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HEAT TRANSFER SUBJECT CODE: 161906 SEM : 6 Subject Guide: Pritesh Jaradi Department of Mechanical Engineering. Subject Index:. Introduction HT by conduction Critical Thickness of Insulation Theory of Fins HT by convection HT by radiation Heat Exchangers Mass Transfer. Reference Books:. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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SUBJECT CODE: 161906 SEM : 6 Subject Guide: Pritesh Jaradi Department of Mechanical Engineering
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HEAT TRANSFER

SUBJECT CODE: 161906

SEM : 6

Subject Guide: Pritesh Jaradi Department of Mechanical Engineering

Subject Index: Introduction HT by conduction Critical Thickness of Insulation Theory of Fins HT by convection HT by radiation Heat Exchangers Mass Transfer

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 2

Reference Books:

D S Kumar R K Rajput (Publisher – S Chand) Books India Publication

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 3

Understanding Heat Transfer,

Conduction, Convection and

Subject Pre-requisite :

Engineering Thermodynamics (Basics)

Fluid Mechanics (Basics)

Engineering Mathematics (PDE)

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 5

Heat Transfer

Heat always moves from a warmer place to a cooler place.

Hot objects in a cooler room will cool to room temperature.

Cold objects in a warmer room will heat up to room temperature.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 6

Question

If a cup of coffee and an ice-cream were left on the table in this room what would happen to them? Why?

The cup of coffee will cool until it reaches room temperature.

The ice-cream will melt and then the liquid will warm to room temperature.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 7

Why ??

Why coffee is being cooled up to room temperature ?

Why ice-cream is being warmed up to room temperature ?

Which thermodynamic principle is applied for above said examples ?

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 8

Thermodynamic Principle

In general, any object in system will try to achieve system properties.

I.e. by means of equilibrium

3 types : Thermal, Mechanical & Chemical

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 9

Thermal Equilibrium

A body is said in thermal equilibrium when temperature doesn’t change with time

If any unbalance body will try to balance with environment.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 10

Thermal Equilibrium (Contd.)

System is cool, thenHot body cool body

System is warmer, thenCool body Warmer body

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 11

How ??

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 12

Heat Transfer Methods

Heat transfers in three ways: Conduction Convection Radiation

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 13

Heat Transfer Methods (Contd.)

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 14

Conduction

When you heat a metal strip at one end, the heat travels to the other end.

As you heat the metal, the particles vibrate, these vibrations make the adjacent particles vibrate, and so on and so on, the vibrations are passed along the metal and so is the heat. We call this? Conduction

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 15

Metals are different

The outer e______ of metal atoms drift, and are free to move.

When the metal is heated, this ‘sea of electrons’ gain k_____ energy and transfer it throughout the metal.

Insulators, such as w___ and p____, do not have this ‘sea of electrons’ which is why they do not conduct heat as well as metals.

lectrons

inetic

ood lastic

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 16

Why does metal feel colder than wood, if they are both at the same temperature?

• Metal is a conductor, wood is an insulator.

• Metal conducts the heat away from your hands.

• Wood does not conduct the heat away from your hands as well as the metal, so the wood feels warmer than the metal.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 17

Convection

What happens to the particles in a liquid or a gas when you heat them?

The particles spread out and become less dense.

This effects fluid movement.

What is a fluid? A liquid or gas.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 18

Fluid movement

Cooler, more d____, fluids sink through w_____, less dense fluids.

In effect, warmer liquids and gases r___ up.

Cooler liquids and gases s___.

ensearmer

ise

ink

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 19

Why is it windy at the seaside?

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 20

Cold air sinks

Where is the freezer

compartment put in a fridge?

Freezer compartmen

t

It is put at the top, because cool air sinks, so it cools the food on the way down.

It is warmer at the

bottom, so this warmer

air rises and a

convection current is

set up.5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 21

The third method of heat transfer

How does heat energy get from the Sun to the Earth? There are no particles

between the Sun and the Earth so it CANNOT travel by conduction or by convection.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 22

True/False

Radiation can travel through a vacuum

True/False

True/False

Radiation travels at the speed of light

True/False

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 23

Emission experiment

Four containers were filled with warm water. Which container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?

Shiny metal

Dull metal

Dull black

Shiny black

The __________ container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its shiny surface reflects heat _______ back into the container so less is lost. The ________ container would be the coolest because it is the best at _______ heat radiation.

dull blackemitting

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 24

Absorption experiment

Four containers were placed equidistant from a heater. Which container would have the warmest water after ten minutes?

The __________ container would be the warmest after ten minutes because its surface absorbs heat _______ the best. The _________ container would be the coolest because it is the poorest at __________ heat radiation.

shiny metalabsorbing

Shiny metal

Dull metal

Dull black

Shiny black

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 25

Convection questions

Why are boilers placed beneath hot water tanks in people’s homes?

Hot water rises.

So when the boiler heats the water, and the hot water rises, the water tank is filled with hot water.

Why does hot air rise and cold air sink?

Cool air is more dense than warm air, so the cool air ‘falls through’ the warm air.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 26

Why are houses painted white in hot countries?

White reflects heat radiation and keeps the house cooler.

Why are shiny foil blankets wrapped around marathon runners at the end of a race?

The shiny metal reflects the heat radiation from the runner back in, this stops the runner getting cold.

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 27

1. Which of the following is not a method of heat transfer?

B. Insulation

C. Conduction

D. Convection

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 28

2. In which of the following are the particles closest together?

A. Solid

B. Liquid

C. Gas

D. Fluid

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 29

3. How does heat energy reach the Earth from the Sun?

B. Conduction

C. Convection

D. Insulation

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 30

4. Which is the best surface for reflecting heat radiation?

A. Shiny white

B. Dull white

C. Shiny black

D. Dull black

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 31

5. Which is the best surface for absorbing heat radiation?

A. Shiny white

B. Dull white

C. Shiny black

D. Dull black

5 February 2013 Lecture 1 Introduction 32

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