Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-V

    Students on different Learning Parameters 50

    3.4 Summary of Major Findings 60

    Bibliography 64

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    Chapter-1

    Building as Learning Aid Scheme: A Glance

    1.1. Introduction

    Education is one of the inputs to ensure the quality of life of an individual.

    Every child has the right to education irrespective of age, gender, background,

    socio-economic status, race, caste, creed, religion and ability. The National Policy

    on Education (NPE) 1986 in the section on “Education for Equality” has

    emphasized the need for removal of disparities and to equalize educational

    opportunity by attending the specific needs of those who had been denied so far.

    For achieving equalization of educational opportunity children of remote or

    nomadic population, children from linguistic, ethnic or cultural minorities, girl child,

    street and working children, children with disabilities, children affected by

    HIV/AIDS should have access to quality education comparable to other children.

    Consequently, we need to use a variety of teaching methods and activities to

    meet the different leaning needs of our children.

    Education is one of the most powerful mechanisms for developing

    intellectual prowess; that meaningful interaction with adults, peers, and the

    environment is essential in mediating the learners intellectual development; that

    learning is a continual transformation of inner perceptions, knowledge and

    experiences; and that all human beings have the potential to continually develop

    their intellectual powers throughout their lives (Costa, 2001).

    Human beings all around the world are living with an earnest desire to

    achieve further and further through innovating new things, which makes life more

    comfortable. For leading a serene and valuable life, present century demands

    multifaceted, creative and exuberant personalities. The most persuasive weapon

    which helps us for making our life comfortable, successful and self sufficient in this

    world is Education. According to Nelson Mandela, the former president of South

    Africa, “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the

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    world”. Education is the foundation for the social, cultural, technological and

    economic evolution of a country (Joseph, 2014). Our former President Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam describes education as one

    that fosters capacities such as spirit of enquiry, creativity and moral leadership

    which are central to nation building in a democratic set up. The challenges of the

    fast changing economy demand increasing flexibility in terms of knowledge, skills

    and capability. In this global age, Education must be fit for a highly skilled,

    educated work force and creative citizenry. Beyond the economic rationale

    educators must have an ethical obligation to assist all the students in realizing to

    their highest potential (Joseph, 2014).

    The important role played by the Universal Elementary Education (UEE) in

    strengthening the social fabric of democracy through provision of equal

    opportunities to all, has been accepted since the inception of the Republic of

    India. With the formulation of national policy of education, India initiated a wide

    range of programmes for achieving the goal of UEE through several schematic

    and programme interventions Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan being one among them

    (MHRD, 2016).

    1.2. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), a centrally Sponsored Scheme

    implemented by Government of India in partnership with State Governments, is

    India’s main programme for universalising elementary education. Its overall goals

    include universal access and retention, bridging of gender and social category

    gaps in education and enhancement of learning levels of children (Raju, & Singh,

    2011).

    Launched in the year 2000-2001, SSA has achieved considerable success

    in universalising elementary education. Today, there are 19.67 Crore children

    enrolled in 14.5 lakh elementary schools in the country with 66.27 lakh teachers at

    elementary level. The interventions under SSA include, building of school

    infrastructure, provisioning for teachers, periodic teacher training and academic

    resource support, making available learning resources for children like textbooks,

    computers, libraries; equity being the focus, residential schools for girls known as

    the Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas have been set up, identification of children

    with special needs and providing them need based support including aids and

    appliances; monitoring and supervision for making schools effective and building

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    local level accountability by engaging with community based organisations.

    (MHRD, 2016).

    The mission statement of the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is to achieve

    universal enrolment of all children in the age group 6-14 years in elementary

    education, ensuring all children to learn at grade appropriate level (MHRD,

    2016a). The Scheme was further revised in April 2008 to extend its benefits to the

    recognized as well as unrecognized Madarsas / Maqtabs (MHRD, 2016c). A step

    further in this direction was provided by the Right to Education Act (MHRD,

    2016a).

    1.3. Right to Education (RTE) Act, 2009

    India is having 23.4 Crore of youth comprising 20% of its population (and

    channelizing their energies and providing quality education is a daunting task

    Vajpeyi & TEDx, 2016).

    The Right to Free & Compulsory Education Act 2009 provides a justifiable

    legal framework that entitles all children between the ages of 6-14 years free and

    compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education. It

    provides for children's right to an education of equitable quality, based on

    principles of equity and non-discrimination. Most importantly, it provides for

    children's right to an education that is free from fear, stress and anxiety (MHRD,

    2016a)

    Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of

    the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’

    means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her

    parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall

    be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or

    her from pursuing and completing elementary education. ‘Compulsory education’

    casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide

    and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all

    children in the 6-14 age group. With this, India has moved forward to a rights

    based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State

    Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article

    21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act. The

    RTE Act also:

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    • Makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate

    class.

    • Specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local

    authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing

    of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State

    Governments.

    • Lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios

    (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working

    hours.

    • Provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with

    the requisite entry and academic qualifications.

    • Prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening

    procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by

    teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition,

    • Provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values

    enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round

    development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and

    talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of

    child friendly and child centred learning. (MHRD, 2016b)

    With the passage of the RTE Act, changes have also been incorporated into the

    SSA approach, strategies and norms. A per the directions of MHRD, all states

    must move in that direction as speedily as feasible (MHRD, 2017).

    1.4. Current Status of Elementary Education in India

    Primary school enrollment in India has been a success story, largely due to

    various programs and drives to increase enrolment even in remote areas. With

    enrollment reaching at least 96 percent since 2009, and girls making up 56

    percent of new students between 2007 and 2013, it is clear that many problems of

    access to schooling have been addressed. Improvements to infrastructure have

    been a priority to achieve this and India now has 1.4 million schools and 7.7

    million teachers so that 98 percent of habitations have a primary school (class I-V)

    within one kilometer and 92 percent have an upper primary school (class VI-VIII)

    within a three-kilometer walking distance. The Annual Status of Education Report

    (ASER)-a household survey-put out by Pratham is a consistent and excellent

    source of information on the quantity and quality of primary education in India. It

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    has been conducted annually since 2004, and covers more than 90% of India’s

    districts in a statistically rigorous manner. The ASER trends-over-time report that

    covers the period 2006 to 2014, points to a decline in children not enrolled from

    about 4% at the beginning of the period to about 2% now. It shows a steady

    increase in the number of children enrolled in private schools from about 20% to a

    little over 30% over the period (HT Media Ltd & Ramachandran, 2016). Despite

    these improvements, keeping children in school through graduation is still an

    issue and dropout rates continue to be high. Nationally 29 % of children drop out

    before completing five years of primary school, and 43 % before finishing upper

    primary school. This lands India among the top five nations for out-of-school

    children of primary school age, with 1.4 million 6 to 11 year olds not attending

    school. In many ways schools are not equipped to handle the full population –

    there is a teacher shortage of 689,000 teachers in primary schools, only 53

    percent of schools have functional girls’ toilets and 74 percent have access to

    drinking water.

    Additionally, the quality of learning is a major issue and reports show that

    children are not achieving class-appropriate learning levels. The trends in quality

    measured in reading, arithmetic and English are alarming. According to Pratham’s

    ASER 2013 report, close to 78 percent of children in Standard III and about 50

    percent of children in Standard V cannot yet read Standard II texts. Arithmetic is

    also a cause for concern as only 26 percent students in Standard V can do a

    division problem. Without immediate and urgent help, these children cannot

    effectively progress in the education system, and so improving the quality of

    learning in schools is the next big challenge for both the state and central

    governments. Private schools perform better than government schools, though

    there is substantial room for improvement. There is a significant variation among

    states in both quantity and quality (HT Media Ltd & Ramachandran, 2016).

    Another limitation could be insufficient and inefficient use of the available

    school’s physical resources towards the teaching and learning process. Less

    focus is laid on whether these small children feel comfortable in the place where

    they have come from their varied nests for learning purpose. Children perceive

    their world through a multisensory experience, especially utilizing their tactile and

    visual senses. However, the manner in which education takes place, especially in

    rural government-managed schools, is strictly one-dimensional. Teachers follow a

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    rote method of teaching and, apart from the student’s textbooks, there is little

    other material to reinforce learning. Also, during their teacher’s absence, children

    have no access to resources for constructive engagement. The typical

    architecture of government schools in India has a very classroom-centric

    approach. Spaces adjacent to classrooms remain underutilized and do not

    contribute to the learning environment. Most schools continue to function in

    dilapidated buildings that provide an unstimulating setting for students. The

    school’s design also drastically affects the teacher’s productive output and

    classroom management. Studies have conclusively proven that children learn best

    in a child-friendly, stimulating, and aesthetically pleasing environment. All these

    factors detract from educational opportunities in rural areas, where education is

    the only way out of abject poverty. Thus improving learning will require attention to

    many things, including increasing teacher accountability, more efficient monitoring

    and support systems, and efficient use of school’s physical resources such as

    school building.

    There is immense opportunity to utilize building spaces. The dynamic

    design of the building and its engaging layout is fundamental in attracting child

    towards the school. Equally important are the design of the classrooms in which

    students spend most of their time. Studies have shown that the fun filled,

    aesthetical environment relieves children of boredom and increases constructive

    use of time (Sharma, Adsure, & Varjani, 2010). The enhancement of the physical

    environment makes not only an aesthetic improvement, it transforms how the

    physical space connects with teachers and students. These factors may play a

    vital in reducing the dropouts from schools.In order to triumph over these

    limitations and acknowledge building as an important part of the basic elementary

    education, the government initiated a scheme called “BaLA i.e. Building As Learning Aid”.

    1.5. Building as Learning Aid (BaLA)

    School buildings have traditionally been conceived and treated merely as

    brick and mortar structures to house education activity. The interface between the

    building design and the design of the teaching and learning programme has

    received scant attention, and the possibility of using the physical space as a

    learning resource only sporadically explored.

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    The physical environment that encompasses us or a child at any point of

    time provides varied opportunities and potential to interact with it and learn.

    Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) is about developing and using the physical space

    around the child as a learning resource in a child-friendly manner. BaLA scheme

    focused on developing an understanding on how the physical space around us

    can be developed as a learning resource. It is about what can be creatively done

    with existing environments using local resources. The ideas can be easily applied

    to new school situations as well (Vajpeyi, 2010).

    In Hindi, BAL means a child or a boy and the acronym BALA means a girl.

    BALA is an innovative way to look at the relationship of a child with the schools

    space. Physical space can be a resource in the teaching-learning process has

    never been explored seriously.

    BaLA scheme is an innovative concept towards qualitative improvement in

    education, through developing child-friendly, learning and fun based physical

    environment building in school infrastructure. Building as learning aid is about

    maximising the learning value of the school space. A range of learning situations

    and materials can be actively used as a learning resource by innovatively treating

    school spaces like classrooms, circulation spaces, outdoors, natural environment

    and their constituent built elements i.e. floor, wall, ceiling, door, windows, furniture,

    open ground etc. This resource can complement the teaching process and

    supplement textbook information.

    The major objective of BaLA scheme is to holistically plan and use the

    school infrastructure. It incorporates the ideas of activity based learning, child

    friendliness and inclusive education for children with special needs. At the core, it

    assumes that the architecture of school can be a resource for the teaching-

    learning processes.

    BaLA is about developing the school’s entire physical environment as a

    learning aid – the inside, the outside, the semi-open spaces – every where. At the

    core, it is about maximizing the educational ‘value’ of a built space. It is based on

    ‘how children learn’.

    Schools are specialized spaces for learning. Traditionally, school buildings

    were conceived to provide shelter to the activity of education. They were treated

    as structures of bricks and mortar, rather than as enclosures that encompass a

    learning environment. Often, not much attention is paid to the interface between

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    building design and the design of the teaching and learning program – how the

    use of space and its constituent elements, including lighting and ventilation, can

    support more diverse learning activities apart from frontal teaching (for example,

    for small group learning, individual reading, for project work).

    The fact that physical space can be a resource in the teaching-learning

    process has never been explored seriously. Buildings are also the most expensive

    physical asset of a school. By innovatively treating the school spaces (e.g.

    classroom, circulation spaces, outdoors, natural environment) and their

    constituent built elements (like the floor, wall, ceiling, door, windows, furniture,

    open ground) a range of learning situations and materials can be integrated such

    that they can actively be used as a learning resource. This resource can

    complement the teaching process and supplement textbook information, much

    beyond providing wall space for posters and decoration.

    A three-dimensional space can offer a unique setting for a child to learn

    because it can introduce a multiple sensory experience into the otherwise uni-

    sensory textbook or a blackboard transacted by a disinterested teacher. It can

    make abstract concepts more concrete and real from the child’s perspective.

    Dimensions, textures, shapes, angles and movement can be used to

    communicate some basic concepts of language, science, mathematics and

    environment, to make learning a truly enjoyable and memorable experience for

    children. BaLA scheme vouches for the following:

    • BaLa can be introduced even in the building components of an existing

    school.

    • It can be combined with building repairs, up-gradation and new

    construction.

    • It makes joyous learning possible for children.

    • It makes a variety of learning materials accessible to children outside the

    classroom, even after school hours.

    • It has the potential to create conducive self-learning situation for children.

    • BaLa learning aids are not standard. Teachers can adapt them to suit their

    own specific needs and conditions.

    • The learning materials, integrated in the built environment, are more lasting

    and durable, and cannot be stolen or misplaced.

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    • Even though fixed, these learning aids can be used in multiple ways. • The

    value of the school building increases manifold at a fractional increase in its

    actual cost.

    1.6. BaLA – its Roots and the spread in India

    It would not be wrong if we say that Mr. Kabir Vajpayee is the founder or

    initiator of BaLA activities in Government Schools. Mr. Kabir Vajpayee’s

    involvement in education began with the Lok Jumbish Programme in Rajasthan.

    He was among the architects chosen to innovate with existing school buildings in

    rural areas. The challenge was to repair and renovate structures creatively with a

    budget of Rs 25,000. After Lok Jumbish, Mr. Kabir Vajpayee and his team worked

    with at Vinyas to put together some 100 different ideas which schools elsewhere

    in country could implement. This was BaLA and it became a book brought out with

    the help of the World Bank. Hence BaLA as an idea originated in Lok Jumbish in

    Rajasthan in 1997 - 98. It was in its infancy, with no name at that time. Vinyãs’

    Interdisciplinary Study and work with several experts from child development,

    pedagogy, environment, science and others led to a more systematic set of about

    150 design ideas during 2000-2001. This we called as BaLA – Building as

    Learning Aid. This work was supported by UNICEF, India. It was only in the latter

    part of 2004 and early 2005 that systematic dissemination of the idea started and

    the central as well as the state governments took keen interest in adopting the

    idea and taking it to planning and implementation. The Rajiv Gandhi Foundation

    and its then Director General and Senior Programme officer of Education were the

    key force in pushing us as well as the Ministry of Human Resources Department

    (MHRD). At the HRD ministry in Delhi, once they were clear about the concept,

    they were forthcoming to ask the states to take it on immediately – on their own

    initiative. (Sharma, Adsure, & Varjani, 2012)

    The concept of BaLA was originally developed by Vinyas, Centre for

    Architectural Research & Design with support from UNICEF. It is now

    implemented across the state in all districts, since 2006. Several teachers and

    Head Masters of schools have been trained to plan, implement and effectively use

    the BALA concept in schools.

    BaLA was conceived under the project ‘Creating Teaching-Learning Aids

    and Experiences in the Primary School Built Environment'.

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    VINYÃS has advised and provided consultancy to the Government of India,

    the World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO, UNDP, DFID, GTZ, Aga Khan Foundation,

    Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, HUDCO, apart from several NGOs and private

    institutions on matters related to education, building design, conservation, tourism,

    training, construction, policy, etc.

    Their work has been listed amongst 32 Inventive Indians: Great Stories of

    Change in 2009. Vinyãs conducted workshops and training programmes for

    administrators, architects, engineers, teachers and masons in participative design

    and construction practices. Vinyãs’s work had also been featured in an

    international Architecture and Design magazine, - DOMUS in December 2011.

    Vinyãs team has oriented and trained over 7600 Children, Teachers, Principals,

    Engineers, Architects, Administrators, Policy Planners, Ministers, across the

    country since 2005. Kabir has also conducted several Lectures and sessions on

    planning school and other social infrastructure for more than 400 Phase 1, Phase

    III and Phase 1V officers at Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of

    Administration since 2010.

    Kabir’s first book, ‘BaLA’ - Building as Learning Aid (in Hindi, English and

    Marathi), has been widely read and used by several thousand schools across the

    country, mostly government schools in rural or urban areas, to improve the

    learning environment for children going to elementary schools. Through Vinyãs,

    he and his team has been providing advice and technical support on BaLA in

    developing school environments to several state governments of Jammu &

    Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttrakhand, Punjab, Delhi, Bihar, Assam, West

    Bengal, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra,

    Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Kerela. Presently, he is also Advisor, Infrastructure for

    Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) to the Ministry of Human Resource Development

    (MHRD), Government of India. Under SSA, his initiative with MHRD under Right

    to Education, as part of policy at the national level is on Whole School

    Development Planning, which will influence more than thirteen lakh primary and

    elementary schools across the country in next few years. This school

    infrastructure policy envisions school’s built environment as ecosystem for

    learning. He has contributed in the National Curriculum Framework 2005 by

    NCERT on School and Classroom environment. He also conceptualized the

    School Infrastructure Development section in the revised framework of SSA under

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    Right to Education act 2009. As member of the subgroup constituted by the

    MHRD for the national level 12th Plan on Elementary Education he has

    contributed significantly on the Infrastructure Development Section for the

    Planning Commission of India.

    Under RTE, schools are envisaged as places where children can learn and

    play; schools that are a welcoming environment for children and reflect their local

    culture. This manual gives specific examples on how this can be achieved. Many

    of the activities capture the essence of the constructivist pedagogy approach

    under the National Curriculum Framework 2005, enabling children to use the

    BaLA settings and learning resources to build their own knowledge. Equally

    important is the need to support teachers, parents and education officials. BaLA

    needs to be complemented by good management and maintenance of school

    facilities and barrier free access to all children without discrimination. The RTE Act

    puts the power and responsibility in the hands of local government and School

    Management Committees to ensure that a child friendly environment that BaLA

    can create, remains a healthy, welcoming, child-centered setting throughout a

    child's school progression.

    1.7. Development of BaLA Concepts in Schools

    Building as Learning Aid, or BaLA as it is now popularly known, is about

    creating such possibilities for learning in all existing as well as new school

    environments.

    It is really possible in all kinds of schools, particularly in government

    schools. In fact, in several thousand schools across the country, in Jammu &

    Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab and

    Delhi, the concept of BaLA has been implemented by enthusiastic school

    principals, teachers and civil engineers.

    The respective state governments planned and approved a budget, oriented

    and exposed their school principals, teachers and civil engineers on the

    theoretical and practical understanding of BaLA with support from Vinyas and then

    made available the funds towards the implementation. The actual mechanism may

    be different in each state, but this is how it happened. In each of the states, the

    one-time budget available per school was small – ranging from Rs 15,000/- per

    school to Rs 40,000/- per school in most cases, except Gujarat, where for about

  • 14

    700 existing rural and urban schools, it was about Rs 2,50,000/- per school, or in

    Delhi for about 925 existing urban schools, it was Rs 2,00,000/- per school. With

    wide variations in location and geography, implementing this large project was a

    challenge. For example, in the mountains of Himachal Pradesh, there were more

    than 1,200 school sites spread across all districts including Lahoul Spiti, Kinnaur,

    Kullu, etc. A few private schools also became part of the project.

    • BaLA in Gujarat: In Gujarat, in January 2006, the then Secretary, Education

    decided to develop ‘Dream schools’ for Gujarat, – by using BaLA ideas. He

    provisioned and sanctioned Rs 2.5 lakh per school for 100 schools and the

    SSA office also collected information from several other schools that had

    unspent grants and donations that could be used. Each year, the number of

    schools taken up in Gujarat has been steadily increasing, due to the demand

    generated by the communities. At present, more than 700 schools are covered,

    across all districts and blocks. Each school, block, district has its own unique

    planning and design strategy as well as implementation. There was cross

    sharing of experiences, innovation and continuous technical support from us.

    Due to the immense pressure and demand from the communities, the

    government here is now planning to get funds from the corporate sector to

    support BaLA intervention in schools.

    • BaLA in Himachal Pradesh: In 2006, a young State Project Director of SSA

    Himachal Pradesh was already thinking about making the schools in his state

    colourful by painting them with bright colours when he came to know about

    BaLA. He discovered that with BaLA, schools in his state will not just be

    colourful, but can be meaningfully colourful. In the next few weeks, his team

    planned conducted a workshop in Shimla by inviting Vinyas team. As a result,

    several districts took it on. Solan is one very good example, where the then

    District Project Coordinator (DPC) took a keen interest and more than 100

    schools went ahead with BaLA in this district in the next few months.

    • BaLA in New Delhi: The New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) in 2006 has

    took the initiative to develop two newly built schools in outer, rural Delhi with

    BaLA ideas and then also develop a manual with photographs and details for

    about 925 Vidyalaya Kalyan Samity (VKS) in Delhi to understand, plan and

    implement BaLA. About Rs 2 lakh was given to each VKS to develop the

  • 15

    schools with BaLA ideas. A comprehensive colourful document was published

    which has also reached several parts of India.

    1.8. Elements of BaLA Scheme

    BaLA is a way to holistically plan and use the school infrastructure. It

    incorporates the ideas of activity based learning, child friendliness and inclusive

    education for children with special needs (CWSN). At the core, it assumes that the

    architecture of school can be a resource for the teaching-learning processes.

    There are two levels of this intervention:

    • Develop the SPACES to create varied teaching-learning situations

    • Develop the BUILT ELEMENTS in these spaces as teaching-learning

    aids The Spaces can be

    o Classroom o Corridor o Steps o Outdoor space

    The Built Elements can be o Floor o Wall o Window o Door o Ceiling o Platform

    The school buildings and their constituent elements such as floors, walls and ceilings which have been treated innovatively are the components of BaLa

    scheme to simplify the learning process. Many schools under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) as well as several other

    schools run by private organisations or NGOs have made BaLA elements in their schools. BaLA elements help teachers and head teachers to plan educational activities. BaLA elements help in hundreds of activities that can

    happen with the built-in teaching-learning aids in and around their school. The first series of development of BaLA concepts see transformation take place within the confines of a classroom, while the latter be aimed at integrating

  • 16

    studies with the infrastructure outside the classroom. This is how the school would function, once the first phase of the BaLA initiative is implemented.

    Some of the examples are as follows: • Blackboard: Blackboards stretched across the length of the classroom's four

    walls will replace the traditional blackboard. These boards will also take into consideration the height of the students. On one wall, calendars will be painted

    with a black grid wherein children will perform their activities. The border along the calendar could also be used to depict the seasons. This would make learning the seasons and months much easier.

    • Desk: Every desk will have a scale painted on it to integrate measurement in a child's day-to-day life. Students could enjoy measuring their lunch boxes and

    books by using the desk scale and learn at the same time. Some desks would even have the desk's actual weight painted on them.

    • Doors: BaLA will also make learning geometrical angles a lot simpler. Students who have to study angles in their curriculum will find the 'Door Angle

    Protractor' painted on the classroom's entrances. The angles will be aligned with the swing of the door. Students will know the exact angle at which the doors are opened as the corresponding angles will be painted on the floor.

    Symmetrical shapes of geometry, traditional motifs, illusions and other patterns will also be painted along the vertical divisional line separating the two parts of the doors.

    • Fans: All the colours of the rainbow will be found on the ceiling fans. However, students would be surprised to find that when the fan rotates only white would be visible. This would help teach students the concept of VIBGYOR and that white light comprises seven colours.

    • Floors: No textbook can, perhaps, integrate learning and fun the way games painted on floors can. A 6/3 grid would be painted on classroom floors. The

    note besides it reads - identify even, prime and odd numbers and students can jump only diagonally and towards the left to identify the same clan numbers

    but not to the right. This makes it both, fun and simple. The Dot Boards, the Grid Boards, the Tangrams, the Calendars, the Magic

    Squares can be used to depict many kinds of patterns in science and math for

    children. Children, thus, become sensitized to noticing patterns in their lives. After all what do good scientists does, they are keen observers who notice and

  • 17

    understand patterns and connections. Children need many real experiences in language, art, science, math, and geography. BaLA elements facilitate this

    learning. Without real, concrete experiences, children cannot learn. For example, there are many different kinds of "sour"- the 'sour' of a lemon, the 'sour' of curds, the 'sour' of tamarind, the 'sour' of oranges. Can any textbook or teacher explain

    these different types of "sour' without having the real experiences' BaLA is a tool to promote learning, curiosity, care and concern, wonder and lifelong learning? It

    helps children to practice and revisit concepts. It also helps learning to take place everywhere - in the classroom, the corridor, the varandas, the outdoors, etc.

    (Vinyas & UNICEF, 2012) BaLA is about innovatively treating the space and the built elements to

    make the existing school architecture more resourceful with higher educational value in a child friendly manner.

    Innovation is another basic element of BaLA scheme. As BaLA scheme has to go to such a large number of schools, there is no single entity that can

    design, construct and supervise, hence, the idea to do it ‘centrally’ is absurd. But then BaLA is about a certain quality and sensitivity of the learning environment for children. So, the best course of action is to provide a frame – the frame of

    essential ingredients of BaLA – within which, each stakeholder may be given some space to innovate. It, thus, can be owned by them, while ensuring that

    quality at their respective end does not suffer. Thus, within the ‘frame’ of BaLA

    which is about child friendliness, learning and fun-oriented, age-appropriateness, use of local resources, etc., the administrator gets the freedom to innovate the management and monitoring system that is flexible and responds to a context, the

    engineer gets the freedom to improvize and adapt or even develop a new idea, an artisan who is making a BaLA element with a new refined process of construction

    gets his or her name associated with it, a teacher or the children get the freedom to come up with a new use in the teaching-learning process or play and so on. 1.9. Significance of BaLA Scheme:

    The concept of BaLA tries to use every little space available as a resource for learning (Vajpeyi & TEDx, 2016). Since learning is a continuous process and

    happens in a continuum for a child, why do we segregate the spaces while designing? Typically, classrooms are meant for teaching-learning, corridors for

    movement and outside for assembly or play. But learning from a child’s

  • 18

    perspective is not segregated – as we know- it happens everywhere. So, why not let it happen in spaces all across the school for learning? BaLA attempts to

    address this issue. It is about holistically conceiving the school environment while connecting the hitherto isolated components. It is not only about developing new schools, but also about how existing spaces can be transformed. In fact, its

    genesis lies in addressing the needs of existing government schools and how they can be transformed. Other schools too could look at similar ways of transforming

    their existing structures into learning environments (Vajpeyi, 2010). The major focus of BaLA scheme is child-friendliness.

    While child-friendliness seems like an attitudinal issue, it is also an issue to be

    addressed in the design of physical environments of schools. From the most basic provisioning of seating and chalkboards to the more complex ones like hardware, sanitary and plumbing fittings in classrooms and toilets, all need to be designed

    and constructed from the perspective of child friendliness. BaLA attempts to encompass a holistic view through all such details of the physical environment

    and make learning fun and child centric. Building as a Learning Aid (BaLA) aims to use the built elements like the

    floor, walls, pillars, staircases, windows, doors, ceilings, fans, trees, flowers, or

    even rainwater falling on the building as learning resource. For example, a window grill can be designed to help the children practice pre-writing skills or understand fractions; a range of angles can be marked under a door shutter on the floor to

    explain the concept of angles; or ceiling fans can be painted with colour wheels for the children to enjoy ever-changing formations; moving shadows of a flag-pole to act like a sundial to understand different ways of measuring time; planting trees

    that shed their leaves in winters and are green in summers to make a comfortable outdoor learning space. Essentially, BaLA is about

    • Child-friendly learning environment. • Learning by doing and experiencing. • Involving multiple senses in the learning process.

    • Allowing different children to learn at a different pace. • Learning through peer group activities. • Developing inclusive settings for all children.

    • Allowing children to learn all the time in the school environment

  • 19

    It has been found that fun filled, aesthetical environment relieves children of boredom and increases constructive use of time. For children, it can help in

    developing

    • Language and Communication skills

    • Numeracy skills

    • Abstract notions through concrete examples

    • Respect for nature and environment

    • Capability to realize potential of available resources

    • Power of observation

    Vajpeyi (2010) reported following findings shared by the teachers and principals from various schools across the country, where BaLA has been implemented:

    • There is increase in enrolment and retention of children

    • Very often, the children come to school much before school hours and

    leave much after school hours

    • Learning has become more interesting for the children and the teacher

    • Abstract notions are better understood through concrete examples

    • Children and teachers have become more aware and ask more questions

    in schools

    • Distance between children and teachers has melted down

    • There is decrease in vandalism and negative behaviour of children in

    schools

    • A more holistic approach to develop schools has taken place with better

    communication between teachers and engineers.

    • VEC has become more excited and contributed efforts and money for

    BaLA intervention

    • Parents have moved children from private schools to government school

    under Sarva Siksha Abhiyan (SSA). BaLa is a relatively new concept that has been implemented recently. It

    would, therefore, be interesting to evaluate if BaLA has significantly contributed towards improving the teaching and learning outcomes in the form of learning outcome of students.

  • 20

    Chapter - II

    Method and Procedure of Study The present study entitled as “Study of Impact of Building as Learning Aid (BaLA)

    Project interventions on Students’ Learning Outcomes” is an attempt to study the

    effect of BaLA interventions on learning outcomes of primary school students in

    the schools of Chandigarh.

    2.1. Objectives of the Study:

    The objectives of the study are as follows:

    • To study the effect of BaLA project interventions on learning outcomes of

    Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To find out effect of BaLA interventions on written expression in Hindi and

    English language of Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To find out effect of BaLA interventions on written expression in Hindi and

    English language of Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To explore the effect of BaLA interventions on complexity of numbers and

    geometry of Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To find out the effect of BaLA interventions on understanding about the

    physical world around us of Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To explore the effect of BaLA interventions on knowledge of the natural

    environment Grade III-V school students of Chandigarh.

    • To summarise the learning outcomes of Grade III-V school students of

    Chandigarh in relation to BaLA interventions developed in the schools.

    2.2. Method of Study:

    Descriptive Survey method is used to collect data regarding effect of

    Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) Project interventions on Students’ Learning

    Outcomes of primary school students of 3rd, 4th and 5th grade. Students of primary

    classes of selected 50 schools are taken as a sample. Responses of primary

    school students are collected on achievement tests prepared and standardized by the investigator for various grades of primary classes on the themes of BaLA

    developed in the schools of Chandigarh as prescribed by VINYAS & UNICEF,

  • 21

    2012 ( Effectively using BaLA (Building as Learning Aid) in Elementary Schools: A

    Teacher's Manual).

    2.3. Area and Sample of Study:

    There are 112 schools in Chandigarh (U.T.); out of which 08 are primary

    schools and 104 are composite schools having classes of primary and upper

    primary classes. The sample of the present study was 50 schools situated in

    Chandigarh. For the study, only those schools are selected purposively which

    have developed BaLA interventions in the campus. For the study, students of 3rd,

    4th and 5th class from the selected schools were taken as a sample for data

    collection on achievement test. A total sample of 13361 students is the final

    sample of students who have completed the response sheets and participated in

    the study. Detail of school wise sample is shown as follows in table 2.1.T:

    Table 2.1.T.: Detail of Selected Sample for the Study

    Sr. No.

    Name of the School No. of Students from whom data on Achievement Test collected Class-3rd Class-4th Class-5th

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 130 124 147 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 132 155 156 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 59 64 72 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 111 131 138 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 39 30 39 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 70 81 79 7 GHS, Sector -19 39 41 30 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 29 35 44 9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 35 42 45 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 32 39 36 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 34 49 46 12 GHS, Sector -24 44 35 54 13 GMHS, Sector -25 125 141 158 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) 117 112 122 15 GMHS- Sector 26, Police Line 77 75 94 16 GPS- Sector 26 (TM) 67 86 84 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 26 39 40 18 GMHS, Sector -28D 81 83 79 19 GHS, Sector -29B 37 56 44 20 GMSSS-33-D 92 106 102 21 GMHS, Sector -34 38 51 64 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 32 78 76 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 49 70 93 24 GHS, Sector -38B 41 64 70

  • 22

    25 GMHS, Sector -38D 105 107 117 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 129 141 131 27 GMHS-38WEST 116 82 109 28 GHS, Sector -40A 27 38 40 29 GMHS, Sector-42 64 70 71 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 84 102 97 31 GSSS, Sector -45 73 104 131 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 121 127 131 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 123 144 135 34 GHS, Sector -50 72 80 76 35 GHS, Sector -52 124 170 164 36 GHS, Sector -53 60 43 32 37 GHS, Sector -54 99 154 116 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 109 120 155 39 GPS-BUTERLA 16 22 15 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 80 106 107 41 GHS-DARIA

    106 123 141 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 178 174 188 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 179 182 181 44 GSSS-Khudda ALISHER

    89 80 107 45 GSSS- KHUDDA LAHORA 58 70 69 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 71 83 77 47 GSSS-Mani Majra Town

    116 112 156 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY

    139 148 122 49 GMS-Pocket no.10

    104 123 113 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 69 73 56 Total 4047 4565 4749

    2.4. Tools used for the Study:

    For field survey, two achievement tests are constructed and standardized

    by the research team. Achievement tests are based on the developed BaLA

    concepts in the schools of Chandigarh.

    Firstly information is sought from the heads of all the selected 50 schools

    through the Cluster Resource Coordinators about the various BaLA concepts

    developed in the schools.

    After reviewing the information related to developed BaLA concepts in the

    schools of Chandigarh and syllabus of the class 3rd, 4th and 5th, two achievement

  • 23

    tests were developed on the following four learning parameters as prescribed by

    VINYAS & UNICEF, 2012 ( Effectively using BaLA (Building as Learning Aid) in

    Elementary Schools: A Teacher's Manual):

    • Ways of interacting with language;

    • Dealing with complexity of numbers and geometry;

    • Understanding the Physical world around us;

    • Knowledge of the natural environment.

    2.4.1. Achievement Test for Grade-III Students:

    For students of grade-III, an achievement test is developed on the four learning

    parameters i.e. ways of interacting with language; dealing with complexity of

    numbers and geometry; understanding the physical world around us; and

    knowledge of the natural environment.

    • For the parameter -1 i.e. ways of interacting with language, items are

    developed to evaluate two sub-parameters i.e. written expressions in regional

    language and written expressions in English language of students by

    showing pictures of different objects.

    • For the parameter - 2 i.e. dealing with complexity of numbers and geometry,

    items are developed to evaluate the knowledge about tables, roman numbers,

    clock timings, basic arithmetic operations, measurements and two-

    dimensional geometric shapes.

    • For the parameter - 3 i.e. understanding the physical world around us, items

    are developed to assess the understanding of students about colours, modes

    of transport, games, festivals, communication instruments, national symbols.

    • For the parameter - 4 i.e. knowledge of the natural environment, items are

    developed to judge the understanding of students about parts of human body

    and parts of plant.

    Items on defined were developed with the help of experienced primary

    school teachers and teacher educators. First draft contained sixty six items. A

    review of developed items by two experts is done and a pre-try out of first test

    draft was conducted on a sample of 100 students of grade-IV to know the validity

    of test items.

  • 24

    On the basis of suggestions of experts and pre-try out results, six items

    were dropped and seven items were modified. Final draft of test contains sixty

    items and the time limit to complete the test was ninety minutes. Detail of items on

    each defined parameter is given below in table 2.2. T.

    Table 2.2.T.: Detail of Test Items developed for Grade-III Students

    Parameters of Test No. of Items developed in first draft

    No. of Items in final draft

    Parameter-1: Ways of interacting with language (studied at two levels)

    Parameter 1 A: Written expressions in regional language

    04 04

    Parameter 1 B: Written expressions in English language

    08 08

    Parameter-2: Dealing with complexity of Numbers and Geometry

    27 24

    Parameter-3: Understanding the Physical World around us

    15 12

    Parameter-4: Knowledge of the Natural Environment 12 12 Total no. of items 66 60

    2.4.2. Achievement Test for Grade- IV and V Students: For students ofGrade Iv

    and V , a common achievement test is developed on the four learning parameters

    i.e. ways of interacting with language; dealing with complexity of numbers and

    geometry; understanding the physical world around us; and knowledge of the

    natural environment.

    • For the parameter - 1 i.e. ways of interacting with language, items are

    developed to check two sub-parameters i.e. written expressions in regional

    language; and written expressions in English language by showing pictures

    of different objects; items are developed to assess the understanding about

    antonyms; days of week and months of year; and use of vowels, articles and

    prepositions.

    • For the parameter - 2 i.e. dealing with complexity of numbers and geometry,

    items are developed to evaluate the knowledge about tables, roman numbers,

  • 25

    odd-even numbers, clock timings, basic arithmetic operations, measurements,

    two-dimensional geometric shapes, angles and triangles.

    • For the parameter - 3 i.e. understanding the physical world around us, items

    are developed to assess the understanding of students about colours,

    festivals, national symbols and mother child relations.

    • For the parameter - 4 i.e. knowledge of the natural environment, items are

    developed to judge the understanding of students about parts of plant, water

    cycle, air pollutants and balanced diet.

    Items on defined were developed with the help of experienced primary

    school teachers and teacher educators. First draft contained ninety three items. A

    review of developed items by two experts is done and a pre-try out of first test

    draft was conducted on a sample of 100 students of Grade-VI to know the validity

    of test items.

    On the basis of suggestions of experts and pre-try out results, thirteen

    items were dropped and fifteen items were modified. Final draft of test contains

    eighty items and the time limit to complete the test was hundred minutes. Detail of

    items on each defined parameter is given below in table 2.3. T.

    Table 2.3.T.: Detail of Test Items developed for Grade IV and V Students

    Parameters of Test No. of Items developed in first draft

    No. of Items in final draft

    Parameter-1: Ways of interacting with language (studied at three levels)

    Parameter 1 A: Written expressions in regional language

    04 04

    Parameter 1 C: Written expressions in English language

    20 16

    Parameter-2: Dealing with complexity of Numbers and Geometry

    37 32

    Parameter-3: Understanding the Physical World around us

    14 12

    Parameter-4: Knowledge of the Natural Environment

    18 16

    Total no. of items 93 80

  • 26

    2.5. Procedure of the Study: The procedure of study is presented in the following heads:

    • Meeting with Cluster Resource Coordinators: A meeting of Principal investigators with all Cluster Resource Coordinators was organized on

    November 4th, 2016 in Govt. Girls Model Senior Secondary School, Sector-20B, Chandigarh.. The meeting was organized to discuss the various objectives and

    data collection procedures of the project with Cluster Resource Coordinators. And to collect information on developed BaLA concepts in the schools.

    • Selection of Schools for the Study: With the collected information from Cluster Resource Coordinators about the developed BaLA concepts in the schools, fifty schools were selected who have BaLA concepts in the school

    premises. (5th November, 2016 to 20th November, 2016.)

    • Development of Achievement Tests: Two achievement tests were developed on the basis of collected information from selected schools about the developed BaLA concepts in the schools. On the four learning parameters of BaLA

    scheme i.e. ways of interacting with language; dealing with complexity of numbers and geometry; understanding the physical world around us; and knowledge of the natural environment; as prescribed by VINYAS & UNICEF,

    2012 ( Effectively using BaLA (Building as Learning Aid) in Elementary Schools: A Teacher's Manual) two achievement tests were prepared and standardized. (21st November, 2016 to 25th December, 2016).

    • Schedule of visit to schools: A date wise schedule for visit to schools was finalized with the Pedagogy coordinator and submitted to the office of State Project Director, SSA, Chandigarh (U.T.). Date wise schedule of visit of two field investigators in a school is given in Table 2.4.T. (9th January, 2017 to 7th

    February, 2017).

    • Collection of Data: Data on achievement tests is collected from the students of class 3rd, 4th and 5th with the active support of cluster resource coordinators, teachers and principals of the schools. On the scheduled date, a team of two

    field investigators visited the school and collected data. School wise detail of sample of students is given in table 2.4.T. (9th January, 2017 to 7th February, 2017).

  • 27

    Table 2.4.T.: Detail of Schedule of Visit to Schools for Collection of Data Sr. No

    Name of the School Date of Visit in School

    Sr. No

    Name of the School Date of Visit in School

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 12/01/2017 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 01/02/2017 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 09/01/2017 27 GMHS-38WEST 22/01/2017 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 09/01/2017 28 GHS, Sector -40A 02/02/2017 4 GPS, Sector-16 09/01/2017 29 GMHS, Sector-42 20/01/2017 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 10/01/2017 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 20/01/2017 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 10/01/2017 31 GSSS, Sector -45 19/01/2017 7 GHS, Sector -19 10/01/2017 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 23/01/2017 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 11/01/2017 33 GMSSS, Sector -

    47D 16/01/2017

    9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 11/01/2017 34 GHS, Sector -50 03/02/2017 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 12/01/2017 35 GHS, Sector -52 20/01/2017 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 12/01/2017 36 GHS, Sector -53 21/01/2017 12 GHS, Sector -24 12/01/2017 37 GHS, Sector -54 03/02/2017 13 GMHS, Sector -25 18/01/2017 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 19/01/2017 14 GMSSS, Sector -26

    (TM) 13/01/2017 39 GPS-BUTERLA 07/02/2017

    15 GMHS, Sector -26, Police Line

    13/01/2017 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA

    18/01/2017

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 13/01/2017 41 GHS-DARIA 07/02/2017 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 02/02/2017 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 18/01/2017 18 GMHS, Sector -28D 16/01/2017 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 23/01/2017 19 GHS, Sector -29B 11/01/2017 44 GSSS-Khudda

    ALISHER 11/01/2017

    20 GMSSS-33-D 16/01/2017 45 GSSS- KHUDDA LAHORA

    22/01/2017

    21 GMHS, Sector -34 14/01/2017 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 19/01/2017 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 14/01/2017 47 GSSS-MANI MAJRA

    TOWN 21/01/2017

    23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 17/01/2017 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY

    14/01/2017

    24 GHS, Sector -38B 17/01/2017 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 01/02/2017 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 17/01/2017 50 GMSSS-

    SARANGPUR 22/01/2017

    • Tabulation of Data: With the help of Field investigators, all achievement tests were evaluated and class-wise data was tabulated in the form of Excel sheets. (8th February, 2017 to 7th March, 2017).

    • Writing of Report: Final report of the project is written by the Principal investigator and co-investigator. Final report is submitted on 27th March, 2017.

    (8th March, 2017 to 27th March, 2017).

  • 28

    Chapter - III

    BaLA Interventions and Learning Outcomes of Primary School Students

    The results on learning outcomes of class 3rd, 4th and 5th primary school students

    of Chandigarh are presented on defined learning parameters separately. For

    interpreting the results, percentage analysis is done and pie diagrams drawn to

    depict the data.

    3.1. ANALYSIS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES OF GRADE-III STUDENTS:

    Percentage analysis of learning outcomes of grade-III students on various

    parameters is presented in the following tables:

    Table 3.1.T. Percentage Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students:

    Learning Parameters Percentage of students having scores

    Zero 1% to 25%

    26% to 50%

    51% to 75%

    76% to 100%

    Parameter-1A: Ways of

    interacting with language- :

    Written expressions in Hindi

    language

    2.09% 10.25% 23.19% 38.91% 25.54%

    Parameter-1B: Ways of

    interacting with language - :

    Written expressions in English

    language

    13.53% 20.63% 26.27% 27.23% 12.30%

    Parameter-2: Dealing with

    complexity of Numbers and

    Geometry

    7.83% 20.73% 29.42% 26.84% 15.16%

    Parameter-3: Understanding

    the Physical World around us

    4.14% 12.64% 21.89% 28.16% 32.78%

    Parameter-4: Knowledge of the

    Natural Environment 6.43% 9.58% 15.09% 35.36% 33.51%

  • 29

    3.1.1. Overall results On Parameter-1A- Ways of interacting with Language : Written expressions in Hindi Language, four items were framed in the test to

    check the correct written expressions of students in Hindi language (identifying

    pictures and directions of sun rise and sun set) and results from the table 3.1.T. ,

    clearly shows that 2.20% students were not able to write correctly in Hindi

    Language; 9.96% students scored between 1% - 25% score; 23.09% students

    scored between 26% - 50% score; 40.41% students scored between 51% - 75%

    score; and 24.32% students scored between 75%-100% score. Results are also

    shown in Pie Diagram 3.1.1.F.

    3.1.1.A. School wise results on Parameter-1A: Ways of interacting with

    Language- : Written expressions in Hindi Language are presented in

    table 3.1.1.T. Table 3.1.1.T. Percentage Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students on Parameter-1A: Ways of interacting with Language : Written Expressions in Hindi Language Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 0% 11.65% 22.33% 27.18% 38.83% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 0.76% 19.23% 23.07% 21.53% 33.07% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 5.08% 10.16% 20.33% 27.11% 37.28% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 0% 7.20% 25.22% 27.02% 40.54% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 0% 5.12% 15.38% 28.20% 51.28% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 3.12% 12.5% 29.68% 32.81% 21.87% 7 GHS, Sector -19 0% 0% 3.33% 30% 66.66%

    2.09%

    10.25%

    23.19%

    38.91%

    25.54%

    3.1.1. F. Pie chart showing percentage of Grade-III Students having different scores on Parameter- 1 A:

    Dealing with the Language in Hindi

    Zero score1%-25%26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 30

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 3.57% 14.28% 39.28% 17.85% 25%

    9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 0% 5.40% 40.54% 54.05% 0% 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 0% 9.37% 6.25% 25% 59.37% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 0% 8.82% 20.58% 47.05% 23.52% 12 GHS, Sector -24 0% 0% 8.82% 47.05% 44.11% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 1.06% 18.08% 24.46% 41.48% 14.89% 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) 10.25% 16.66% 29.48% 26.92% 16.66% 15 GMHS, Sector -26,

    (Police Line) 0% 19.60% 27.45% 41.17% 11.76%

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 0% 4.76% 23.80% 23.80% 47.61% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 0% 0% 40.90% 27.27% 31.81% 18 GMHS, Sector -28D 0% 4.54% 24.24% 43.93% 27.27% 19 GHS, Sector -29B 14.81% 11.11% 25.92% 48.14% 0% 20 GMSSS-33-D 1.56% 10.93% 18.75% 53.12% 15.62% 21 GMHS, Sector -34 0% 13.15% 36.84% 50% 0% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 0% 0% 0% 11.11% 88.88% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 5.45% 1.81% 3.63% 61.81% 27.27% 24 GHS, Sector -38B 0% 8.10% 8.10% 27.02% 54.05% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 4.60% 9.61% 16.34% 47.11% 22.11% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 11.25% 5% 18.75% 65% 0% 27 GMHS-38WEST 10.52% 10.52% 38.15% 39.47% 1.31% 28 GHS, Sector -40A 0% 18.18% 9.09% 45.45% 27.27% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 0% 15.62% 28.12% 32.81% 23.43% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 1.42% 5.71% 18.57% 27.14% 47.14% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 0% 0% 4.68% 32.81% 62.5% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 1.23% 2.46% 28.39 60.49 7.40% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 2.56% 2.56 30.76 46.15 17.94% 34 GHS, Sector -50 0% 6.34% 12.69% 38.09% 42.85% 35 GHS, Sector -52 0% 12.5% 26.38% 52.17% 8.33% 36 GHS, Sector -53 0% 5.17% 13.79% 41.37% 39.65% 37 GHS, Sector -54 1.33% 9.33% 26.66% 25.33% 37.33% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 0% 9.63% 31.32% 49.39% 9.63% 39 GPS-BUTERLA 0% 10% 40% 30% 20% 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 0% 3.73% 11.39% 59.49% 25.31% 41 GHS-DARIA 1.26% 16.45% 26.58% 30.37% 25.31% 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 4.16% 25% 26.38% 37.5% 6.94% 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 0% 9.63% 25.3% 42.16% 22.89% 44 GSSS-Khudda ALISHER 2.59% 22.07% 32.46% 41.55% 1.29% 45 GSSS- Khudda Lahora 5.55% 16.66% 38.88% 35.18% 3.70% 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 6.94% 22.22% 27.77% 34.72% 8.33% 47 GSSS-Mani Majra Town 0% 13.95% 19.76% 45.34% 20.93% 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY 1.06% 10.63% 31.91% 31.91% 18.08% 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 3.89% 5.19% 14.28% 46.75% 29.87% 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 1.44% 2.89% 18.84% 24.63% 52.17%

  • 31

    3.1.2. Overall results on Parameter-1B- Ways of interacting with Language : Written expressions in English Language, total eight items were framed in the

    test to check the correct written expressions of students in English language

    (identifying pictures, days of week; months of year and antonyms) and results

    from the table 3.1.T. , clearly shows that 13.53% students were not able to write

    correctly in English Language; 20.63% students scored between 1% - 25% score;

    26.27% students scored between 26% - 50% score; 27.23% students scored

    between 51% - 75% score; and 12.30% students scored between 75%-100%

    score. Results are also shown in Pie Diagram 3.1.2.F.

    3.1.2.A. School wise results on Parameter-1B: Ways of interacting with

    language- Written expressions in English language are presented in

    table 3.1.2.T.

    Table 3.1.2.T. Percentage Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students on Parameter-1A: Ways of interacting with Language : Written Expressions in English Language Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 3.88% 14.56% 42.71% 18.44% 20.38% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 8.46% 30.0% 33.07% 22.30% 6.15% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 15.25% 16.94% 20.33% 32.20% 13.55% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 1.80% 18.91% 46.84% 33.33% 7.20% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 0% 2.56% 17.94% 58.97% 20.51% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 7.81% 17.18% 25% 37.5% 12.5% 7 GHS, Sector -19 0% 10% 33.33% 50% 6.66% 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 25% 17.85% 21.42% 35.715 0%

    13.53%

    20.63%

    26.27%

    27.23%

    12.30%

    3.1.2.F. Pie Chart showing percentage of Grade-III students having different scores on Parameter 1-B:

    Dealing with the Language in English

    Zero score1%-25%26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 32

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 5.40% 5.40% 18.91% 67.56% 2.70% 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 16.25% 6.25% 18.75% 43.75% 25% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 23.52% 26.47% 35.29% 14.70% 0% 12 GHS, Sector -24 20.58% 23.52% 11.76% 38.23% 5.88% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 19.14% 23.40% 22.34% 29.78% 5.31% 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) 21.79% 17.94% 20.51% 21.79% 17.94% 15 GMHS, Sector -26, Police

    Line 7.84% 19.60% 25.49% 33.33% 13.12%

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 23.8% 14.28% 28.57% 33.33% 13.72% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 4.54% 31.81% 40.90% 18.18% 4.54% 18 GMHS, Sector -28C 4.54% 22.72% 24.24% 25.75% 22.72% 19 GHS, Sector -29B 33.33% 48.14% 18.51% 0% 0% 20 GMSSS-33-D 3.12% 17.81% 12.5% 50% 14.06% 21 GMHS, Sector -34 5.26% 42.10% 23.68% 25.68% 5.26% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 0% 0% 0% 61.11% 38.88% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 0% 7.27% 9.09% 47.27% 36.36% 24 GHS, Sector -38B 13.51% 37.83% 16.21% 16.21% 16.21% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 18.26% 26.92% 18.26% 26.92% 9.61% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 31.25% 35.00% 17.5% 6.25% 10% 27 GMHS-38WEST 23.68% 27.63% 25.00% 21.05% 2.63% 28 GHS, Sector -40A 9.09% 40.90% 31.81% 18.18% 0% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 12.5% 18.75% 31.25% 28.12% 9.37% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 5.71% 15.71% 24.28% 30% 24.28% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 3.12% 6.23% 15.62% 42.18% 32.81% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 1.23% 8.64% 24.69% 38.27% 27.16% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 5.12% 12.82% 28.20% 33.33% 20.51% 34 GHS, Sector -50 1.58% 17.46% 38.09% 12.69% 30.15% 35 GHS, Sector -52 26.38% 25.00% 23.61% 16.66% 8.33% 36 GHS, Sector -53 1.72% 17.24% 41.37% 13.79% 25.86% 37 GHS, Sector -54 17.33% 18.66% 31.81% 22.66% 13.33% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 12.04% 28.91% 24.09% 31.33% 3.61% 39 GPS-BUTERLA 5.00% 5.00% 15.00% 75.00% 0% 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 27.84% 22.78% 21.51% 16.45% 11.39% 41 GHS-DARIA 10.12% 30.91% 21.51% 20.25% 15.18% 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 37.5% 36.11% 13.88% 8.33% 2.77% 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 15.66% 20.48% 39.75% 20.48% 3.61% 44 GSSS-Khudda ALISHER 15.58% 33.76% 36.36% 12.98% 1.29% 45 GSSS- Khudda Lahora 0% 29.62% 20.37% 33.33% 16.66% 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 34.72% 27.77% 18.05% 15.27% 1.38% 47 GSSS-Mani Majra Town 22.09% 27.90% 24.41% 19.76% 5.81% 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY 39.36% 19.14% 20.21% 19.14% 2.12% 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 5.19% 9.09% 29.87% 40.25% 15.58% 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 1.44% 7.24% 26.08% 43.47% 21.73%

  • 33

    3.1.3. Overall results on Parameter-2- Dealing with Complexity of Numbers and

    Geometry, total twenty four items were framed in the test to assess the ability of

    students to deal with numbers and geometry (writing tables, identifying

    geometrical shapes, clock timings, scale measurements, simple arithmetic

    operations on addition and subtraction) and results from the table 3.1.T. clearly

    shows that 7.83% students were not able to solve any problem related to

    numbers and geometry; 20.73% students scored between 1% - 25% score;

    29.42% students scored between 26% - 50% score; 26.84% students scored

    between 51% - 75% score; and 15.16% students scored between 75%-100%

    score. Results are also shown in Pie Diagram 3.1.3.F.

    3.1.3.A. School wise results on Parameter-2: Dealing with Complexity of

    Numbers and Geometry are presented in table 3.1.3.T.

    Table 3.1.3.T: Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students on Parameter-2: Dealing with Complexity of Numbers and Geometry Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 0% 1.94% 16.5% 37.86% 53.39% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 1.53% 20% 30% 30.76% 17.69% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 1.69% 22.03% 32.20% 42.37% 1.69% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 1.80% 18.91% 26.12% 40.54% 12.61% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 0% 0% 43.58% 43.58% 12.82% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 15.62% 18.75% 40.62% 21.87% 3.12% 7 GHS, Sector -19 0% 3.33% 43.33% 43.66% 6.66%

    7.83%

    20.73%

    29.42%

    26.84%

    15.16%

    3.1.3.F. Pie Chart showing percentage of Grade-III students having diffrernt scores on Parameter 1-B:

    Dealing with the Complexity of Numbers and Geometry

    Zero score1%-25%26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 34

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 10.71% 28.57% 35.71% 7.25% 0% 9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 5.40% 10.81% 56.75% 27.02% 0% 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 16.25% 21.87% 15.62% 40.62% 15.62% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 5.88% 20.58% 52.94% 17.64% 2.94% 12 GHS, Sector -24 0% 17.64% 29.41% 11.76% 41.17% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 10.63% 37.23% 26.59% 21.27% 4.25% 14 GMSSS, Sec -26 (TM) 23.07% 16.66% 17.94% 12.82% 29.48% 15 GMHS, Sector -26,

    Police Line 9.80% 25.49% 25.49% 23.52% 15.68%

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 0% 0% 9.52% 38.09% 52.38% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 0% 9.09% 31.81% 54.54% 4.54% 18 GMHS, Sector -28C 10.60% 21.21% 36.36% 27.27% 4.54% 19 GHS, Sector -29B 22.22% 29.62% 33.33% 11.11% 3.70% 20 GMSSS-33-D 6.25% 10.93% 26.56% 34.37% 21.87% 21 GMHS, Sector -34 7.89% 15.78% 52.63% 23.68% 0% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 0% 0% 0% 5.55% 94.44% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 1.81% 1.81% 18.18% 25.45% 52.72% 24 GHS, Sector -38B 1.81% 13.51% 27.02% 45.94% 10.81% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 17.30% 26.92% 28.84% 22.17% 4.80% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 50% 22.5% 12.5% 15% 0% 27 GMHS-38WEST 18.42% 35.52% 26.31% 18.42% 1.31% 28 GHS, Sector -40A 4.54% 68.18% 13.63% 4.54% 9.09% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 6.21% 21.87% 46.87% 18.75% 5.71% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 0% 12.85% 28.57% 54.28% 14.28% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 0% 0% 12.5% 73.43% 14.06% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 1.27% 3.70% 27.16% 32.09% 35.80% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 2.56% 10.25% 30.76% 43.58% 12.82% 34 GHS, Sector -50 0% 25.39% 17.46% 12.69% 44.44% 35 GHS, Sector -52 9.72% 12.5% 22.22% 30.55% 25% 36 GHS, Sector -53 0% 27.58% 18.96% 13.79% 39.65% 37 GHS, Sector -54 2.66% 18.66% 32% 34.66% 12% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 4.81% 31.32% 53.01% 9.63% 1.20% 39 GPS-BUTERLA 10% 0% 40% 20% 20% 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 13.92% 30.37% 22.78% 27.84% 5.06% 41 GHS-DARIA 11.26% 10.12% 22.78% 39.24% 26.58% 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 23.61% 36.11% 25% 11.11% 4.16% 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 3.61% 12.04% 20.48% 20.48% 43.37% 44 GSSS-Khudda Alisher 10.38% 44.15% 37.66% 7.79% 0% 45 GSSS- Khudda Lahora 1.85% 33.33% 31.48% 25.92% 7.40% 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 15.27% 33.33% 40.27% 11.11% 0% 47 GSSS-Mani Majra

    Town 10.46% 39.53% 36.04% 10.46% 3.48%

    48 GHS-MAULI COLONY 8.51% 32.97% 31.91% 23.40% 3.19% 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 6.49% 23.37% 31.16% 28.57% 10.38% 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 1.44% 15.94% 27.53% 26.08% 28.98%

  • 35

    3.1.4. Overall results on Parameter-3: Understanding the Physical World

    around us, total twelve items were framed in the test to assess students’

    knowledge of students about understanding the physical world around us (colours

    of traffic lights, modes of transport, sports activities, Indian festivals,

    communication instruments, national symbols) and results from the table 3.1.T.

    clearly shows that 4.14% students were not able to write the names of the

    physical things around us; 12.64% students scored between 1% - 25% score;

    21.89% students scored between 26% - 50% score; 28.16% students scored

    between 51% - 75% score; and 32.78% students scored between 75%-100%

    score. Results are also shown in Pie Diagram 3.1.4.F.

    3.1.4.A. School wise results on Parameter-3: Understanding the Physical

    World around us are presented in table 3.1.4.T. Table 3.1.4.T.: Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students on Parameter-3 : Understanding the Physical World around us Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 0% 4.85% 14.56% 26.21% 54.36% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 6.15% 18.46% 38.46% 31.53% 5.38% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 8.47& 33.89% 20.33% 28.81% 8,47% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 2.70% 15.31% 31.53% 36.93% 13.51% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 0% 0% 12.82% 53.84% 33.33% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 3.12% 17.18% 18.75% 35.93% 25% 7 GHS, Sector -19 0% 10% 33.33% 43.33% 13.33% 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 3.57% 17.85% 21.42% 21.42% 35.71% 9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 0% 13.51% 21.62% 32.43% 32.43%

    4.14%

    12.64%

    21.89%

    28.16%

    32.78%

    3.1.4.F. Pie Chart showing percentage of Grade-III students having different scores on Parameter 3:

    Understanding the Physical World around us

    Zero score1%-25%26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 36

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 0% 6.25% 15.62% 40.62% 34.37% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 5.88% 29.41% 26.47% 23.52% 11.76% 12 GHS, Sector -24 0% 0% 17.64% 41.17% 41.17% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 14.89% 24.46% 20.21% 29.78% 10.63% 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) 14.10% 12.82% 20.51% 26.92% 25.64% 15 GMHS, Sec -26, Police

    Line 3.92% 7.84% 23.52% 33.33% 31.37%

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 0% 0% 19.04% 38.09% 42.85% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 0% 0% 9.09% 27.27% 63.63% 18 GMHS, Sector -28C 0% 13.63% 21.21% 30.30% 34.84% 19 GHS, Sector -29B 7.40% 14.81% 33.33% 25.92% 18.51% 20 GMSSS-33-D 1.56% 6.25% 23.43% 48.43% 20.31% 21 GMHS, Sector -34 0% 15.78% 31.57% 34.21% 18.42% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 0% 0% 0% 5.55% 94.44% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 0% 5.45% 1.81% 7.27% 85.45% 24 GHS, Sector -38B 0% 10.81% 10.81% 21.62% 56.75% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 10.57% 15.38% 13.46% 17.30% 43.26% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 15% 11.25% 16.25% 13.75% 43.75% 27 GMHS-38WEST 16.66% 23.83% 29.16% 23.83% 9.72% 28 GHS, Sector -40A 0% 50% 18.18% 18.18% 13.63% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 4.68% 14.06% 25% 29.68% 26.56% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 0% 14.28% 20% 22.85% 52.85% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 0% 0% 20.31% 62.5% 17.18% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 0% 2.46% 13.58% 38.27% 45.67% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 2.56% 0% 10.25% 20.51% 66.66% 34 GHS, Sector -50 0% 4.76% 9.52% 12.69% 63.88% 35 GHS, Sector -52 2.11% 22.22% 31.94% 22.22% 20.83% 36 GHS, Sector -53 0% 5.11% 8.62% 13.79% 72.41% 37 GHS, Sector -54 0% 9.33% 21.33% 33.33% 36% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 4.81% 10.84% 27.71% 27.71% 28.91% 39 GPS-BUTERLA 0% 20% 10% 30% 40% 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 10.26% 3.79% 21.51% 16.45% 56.96% 41 GHS-DARIA 0% 6.32% 25.31% 27.84% 40.50% 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 19.44% 22.22% 27.77% 13.88% 13.88% 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 0% 10.84% 20.48% 36.14% 32.53% 44 GSSS-Khudda ALISHER 2.59% 25.97% 33.76% 29.87% 7.79% 45 GSSS- Khudda Lahora 9.25% 35.18% 20.37% 14.81% 20.37% 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 6.94% 34.72% 33.33% 16.66% 8.33% 47 GSSS-Mani Majra Town 3.48% 17.44% 33.72% 19.76% 23.25% 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY 3.19% 13.82% 29.78% 28.72% 24.46% 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 1.29% 10.38% 28.57% 22.07% 37.66% 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 0% 5.79% 10.14% 44.92% 39.13%

  • 37

    3.1.5. Overall results on Parameter-4: Knowledge of the Natural

    Environment, total twelve items were framed in the test to judge the

    understanding of students about parts of human body and parts of plant. and

    results from the table 3.1.T. clearly shows that 6.43% students were not having

    correct knowledge on parameter of natural environment; 9.58% students scored

    between 1% - 25% score; 15.09% students scored between 26% - 50% score;

    36.36% students scored between 51% - 75% score; and 33.51% students

    scored between 75%-100% score. Results are also shown in Pie Diagram 3.1.5.F.

    3.1.5.A. School wise results on Parameter-4: Knowledge of the Natural

    Environment are presented in table 3.1.5.T.

    Table 3.1.5.T: Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-III Students on Parameter-4 : Knowledge of the Natural Environment Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B 0% 1.94% 9.70% 25.24% 63.10% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 4.61% 18.46% 27.69% 45.38% 3.84% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 6.77% 23.72% 33.89% 15.25% 20.33% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 1.80% 13.51% 16.21% 54.05% 14.41% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 0% 0% 0% 43.58% 56.41% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 6.25% 6.25% 7.81% 40.62% 39.06% 7 GHS, Sector -19 0% 0% 36.66% 40% 23.33% 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B 10.71% 7.14% 21.42% 32.14% 35.71%

    6.43%

    9.58%

    15.09%

    35.36%

    33.51%

    3.1.5.F. Pie Chart showing percentage of Grade-III students having different scores on Parameter 4:

    Knowledge of the Natural Environment

    Zero score1%-25%26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 38

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –III students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D 0% 8.10 13.51% 32.43% 45.94% 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A 3.12% 0% 15.62% 53.12% 28.12% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 8.82% 17.64% 38.23% 17,64% 17.64% 12 GHS, Sector -24 0% 8.82% 11.76% 35.29% 44.11% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 17.02% 14.89% 15.95% 28.72% 23.40% 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) 25.64% 12.82% 14.10% 30.76% 16.66% 15 GMHS, Sector -26, Police

    Line 5.88% 3.92% 5.88% 58.82% 25.49%

    16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) 0% 4.76% 14.28% 57.14% 23.80% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C 0% 0% 4.54% 54.54% 40.90% 18 GMHS, Sector -28C 1.51% 3.03% 15.15% 36.36% 43.93% 19 GHS, Sector -29B 7.40% 14.81% 18.51% 33.33% 25.92% 20 GMSSS-33-D 1.56% 10.93% 15.62% 53.12% 18.75% 21 GMHS, Sector -34 2.63% 5.26% 26.31% 44.73% 21.05% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D 0% 0% 0% 16.66% 83.33% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B 7.27% 0% 12.72% 20% 60% 24 GHS, Sector -38B 18.91% 5.40% 10.81% 10.81% 54.05% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D 11.53% 10.57% 11.53% 43.26% 23.07% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) 17.5% 12.5% 13.75% 8.75% 47.5% 27 GMHS-38WEST 18.42% 18.42% 17.10 28.94% 17.10% 28 GHS, Sector -40A 0% 54.54 4.54% 18.18% 22.72% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 16.25% 6.25% 15.62% 32.81% 39.06% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 0% 0% 5.71% 38.57% 55.71% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 0% 1.27% 0% 0% 98.43% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 0% 6.17% 14.81% 49.38% 29.62% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D 5.12% 0% 10.25% 35.89% 48.71% 34 GHS, Sector -50 4.76% 14.28% 14.28% 22.22% 39.68% 35 GHS, Sector -52 2.77% 8.33% 23.61% 41.66% 23.61% 36 GHS, Sector -53 6.89% 15.51% 13.79% 22.41% 41.37% 37 GHS, Sector -54 6.66% 4% 5.33% 46.66% 37.33% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 6.02% 10.84% 28.91% 36.14% 14.45% 39 GPS-BUTERLA 5% 5% 10% 35% 45% 40 GHS-DADDUMAJRA 2.53% 8.86% 13.92% 37.97% 35.44% 41 GHS-DARIA 1.26% 5.06% 8.86% 43.03% 41.77% 42 GMHS-Dhanas-RC-I 18.05% 23.61% 19.44% 13.88% 23.61% 43 GHS-HALLOMAJRA 2.40% 6.02% 7.22% 43.37% 40.96% 44 GSSS-Khudda Alisher 3.89% 5.19% 10.38% 55.84% 24.67% 45 GSSS- Khudda Lahora 14.8% 18.51% 22.22% 35.18% 9.25% 46 GMSSS-MALOYA 13.88% 9.72% 22.34% 18.08% 23.40% 47 GSSS-Mani Majra Town 5.81% 6.97% 17.44% 47.67% 22.09% 48 GHS-MAULI COLONY 10.63% 24.46% 22.34% 18.08% 23.40% 49 GMS-Pocket no.10 6.49% 1.29% 19.48% 28.57% 44.15% 50 GMSSS-SARANGPUR 1.44% 1.44% 2.89% 43.47% 50.72%

  • 39

    3.2. ANALYSIS OF LEARNING OUTCOMES OF GRADE- IV STUDENTS:

    Percentage analysis of learning outcomes of grade- IV students on various parameters is presented in the following tables: Table 3.2.T. Percentage Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade- IV

    Students

    Learning Parameters Percentage of students having scores

    Zero 1% to 25%

    26% to 50%

    51% to 75%

    76% to 100%

    Parameter-1A: Ways of

    interacting with language- :

    Written expressions in Hindi

    language

    0.00% 0.00% 5.32% 26.07% 68.60%

    Parameter-1B: Ways of

    interacting with language - :

    Written expressions in English

    language

    6.24% 25.80% 35.01% 25.43% 7.49%

    Parameter-2: Dealing with

    complexity of Numbers and

    Geometry

    3.46% 24.08% 35.15% 28.05% 9.23%

    Parameter-3: Understanding

    the Physical World around us

    0.291% 8.52% 28.11% 61.56% 1.50%

    Parameter-4: Knowledge of the

    Natural Environment 6.00% 25.56% 41.21% 22.33% 4.87%

    3.2.1. Overall results On Parameter-1A- Ways of interacting with Language :

    Written expressions in Hindi Language, four items were framed in the test to

    check the correct written expressions of students in Hindi language (identifying

    shapes and directions of sun rise and sun set) and results from the table 3.2.T.

    clearly shows that all students can write in Hindi language correctly; 5.32%

    students scored between 26% - 50% score; 26.07% students scored between

    51% - 75% score; and 68.60% students scored between 75%-100% score.

    Results are also shown in Pie Diagram 3.2.1.F.

  • 40

    3.2.1.A. School wise results on Parameter-1A: Ways of interacting with

    language- : Written expressions in Hindi language are presented in table 3.2.1.T.

    Table 3.2.1.T. Analysis of Learning Outcomes of Grade-IV Students on Parameter-1-A: Ways of interacting with language- : Written expressions in Hindi Language Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –IV students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    1 GMSSS Sector- 8 B - - - 22.98% 77.01% 2 GMSSS, Sector-10 - - 3.87% 29.67% 66.45% 3 GMSSS, Sector-15 - - 6.25% 32.81% 60.93% 4 GMSSS, Sector-16 - - 6.10% 18.32% 68.70% 5 GMSSS, Sector -18 - - - 20.00% 80.00% 6 GMSSS, Sector -19 - - 2.77% 38.88% 58.33% 7 GHS, Sector -19 - - 4.87% 19.31% 75.6% 8 GMSSS, Sector -20B - - - 37.08% 62.96 9 GMSSS, Sector -20 D - - 11.40% 30.95% 57.14% 10 GMSSS, Sector -22A - - - 61.11% 38.88% 11 GGMSSS, Sector -23 - - 3.92% 17.64% 76.47% 12 GHS, Sector -24 - - - 26.08% 73.91% 13 GMHS, Sector -25 - - 2.56% 30.76% 66.66% 14 GMSSS, Sector -26 (TM) - - 1.49% 14.92% 83.58% 15 GMHS, Sec -26, Police Line - - - 25.00% 75.00% 16 GPS, Sector - 26 (TM) - - 1.47% 14.7% 83.82% 17 GMSSS, Sector -27 C - - 16.66% 16.66% 66.66% 18 GMHS, Sector -28C - - - 14.10% 85.89% 19 GHS, Sector -29B - - 2.5% 17.5% 80.00% 20 GMSSS-33-D - - - 15.38% 84.61%

    5.32%

    26.07%

    68.60%

    3.2.1.F. Pie Chart showing Percentage of Grade-IV students having different scores on Parameter 1-A:

    Dealing with the Language in Hindi

    26%-50%51%-75%76%-100%

  • 41

    Sr. No.

    Name of School Scores of Grade –IV students’ in Percentage 0% 1% -25% 26%-50% 51%-75% 76%-100%

    21 GMHS, Sector -34 - - 1.96% 25.49% 72.54% 22 GMSSS, Sector -35 D - - 12.5% 58.33% 29.16% 23 GMSSS, Sector -37B - - 7.14% 47.14% 45.71% 24 GHS, Sector -38B - - - 13.2% 86.79% 25 GMHS, Sector -38D - - 32.75% 43.10% 24.13% 26 GMSSS-38 (WEST) - - 17.07% 28.04% 54.87% 27 GMHS-38WEST - - 8.75% 52.5% 38.75% 28 GHS, Sector -40A - - 16.66% 6.66% 76.66% 29 GMHS, Sector-42 - - 1.75% 31.57% 66.66% 30 GMSSS, Sector -44 - - 5.88% 44.11% 50.00% 31 GSSS, Sector -45 - - 1.56% 14.06% 84.37% 32 GMSSS, Sector -46 - - 1.16% 6.97% 91.86% 33 GMSSS, Sector -47D - - 3.5% 10.52% 85.96% 34 GHS, Sector -50 - - 1.33% 32.00% 66.66% 35 GHS, Sector -52 - - 5.95% 22.61% 71.42% 36 GHS, Sector -53 - - 8.82% 11.76% 79.41% 37 GHS, Sector -54 - - 26.08% 24.63% 49.27% 38 GMSSS, Sector -56 - - 3.65% 25.6% 70.73% 39 GPS-BUTERLA - - -

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Study of Impact of Building as Learning Aid (BaLA) Project interventions on Students’ Learning Outcomes A Project Sponsored by State Project Director (SSA) cum DSE, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan Society, Chandigarh Administration. 2016-17 Dr. Jatinder Grover Principal Investigator, Associate Professor, Department of Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh. Contact: 09855425672; 08427297000 Email:[email protected]: [email protected] Dr. Kanwalpreet Kaur, Co-investigator Assistant Professor, Institute of Educational Technology & Vocational Education, Panjab University, Chandigarh. Contact: 09814159535 Email: [email protected] [email protected] PANJAB UNIVERSITY, CHANDIGARH.
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