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    Tacloban - Philippines Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda) 8 November 2013 Damage Assessment Report Shalini Jagnarine-Azan MSc, CEng, MIStructE, D.I.C. Date: 20 February, 2014

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    Contents Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

    The Philippines ................................................................................................................................................... 4

    Socio-Economic Situation of the Philippines ...................................................................................................... 5

    History of Natural Hazards ................................................................................................................................. 5

    Philippines Building Codes ................................................................................................................................. 7

    Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) ................................................................................................................................. 8

    Tacloban City .................................................................................................................................................... 13

    Impact of Typhoon Yolanda on Tacloban City .................................................................................................. 14

    Wind Impact ................................................................................................................................................. 15

    Storm Surge .................................................................................................................................................. 16

    Rainfall .......................................................................................................................................................... 19

    Hospitals in Tacloban ....................................................................................................................................... 20

    Eastern Visayas Regional Medical Centre .................................................................................................... 21

    Activities ................................................................................................................................................... 23

    Mother of Mercy Hospital (Private) ............................................................................................................. 24

    Activities ................................................................................................................................................... 26

    Bethany Hospital .......................................................................................................................................... 26

    Activities ................................................................................................................................................... 27

    Damage Assessment ........................................................................................................................................ 28

    Wind ............................................................................................................................................................. 28

    Combination Storm Surge and Wind ............................................................................................................ 35

    Debris Impact ............................................................................................................................................... 37

    Non-Structural Damage ................................................................................................................................ 39

    Impact on People ......................................................................................................................................... 42

    Conclusions ...................................................................................................................................................... 44

    Recommendations ........................................................................................................................................... 45

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    Introduction Following the impact of Typhoon Haiyan (locally referred to as Yolanda) in the Philippines, I was deployed as a Structural Engineer to provide technical assistance in the emergency response on behalf of the World Health Organization, in secondment from the Pan American Health Organization. I arrived in the Philippines on November 13, 2013 and spent approximately 6 weeks in Tacloban City, which was the most severely affected city in the Philippines. This paper presents my findings and observations of the impact of Typhoon Yolanda on the Philippines and more specifically on Tacloban. The paper comprises two parts. Part one reviews the vulnerabilities of the country, in order to develop an understanding of what made it so susceptible to disaster with the impact of Yolanda. It also presents the three natural factors of super typhoon Yolanda, wind speeds, storm surge and rainfall that caused the most detrimental consequences on the lives, infrastructure and economy of Tacloban. Part 2 gives a pictoral overview of the structural and non-structural damage observed in Tacloban, as well as some of the observed immediate impact on the people of Tacloban. The damage are categorised into predominantly damage due to hydrodynamic forces from wind, hydrostatic forces from storm surge and rainfall, and a combination of the preceding two through debris damage.

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    The Philippines The Philippines1 is an archipelago chain of 7,107 islands with more than 36,000 kilometres of coastline. It has a total land mass of approximately 300,000 square kilometres (115,831 square miles), located about 800km from the Asian mainland, between Taiwan and Borneo in East Asia and the Pacific. The 11 largest islands contain about 94% of the total population, whilst only 1000 of the islands are populated. Luzon is the largest, which is where the national capital region (NCR), Metropolitan or Metro Manila is located. Mindanao is the second largest island. The islands are divided into three groups: Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Visayas is the group of islands in the central Philippines containing Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol, Leyte and Samar. The path of the Typhoon traversed Visayas and made landfall seven times and the most severely affected area was Eastern Visayas also known as Region VIII.

    Figure 2 - Map of the World

    1 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_the_Philippines

    The Philippines

    Figure 1 - Map of the Philippines

    Eastern Visayas

    Figure 3 - Eastern Visayas consists of Leyte, Samar and Biliran Islands

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    Socio-Economic Situation of the Philippines The Philippines is defined as a 2lower middle income developing nation in East Asia and Pacific. In 2012 the estimated total population was 96.71 million with an annual Gross Domestic Product of US $250.2 billion. Approximately 26% of the overall population was found to be below the poverty line, according to the last estimates done in 2009. The Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Philippines in 2006 was recorded as 0.064 (the lower the index the lower the poverty level). In terms of corruption, the 3Corruption Perceptions Index for 2013 was calculated at 36, which gave it a rank of 94th most corrupt out of 177 countries in the world.

    History of Natural Hazards The Philippines is one of the most hazard-prone countries in the World. It is normally impacted by at least 20 typhoons annually and is also prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity. The Philippines straddles the Typhoon belt and is susceptible to the impact of tropical storms and typhoons typically between July to October. Storms and Typhoons are especially hazardous for northern and eastern Luzon, and the Bicol and Eastern Visayas region. The countrys origins are also volcanic in nature and it is situated on the Pacific Ring of Fire, which is an area in the Pacific Ocean basin where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. In a study conducted by the World Bank in 2008, approximately 50.3% of the total land mass area and 81.3% of its population are vulnerable to the impact of natural hazards. Table 1 - Summary of recent major events disasters in the Philippines

    Event Damage Estimate Effect on GDP

    Affected Deaths

    9 Nov 2013 Super Typhoon Yolanda P35 billion (US $788 mil.) 14.1 million 6,200

    15 Oct 2013 7.2M Bohol Earthquake P2.5 billion (US $58 mil.) 0.5% 3.2 million 218

    *2009 Storms Ondoy and Pepeng P38 billion (US $853 mil.) 2.7% 9.41 million 929

    *42009 was the most disastrous year based on natural disaster statistics between 2000-2012, by OFDA/CRED

    2 The World Bank Data for 2012 3 The Corruption Index ranks countries on a score of 0 (highly corrupt) to 100 (very clean) from Transparency International, 2013. 4 http://www.senate.gov.ph/publications/AAG%202013-04%20-%20Natural%20Disasters_final.pdf

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    Figure 4

    From a recent article by the 5National Geographic, five reasons were listed why the Philippines are especially at risk from natural hazards:

    1. Warm ocean waters temperatures over 28 degrees Celsius are need for typhoons to form and the waters surrounding Indonesia and

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