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Taj Mahal Vs. Petronas Tower

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2. 3. Fact Origin and Inspiration Architecture Cultural Reference 4. Muhammad Shah Jahan 5 Jan, 1592 22 Jan, 1666 Mumtaz Mahal Apr, 1593 17 Jun, 1631 It was built byMughal Emperor Shah Jahanfor his favorite the 3 rdwife,Mumtaz Mahal , died during she gave birth to their 14 thchild,Gauhara Begum. It was considered the finest example ofMughal architecture,which combines elements from Persian, Indian and Islamic architectural styles. It became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983, and was cited as the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the worlds heritage. It began to build around 1632 and was completed around 1653, and employed thousands of artisans and craftsmen. Taj Mahalis a mausoleum located in Agra, India. 5. In 1632, the construction ofTaj Mahalbegan, one year afterMumtaz Mahal s death. In 1648, the principal mausoleum was completed. In 1653, the surrounding buildings and garden were finished. TheTaj Mahalincorporates and expands on design traditions ofPersian architectureand earlierMughal architecture.Specific inspiration came from successfulTimuridandMughalbuildings include:Gur-e Amir(the tomb of Timur, progenitor of the Mughal dynasty, in Samarkand),Humayuns Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulahs Tomb(sometimes called the Baby Taj), and Shah Jahans ownJama Masjidin Delhi. 6. Gur-e Amirbuilt at the end ofthe 14th centuryGur-e Amirat night time Humayuns Tomb in 1562, the 1 st garden-tomb on the Indian subcontinent Itmad-Ud-Daulahs Tomb built between 1622 and 1628Jama Masjid, in 16565 3 2 1 4 7. The base structure is a large, multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners, forming an unequal octagon that is approximately 55 meters on each of the four long sides.On each of these sides, a massive pishtaq, or vaulted archway, frames the iwan with two similarly shaped, arched balconies stacked on either side.Themarble domethat surmounts the tomb is the most spectacular feature. Its height of around 35 meters is about the same as the length of the base, and is accentuated as it sits on a cylindrical "drum" which is roughly 7 meters high. The top of the dome is decorated with a lotus design, the shape is emphasized by four smaller domedchattris(kiosks) placed at its corners, and their columned bases open through the roof of the tomb and provide light to the interior. 8. Themain finialwas originally made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements. Theminarets , which are each more than 40 meters tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry. They were designed as working minarets a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzinto call the Islamic faithful to prayer.Base, dome, and minaret simplified diagram of theTaj Mahal floor plan Finial Top of finial Main iwan andside pishtaqs 9. Calligraphy onlarge pishtaq The decorative elements were created byapplying paint, stucco, stone inlays, or carvings.In line with the Islamic prohibition against the use of anthropomorphic forms, the decorative elements can be grouped into either calligraphy, abstract forms or vegetative motifs. Much ofthe calligraphyis composed of florid thuluth script, made of jasper or black marble, inlaid in white marble panels. Higher panels are written in slightly larger script to reduce the skewing effect when viewed from below.Thedomes and vaults of the sandstone buildingsare worked with tracery of incised painting to create elaborate geometric forms. 10. Herringboneinlays define the space between many of the adjoining elements.White inlaysare used in sandstone buildings, anddark or black inlayson the white marbles.Mortared areas of themarble buildingshave been stained or painted in a contrasting color, creating geometric patterns of considerable complexity. Floors and walkwaysuse contrasting tiles or blocks in tessellation patterns. Onthe lower walls of the tombthere are white marble dados that have been sculpted with realistic bas relief depictions of flowers and vines.The marblehas been polished to emphasize the exquisite detailing of the carvings andthe dado frames and archway spandrelshave been decorated with pietra dura inlays of highly stylized, almost geometric vines, flowers and fruits.Reflective tilesunder exposed Reflective tilesnormal exposure Incised painting Spandrel detail Plant motifs Herringbone 11. Tombs of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal Theinner chamberis an octagon with the design allowing for entry from each face, although only the south garden-facing door is used.Theinterior wallsare about 25 meters high and topped by a "false" interior dome decorated with a sun motif. Eight pishtaq arches define the space at ground level and, as with the exterior, each lower pishtaq is crowned by a second pishtaq about midway up the wall. Eachchamber wallhas been highly decorated with dado bas relief, intricate lapidary inlay and refined calligraphy panels, reflecting in miniature detail the design elements seen throughout the exterior of the complex. 12. Theoctagonal marble screen or jaliwhich borders the cenotaphs is made from eight marble panels which have been carved through with intricate pierce work. The remaining surfaces have been inlaid in extremely delicate detail with semiprecious stones forming twining vines, fruits and flowers. 1. Delicatepierce work 2. Inlay detail 3. Detail of Jali 4. Arch of Jali 13. The complex is set around a large 300-meter squarecharbaghorMughal garden.The garden uses raised pathways that divide each of the four quarters of the garden into 16 sunken parterres or flowerbeds.A raised marble water tank , is calledal Hawd al-Kawthar , in reference to the "Tank of Abundance" promised to Muhammad. At the center of the garden, halfway between the tomb and gateway with a reflecting pool on a north-south axis, reflects the image of the mausoleum.Thecharbagh garden , a design inspired by Persian gardens, was introduced to India by the first Mughal emperor, Babur. It symbolizes the four flowing rivers of Jannah(Paradise) and reflects the Paradise garden derived from the Persianparidaeza , meaning 'walled garden'. 14. The Taj Mahal complex is bounded on three sides by crenellated red sandstone walls, with the river-facing side left open.Outside the wallsare several additional mausoleums, including those of Shah Jahan's other wives, and a larger tomb for Mumtaz's favorite servant. These structures, composed primarily of red sandstone, are typical of the smaller Mughal tombs of the era.The garden-facinginner sidesof the wall are fronted by columned arcades, a feature typical of Hindu temples which was later incorporated into Mughal mosques. Themain gateway ( darwaza )is a monumental structure built primarily of marble which is reminiscent of Mughal architecture of earlier emperors. Its archways mirror the shape of tomb's archways, and itspishtaqarches incorporate the calligraphy that decorates the tomb. It utilizes bas-relief and pietra dura inlaid decorations with floral motifs. Arches in theTaj MahalMosque interior The Great gate (Darwaza-i rauza) gateway to the Taj Mahal 15. At the far end of the complex, there are two grand red sandstone buildings that are open to the sides of the tomb. Their backs parallel thewestern and eastern walls , and the two buildings are precise mirror images of each other. Thewestern buildingis a mosque and the other is thejawab(answer), whose primary purpose was architectural balance, although it may have been used as a guesthouse.Taj Mahal mosque ormasjid The distinctions between these two buildings include the lack ofmihrab(a niche in a mosque's wall facing Mecca) in thejawaband that the floors ofjawabhave a geometric design, while the mosque floor was laid with outlines of 569 prayer rugs in black marble. 16. Kabir Bedirole asEmperor Shah Jahanin Taj Mahal:An Eternal Love Story 18 Nov, 2005 Arbaaz Khan An Eternal Love Story 2005, in Taj Mahal Manisha Koiralarole asJahan AraAn Eternal Love Story ,Taj Mahal, 2005 Sonya Rizvi An Eternal Love Story 2005, in Taj Mahal 17. 18. Menara Berkembar Petronas Fact Comparison with other Towers History Tenants of the Petronas Twin Towers Popular Culture 19. Record height Precededby:Willis Tower Surpassedby:Taipei 101 General information Location:Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaStatus: Complete Constructed: 19921998 Use:Office Height Antenna orspire:451.9m (1,482.6ft) Roof:378.6m (1,242.1ft) Topfloor:375.0m (1,230.3ft) Technical details Floorcount:88 Floorarea :395,000m 2 (4,252,000sqft) (1 & 2) Elevators:78 (1 & 2) Cost:$1,6 billion Companies involved Architects:Csar Pelli, Mahathir binMohamad Structural engineer: Thornton Tomasetti Contractor Tower1:Hazama Corporation Contractor Tower2:Samsung C&T Management:KLCC 20. Willis Tower, Chicago, US, 1974. 442m, 108 floors Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 1998. 452m, 88 floors Taipei 101, Taiwan, 2003. 509 m, 101 floors Buji Khalifa, Dubai, United Arab Emirate, 2010. 828 m, 160 floors 21. Petronas Towerswere designed byArgentine architect Cesar Pelli , and completed in 1998 after a seven year build and became the tallest buildings in the world on the date of completion. Because of the depth of the bedrock, the buildings were built on the world's deepest 120-meter foundations with 12 months by Bachy Soletanche, and required massive amounts of concrete. The 88-floor towersare constructed largely of reinforced concrete, with a steel and glass facade designed to resemble motifs found in Islamic art, which is a reflection of Malaysia's Muslim religion. The Tower 1was built by a Japanese consortium led by theHazama Corporationwhilethe Tower 2was built bySamsung C&T and Kukdong Engineering & Construction , both South Korean contractors. The sky bridgecontract was completed byKukdong Engineering & Construction . 22. Due to a lack of steel and the huge cost of importing steel, the towers were constructed on a cheaper radical design of super high-strength reinforced concrete. High-strength concrete is a material familiar to Asian contractors and twice as effective as steel in sway reduction; however, it makes the building twice as heavy on its foundation than a comparable steel building. 23. Tower Oneis fully occupied by Petronas and a number of its subsidiaries and associate companies, while the office spaces in Tower Two are mostly available for lease to other companies. A number of companies have offices inTower Two , includingAccenture, Al Jazeera English, Carigali Hess Bloomberg, Boeing, IBM, Khazanah Nasional Berhad, McKinsey & Co, TCS, HCL Technologies, Krawler Networks, Microsoft, The Agency(a modeling company) andReuters . 24. Spanning 17acres (69,000m 2 ) below the building is the KLCC park with jogging and walking paths, a fountain with incorporated light show, wading pools, and a children's playground.Suria KLCC is one of the largest shopping malls in Malaysia 1.Towers withSuria KLCCand water fountain 2.Suria KLCC shoppingcomplex at thebase of the towers 3. Looking up fromconcourse level inSuria KLCC's atrium space 4. KLCC park fountain,at night 6. View of the park fromTraders Hotel 5. Childrens playing ground 25. The towers feature aSky Bridgebetween the two towers on 41st and 42nd floors, which is the highest 2-story bridge in the world. It is not directly bolted to the main structure, but is instead designed to slide in and out of the towers to prevent it from breaking during high winds. The bridgeis 170m (558ft) above the ground and 58m (190ft) long, weighing 750 tons.It is open to all visitors, but free passes (limited to 1700 people per day). Visitorsare only allowed on the 41st floor as the 42nd floor can only be used by the tenants of the building. TheSky Bridgealso acts as a safety device, so that in the event of a fire or other emergency in one tower, tenants can evacuate by crossing the Sky Bridge to the other tower An inside view ofthe sky bridge view from the sky bridge Petronas Towers Sky Bridge 26. Petronal Towerslift control panel The main bank ofOtis Liftsis located in the centre of each tower. All main lifts aredouble-deckerwith the lower deck of the lift taking passengers to odd numbered floors and upper deck to even numbered floors.From the ground floor, there are three groups of lifts:The short haul,group of 6 lifts, take passengers to floors between level 2-16 and level 3-17.The mid haul,group of 6 lifts, take passengers to floors between level 18-38 and level 19-37.The shuttle liftstake passengers directly to levels 2-42, 3-41. To get to levels above 41/42, passengers must take the shuttle lifts, then change to lifts to the upper floors. These connecting lifts are directly above the lifts that serve levels 2 to 38. The pattern now repeats with the upper levels, one set serving levels 43-57, levels 44-58 and one set serving levels 59-73 /60-74. 27. Entrapment ,1999 Children of Men,2006 Don,2006 Billa,2007 TV Series24,first episode Life After People,in the episode Bound and Buried Rice of Nations,the background ofinfo icon, 2003. Hitman2:Silent Assassin,feature in 3levelsof the game, 2002 Cowboy Bebop,episode 22, 1999 28. REFERENCES

  • www.wikipedia.org/TajMahal
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  • www.wikipedia.org/PetronalsTower
  • www.wikipedia.org/list-of-tallest-buildings-in-the-world
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