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Sweeteners Jennifer Crumm

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    SWEETENERSSWEETENERSJennifer CrummJennifer CrummWhitney MillerWhitney Miller

    Kayla KmetKayla Kmet

    Kim ToneKim Tone

    Rachel ScheiderRachel ScheiderChelsi CardosoChelsi Cardoso

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    History of Sweeteners

    India: sugar cane first came in 4000BCE, and thought to be one of the 7necessities of mankind, imperative tosustain life.

    Egypt: as early as 2500 BCE massproduced sugar for culinary purposes.

    Rome: at first sugar was not used tosweeten foods like honey was, but formedical purposes.

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    History of Sweeteners

    Sugar even influences behavior The mass Caribbean slave trade was

    due to sustain sugar plantations.

    So why do we like the sweet taste?Preference for sweet or fatty foods?

    Adaptive?

    Thrifty Gene?

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    NATURALSWEETENERS

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    Natural Sweeteners- AgaveNectar

    Agave is a plant found in manydifferent varities includingSalmiana, Green, Thorny, Rainbow,and Blue Agave which is used toproduce tequila, and is prefered formost agave syrups because of its

    high carbohydrate content. The plant is related to the Aloe

    vera plant. To make the Agave nectar, the sap

    from the core(pina) is extractedand then heated to break down the

    carbohydrates into sugars. called honey water because its

    comparable to honey although notas viscous

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    Natural Sweeteners

    Many people who do not like honey enjoy agavebecause it has a cleaner aftertaste

    The heating process allows manufacturers toproduce

    Light and dark varieties the light varieties are processed at lower temperatures

    and undergo more filtration which gives them a milderflavor, making the lighter syrups easy to integrate

    culinarily. Darker syrups are filtered less so the remaining solids

    give a more robust flavor similar to maple syrup

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    Natural Sweeteners

    Agave is considered abridge between artificialsweeteners and sugarsbecause it holds all theproperties of refined sugars

    while having a lowerglycemic index. The main sugars found in

    agave are fructose andglucose, so it is stilleffective in the kitchenbecause it is able to brownand caramelize.

    Naturally contains traces ofIron, Calcium, Magnesiumand Potassium

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    Honey

    Honey is also a lower glycemic naturalsweetener composed of glucose and fructose itis made by insects using plant nectar.

    A very ancient food, records of its consumption

    go back thousands of years. Honey has a very distinct flavor. Thecarbohydrates it holds are able to enhance theintensity of desirable flavors and reducebitterness of foods it is paired with.

    It can also modify the perception of saltinessfructose predominates in most honeys, makingit approximately one and a half times sweeterthan processed sugar.

    The thickness provides a different texture and

    the heated processing provides a distinctiveflavor both to the palate and in baking

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    Honey

    Contains a type of oligosaccarides that may act as aprebiotic, aiding digestive health

    Each tablespoon provides approximately 17 grams ofcarbohydrates making it an excellent recovery food forrigorous exercise since it is a cheaper alternative to sports

    gels Honey is a rich source of antioxidants, especially thedarker varieties.

    In a recent study by the University of Illinois, the OxygenRadical Absorbance capacity ranged from 3.0 micromolsper gram for lighter honeys to 17.0 micrograms per gram

    for darker varieties. Processed sugars showed noantioxidant activity. Contains trace amounts of vitamins and minerals, but not

    enough to be considered a source

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    Honey

    Both honey and agave are known for theirantimocrobial properties.

    Hydrogen peroxide generation occurs in honey, whichattributes to most of honeys antibacterial properties.Certain flavonoids also contribute to these

    characteristics. Agave has been used for medicinal purposes as well,

    when applied topically to the skin, it also exibitsantibacterial properties.

    Since both of these natural sweeteners are products ofnature, they are also susceptible to the conditions ofthe plants or nectars needed to produce them.

    This can produce fluctuations in flavor and qualitygrade

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    HIGH FRUCTOSE CORNSYRUP

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    High fructose corn syrup andhistory

    Discovered 1957

    DevelopmentThe refining process was

    narrowed down in1965-1970 Mainstream Mid 1970s- mid 1990s

    Contradictions Why do companies use

    HFCS rather than sucrose?

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    HFCS History Continued

    Functionality More stable than sucrose HFCS keeps its composition in acidic food where as

    sucrose hydrolyzes and changes the flavor of the

    foods.More readily availableEasily storedEasier to add to foods

    Price does not fluctuate Flavor enhancement Fermentation HFCS allows fermentation without drying out foods

    like bread.

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    Foods with HFCS

    Soda BreadYogurt

    Cereal CrackerJelly/Jam Candy And the list goes

    on

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    High Fructose Corn Syrup vs.Sugar

    Sugar is 50 percentfructose and 50 percent

    glucose.Table sugar contains

    disaccharides (whereglucose and fructoseare bonded=sucrose)

    High fructose corn syrupis 42 percent glucose

    and 55 percent fructose,and 3 percent highersugars

    HFCS lacks the bond andglucose and fructose are

    free

    Sugar HFCS

    Sweetness equivalent

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    Refining HFCS vs Sugar

    Both go through aseries of steps thatrequire the use ofchemicals

    Both arecomplicated One difference is

    that in the process ofrefining HFCS,

    glucose isomerase isadded to convert aportion of theglucose into fructose

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    So Whats the Big Deal?

    HFCS is just the

    same as sugar Weight gain hasoccurredworldwide, even incountries who donot have highavailability of HFCS

    HFCS is bad, leading tohigher rates of weight gain

    compared to sugar Obesity theory: HFCS and

    the correlation with weightgain in the US

    Positive Negative

    Studies have not provided any

    stone set answers

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    National Eating Habits

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    The Current Debate

    Argument that the studies arefunded to make HFCS lookgood

    The studies that providenegativity on HFCS useresearch methods that do not

    reflect human diet Back to square one

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    NAME THAT SWEETENER!

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    Sucralose

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    Aspartame

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    Sucralose

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    Aspartame

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    Sucralose and Acesulfame K

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    Aspartame and Acesulfame K

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    Sucralose and Acesulfame K

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    Aspartame

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    Sucralose

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    Aspartame and Sucralose

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    Reb A (Stevia extract)

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    Aspartame

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    Reb A (Stevia extract)

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    ASPARTAME

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    Aspartame (Equal)- 1965

    Approved for usein dry foods in1981

    Approved for usein carbonatedbeverages in1983

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    Components of Aspartame

    Aspartic Acid Maintain proper pH level inblood

    Manufacture glucose whennecessary

    Phenylalanine

    Nervous system function Conversion of certain

    hormones Manufacturing of other amino

    acids Methyl ester group

    Converted to water andcarbon dioxide then excreted Absorbed as if they had

    come from food

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    Benefits of Aspartame

    180 to 200 times sweeter than sucrose Enhance and extend flavor

    Holds flavor for aspartame-sweetened chewinggum 4 times longer than sugar-sweetenedchewing gum

    Does not promote tooth decay Variety and flexibility for diabetic patientsSatisfies sweet tooth without affecting blood

    glucose

    Allegations Against

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    Allegations AgainstAspartame Said to cause illnesses: LupusMultiple SclerosisAlzheimers Disease

    Parkinson DiseaseBirth DefectsBrain TumorsSeizures

    CDCStated the majority of symptoms were mild and

    common amongst the public.Allegations evaluated through clinical studies

    Allegations Against

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    Allegations AgainstAspartame FDA

    Investigated allegations and found noreasonable evidence of public harm nor

    consistent symptom patternsAmounts many times greater than

    typical consumption did not showadverse effects

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    Possible Neurologic Effects

    1000 mg/kg body weight dose administered torats for seven consecutive days showedseizure-promoting activity.

    ADI (adequate dietary intake) for humans 50mg aspartame/kg body weight

    For 80 kg (176 lbs.) individual, ADI = 4 gaspartame Study dose administered to 80 kg human = 80 g

    aspartameEquivalent to consuming 444 12 oz. cans of diet

    soda each containing 180 mg of aspartame

    Allegations Against

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    Allegations AgainstAspartame Over 200 tests in the 28 years since its approval,

    aspartame is considered safe for the general public Several government and scientific committees found

    the media allegations false; once again reaffirmingthe safety of aspartame

    Scientific Committee on Food of the European Commission United Kingdoms Food Standards Agency French Food Safety Agency and Health Canada Multiple Sclerosis Foundation National Parkinson Foundation, Inc. Alzheimers Association Lupus Foundation

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    Group of Concern

    Phenylketonuria (PKU)- lacks phenylalaninehydroxylase which breaks down phenylalanineinto tyrosine

    Without phenylalanine hydroxylase,

    phenylalanine accumulates in the body whichcan lead to brain damage and harm to thecentral nervous system.

    Phenylalanine major component in aspartame;

    consumption must be monitored

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    ADAs Position

    According to the ADAs EAL, aspartameintake is not associated the adverseeffects in the general population.

    Grade I (best score for EAL conclusions):no evidence of aspartame on wide rangeof adverse effects, which includehypersensitivity reactions, elevatedblood methanol levels, or brain cancers.Neurological changes tested includecognitive functions, seizures, andheadaches.

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    SUCRALOSE

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    Sucralose (Splenda)- 1976

    Sucralose Splenda Non-caloric sweetener Not broken down for

    energy in body, passesthrough unchanged.

    600 times sweeter thansugar

    Does not lose sweetnessin heat or long shelf-storage

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    Sucralose

    What element is added tosugar to make Sucralose?

    Chlorine

    l

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    Sucralose

    Sucrose Sucralose

    Sucralose made by substituting three chlorineatoms for three hydrogen-oxygen groups on the

    sugar molecule.

    S l

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    Sucralose- Uses

    Sucralose can be used in place of sugar infoods and beverages. Examples: carbonated soft drinks, puddings,jams, low calorie fruit drinks, yogurt, cheeses,

    breakfast cereal, applesauce, ice cream,maple-flavored syrup, chewing gum, anddietary supplements. T

    Tabletop sweetener: used as spoon-for-spoonreplacement for sugar.

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    BAKING COMPARISON

    d S l

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    FDA and Sucralose

    FDA approved sucralose for 15 food andbeverage categories in 1998.

    Broadest initial approval by FDA for a

    food ingredient In 1999, FDA expanded approval, made

    it a general purpose sweetener.

    Sucralose used as sweetener in over3,500 products worldwide.

    S l d Di b

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    Sucralose and Diabetes

    Does Sucralose effect blood glucose? No

    S l d Di b t

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    Sucralose and Diabetes

    Sucralose is not recognized as sugar orcarbohydrate.

    Not shown to raise blood glucose or insulin. No effect on how body absorbs or uses

    carbohydrates in other foods. No effect on short or long term blood glucose

    control for individuals with normal blood glucoselevels, Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes.

    Therefore, Diabetics can use Sucralose withoutaffecting their blood glucose

    S f t f S l

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    Safety of Sucralose

    Chlorine is present in many foods andbeverages Examples: water supplies, lettuce, mushrooms,

    tomatoes, melons, peanut butter, table salt

    Over 100 studies in over 20 years found nosafety concerns identified in areas of:Cancer, reproduction and fertility, genetic

    defects, birth defects, immunology, centralnervous system, and metabolism.

    St di

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    Studies

    Studies in animals consuming large doses ofSucralose daily over their lifetime showed noharmful effects.

    Studies where humans consumed high level for up

    to 6 months also showed no harmful effects. Unlike sugar, Sucralose also does not promotetooth decay Can be used by children and adults of all ages Includes pregnant women and nursing mother

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    STEVIA

    St i (T i )

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    Stevia (Truvia)

    Naturally Sweet Stevia Rebaudiana is

    an herb that isderived from the

    Chrysanthemumfamily which growswild as a smallscrub in parts of

    Brazil.

    St i

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    Stevia.com

    According to Stevia.com..

    "The glycosides in its leaves, including up

    to 10% Stevioside, account for itsincredible sweetness, making it uniqueamong the nearly 300 species of Steviaplants."

    St i

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    Stevia

    Stevia has virtually no calories and doesnot raise blood sugar levels.

    However, David Schardt, a nutritionistfrom Center of Science of Public Interestbelieves there are risks

    During the past year the FDA hasopened the uses to consumers and

    manufacturers alike. The FDA has issuedletters of "no objection" to companieswho wish to use stevia in their products.

    T i

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    Truvia

    Truvia.com states....we steep the leaves,much like making tea, thatbegins the process ofcapturing rebiana, the besttasting part of the stevia

    plant. Ultimately, this littleleaf gives back a recipe forsweetness that's bothdelicious and zero-calorieguilt free.

    C C l

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    Coca-Cola

    In 2008 Coca-Cola Company introducedSprite Green to the market making it thefirst TRUVIA naturally sweetened

    reduced calorie sparkling beverage inthe United States

    PepsiCo

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    PepsiCo

    Lou Imbrogno, PepsiCo's senior vicepresident of Pepsi worldwide technicaloperations, said: "This is a potential

    game-changer among zero-caloriesweeteners.

    Vitamin Water 10

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    Vitamin Water 10

    Vitamin water taste test

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    SUGAR AND ARTIFICIALSWEETENER COMPARISON

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    SO WHAT DOES ADATHINK?

    ADAs Current Position on

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    Sweeteners

    It is in the position of the AmericanDietetic Association that consumers cansafely enjoy a range of nutritive and

    nonnutritive sweeteners when consumedin a diet that is guided by current federalnutrition recommendations, such as theDietary Guidelines for Americans and the

    Dietary References Intakes, as well asindividual health goals.

    References

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    References

    Duke, Will. History. http://web1.caryacademy.org/chemistry/rushin/StudentProjects/CompoundWebSites/2001/Saccharin/history.htm.Retrieved 15 Oct 2009.

    Zeratsky, Katherine. High-fructose corn syrup seems to be a common ingredient in many foods. What are the concerns about high-fructose cornsyrup?http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fructose-corn-syrup/AN01588. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009.

    Facts about Low-calorie Sweeteners.International Food Information Council Foundation. June 2009. October 29, 2009. .

    High Fructose Corn Syrup vs Sugar.http://www.sweetsurprise.com/learning-center/hfcs-vs-sugar. Retrieved 24 Oct 2009.

    Position of the American Dietetic Association: The Use of Nutritive and Nonnutritive Sweeteners. Journal of the American DieteticAssociation. 2004; 104: 255-275.

    Johnson, Richard J et all. Hypothesis: Could Excessive Fructose Intake and Uric Acid Cause Type 2 Diabetes? The Endocrine Society. 2009;30: 96- 116.

    White, John S. Misconceptions about High-Fructose Corn Syrup: Is It Uniquely Responsible for Obesity, Reactive Dicarbonyl Compounds,and Advanced Glycation Endproducts?The Journal of Nutrition. 2009; 139: 1219S-1227S.

    Aspartame Evidence Analysis Project- American Dietetic Association. ADA Evidence Analysis Library. Accessed October 19, 2009..

    Phenylketonuria. Medline Plus. May 27, 2009. Accessed October 19, 2009. .

    Maher, Timothy J and Richard J. Wurtman. Possible Neurologic Effects of Aspartame, a Widely Used Food Additive. Environmental HealthPrespectives. 1987; 75: 53-57.

    The Lowdown on the Breakdown. Aspartame Resource Center. Accessed October 19, 2009. .

    Aspartame Information Center. Accessed October 19, 2009. .

    Facts About Low-Calorie Sweeteners. International Food Inforamtion Council Foundation. June 2009. Accessed October 19, 2009. .

    References

    http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fructose-corn-syrup/AN01588.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fructose-corn-syrup/AN01588.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fructose-corn-syrup/AN01588.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.ific.org/publications/factsheets/lcsfs.cfmhttp://www.sweetsurprise.com/learning-center/hfcs-vs-sugar.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.sweetsurprise.com/learning-center/hfcs-vs-sugar.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.sweetsurprise.com/learning-center/hfcs-vs-sugar.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.adaevidencelibrary.com/topic.cfm?cat=3581http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001166.htmhttp://www.aboutaspartame.com/flash/aspartame_preloader_final.htmlhttp://www.aspartame.org/index.htmlhttp://www.ific.org/publications/factsheets/lcsfs.cfmhttp://www.ific.org/publications/factsheets/lcsfs.cfmhttp://www.aspartame.org/index.htmlhttp://www.aboutaspartame.com/flash/aspartame_preloader_final.htmlhttp://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001166.htmhttp://www.adaevidencelibrary.com/topic.cfm?cat=3581http://www.sweetsurprise.com/learning-center/hfcs-vs-sugar.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009http://www.ific.org/publications/factsheets/lcsfs.cfmhttp://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fructose-corn-syrup/AN01588.%20Retrieved%2024%20Oct%202009
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    References

    Nutrition Fact Sheet: Facts about Sucralose. Reviewed by the American Dietetic Associations Fact Sheet Review Board.

    Everything You Need to Know about Sucralose. International Food Information Council. June 2004.http://www.ific.org/publications/brochures/sucralosebroch.cfm>

    Sucralose: U.S. Product List. December 03 2000.

    http://sweetenerbook.com/images/sucralose.gif

    http://sweetenerbook.com/images/sucrose.gif

    "What is Stevia?" www.stevia.com Found October 15, 2008 Stevia: Not Ready For Prime Time http://www.cspinet.org/new/stevia.html. March 2000. Found October 24, 2009

    "The scoop on stevia, the natural sweetener.(HEALTHY EATING). ." Food & Fitness Advisor. 12.9 (Sept 2009): 5(1). GeneralOneFile. Gale. University of Tennessee Libraries. 16 Oct. 2009.

    Truvia.com

    http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/pdfs/sprite_green_with_truvia.pdf

    Hills, Sarah,PepsiCo sparks stevia wars with Coca-Cola. July 31, 2008. http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/Financial-Industry/PepsiCo-sparks-stevia-wars-with-Coca-Cola. Found Oct. 25, 2009

    www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9nQ-0njLHo&feature=player_embedded

    http://sweetenerbook.com/images/sucrose.gifhttps://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://www.stevia.comhttps://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://www.cspinet.org/new/stevia.html.%20March%202000https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A207061269&source=gale&userGroupName=tel_a_utl&version=1.0https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A207061269&source=gale&userGroupName=tel_a_utl&version=1.0http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/pdfs/sprite_green_with_truvia.pdfhttp://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/pdfs/sprite_green_with_truvia.pdfhttps://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A207061269&source=gale&userGroupName=tel_a_utl&version=1.0https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://find.galegroup.com/gtx/infomark.do?&contentSet=IAC-Documents&type=retrieve&tabID=T003&prodId=ITOF&docId=A207061269&source=gale&userGroupName=tel_a_utl&version=1.0https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://www.cspinet.org/new/stevia.html.%20March%202000https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=https://tmail.utk.edu/exchweb/bin/redir.asp?URL=http://www.stevia.comhttp://sweetenerbook.com/images/sucrose.gif

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