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TAKS Physics. What do you know?. Main Topics. Speed = distance / time Acceleration = velocity change / time Newton’s laws (F = ma) Momentum (p = mv) Energy (conservation) Work and power and simple machines Density = mass / volume Circuits and electricity Waves light and sound - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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TAKS PhysicsWhat do you know?

Main TopicsSpeed = distance / timeAcceleration = velocity change / timeNewtons laws (F = ma)Momentum (p = mv)Energy (conservation)Work and power and simple machinesDensity = mass / volumeCircuits and electricityWaves light and soundHeat transfer

Speed = distance / timeYou might have to solve for any of these three parts.

4A IPCC 10-03The diagram represents the total travel of a teacher on a Saturday. Which part of the trip is made at the greatest average speed?A QB RC SD T

4A IPCD 10-03A car traveled 150 km in 2.5 hours. What was its average speed in km per hour?A 37.5 km/hB 450 km/hC 75 km/hD 60 km/h

4A IPCD 11/05The speed of sound in human tissue is about 1600 m/s. If an ultrasound pulse takes 1.5 x 10-5s to travel through a tissue, what is the thickness of the tissue?A 2.4 kmB 2.4 mC 23 cmD 24 mm

4A IPCD 11/06A cyclist moves at a constant speed of 5 m/s. If the cyclist does not accelerate during the next 20 seconds, he will travel --- A 0 mB 4 mC 50 mD 100m

4A IPCB 10/06A driver traveled 270 km in 3 hours. The drivers destination was still 150 km away. What was the drivers average speed at this point?A 40 km/hB 90 km/hC 140 km/hD 420 km/h

4B IPCGB 10/06ABCDWhich graph can represent an object at rest?

Acceleration = velocity change / time

Again, you may have to solve for any of these quantities.

Acceleration is measured in units of meters per second squared

m/s2

4A IPCA 11/04According to this graph, what was the bicycles acceleration between 6 and 10 seconds?A 0.0 m/s2B 0.65 m/s2C 1.6 m/s2D 6.5 m/s2

4A IPCC 11/06The table above shows experimental data collected when four cars moved along a straight-line path. According to these data, which car moved with a constant acceleration of 2 m/s2?A Car QB Car RC Car SD Car T

Newtons laws (F = ma)

1st Law - objects resist acceleration

An object at rest tends to remain at rest and an object in motion tends to remain in motion at the same speed and in the same direction unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force.

Newtons laws (F = ma)

2nd Law F = ma

force is equal to mass times acceleration

weight is equal to mass times gravitational accelerationgravitional acceleration (g) = 9.8 m/s2

Newtons laws (F = ma)

3rd Law for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

only two forces and only two objects

If object A applies a force on object B, then object B MUST apply the same size force on object A in the opposite direction.

4B IPCD 11/06A hockey player pushed a puck toward the opposite side of a level ice rink. The player expected the puck to continue all the way across the ice, but the puck slowed and stopped before reaching the other side. Which of these best explains why the puck failed to slide all the way to the opposite side?A The pucks temperature changed.B An upward force acted on the puck.C The pucks momentum remained unchanged.D An opposing force acted on the puck.

4B IPCD 11/04Which factor would most likely cause a communications satellite orbiting Earth to return to Earth from its orbit?A An increase in the satellites forward momentumB An increase in solar energy striking the satelliteC A decrease in the satellites sizeD A decrease in the satellites velocity

4B IPCCThe frog leaps from its resting position at the lakes bank onto a lily pad. If the frog has a mass of 0.5 kg and the acceleration of the leap is 3 m/s2, what is the force the frog exerts on the lakes bank when leaping?A 0.2 NB 0.8 NC 1.5 ND 6.0 N

4A IPCB 10-03How much force is needed to accelerate a 1,300 kg car at a rate of 1.5 m/s2?A 867 NB 1,950 NC 8,493 ND 16,562 N

4A IPCD 11/05A 16 NB 32 NC 88 ND 100 NStarting from rest at the center of a skating rink, two skaters push off from each other over a time period of 1.2 s. What is the force of the push by the smaller skater?

4A IPCJD 11/06What is the net force exerted on a 90.0 kg race-car driver while the race car is accelerating from 0 to 44.7 m/s in 4.50 s?A 9.8 NB 20 NC 201 ND 894 N

4B IPCB 490N 11/04How many newtons of force does a 50.0 kg deer exert on the ground because of gravity?A 49.0NB 490NC 59.8ND 1470N

4B IPCC 11/04Which of these is the best description of the action-reaction force pair when the space shuttle lifts off from the launchpad?A The ground pushes the rocket up while exhaust gases push down on the ground.B Exhaust gases push down on air while the air pushes up on the rocket.C The rocket pushes exhaust gases down while the exhaust gases push the rocket up.D Gravity pulls the rocket exhaust down while friction pushes up against the atmosphere.

4B IPCD 11/05The picture above shows the direction in which water leaves the scallops shell. Which picture below shows the direction the scallop will move?

4B IPCGB 11/06When the air is released from a balloon, the air moves in one direction, and the balloon moves in another direction. Which statement does this situation best illustrate?A What goes up must come down.B For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.C The shape and size of an object affect air resistance.D The acceleration due to Earths gravity is 9.8 m/s2.

4B IPCD 10-04The illustration above shows a student about to throw a ball while standing on a skateboard. Which illustration below correctly shows the skateboards direction of motion after the student releases the ball?

Momentum (p = mv)

You may be asked to solve for any of these quantities.

Momentum MUST be conserved. (Along with mass and energy)

The unit is the kilogram meter per secondkg m/s

4A IPCJD 11/05The table contains data for two wrecking balls being used to demolish a building. What is the difference in momentum between the two wrecking balls?A 300 kgm/sB 200 kgm/sC 150 kgm/sD 0 kgm/s

4A IPCD 11/05A 0.50 kg ball with a speed of 4.0 m/s strikes a stationary 1.0 kg target. If momentum is conserved, what is the total momentum of the ball and target after the collision?A 0.0 kgm/sB 0.5 kgm/sC 1.0 kgm/sD 2.0 kgm/s

4A IPCHC 11/06The 500 g cart is moving in a straight line at a constant speed of 2 m/s. Which of the following must to 250 g toy car have in order to maintain the same momentum as the cart?A An acceleration of 5 m/s2 for 2 secondsB A potential energy of 20 JC A constant velocity of 4 m/sD An applied force of 5 N for 5 seconds

4A IPCA 10/04Which bike rider has the greatest momentum?A A 40 kg person riding at 45 km/hB A 50 kg person riding at 35 km/hC A 60 kg person riding at 25 km/hD A 70 kg person riding at 15 km/h

4A IPCDA ball moving at 30 m/s has a momentum of 15 kg.m/s. The mass of the ball is ___A 45 kgB 15 kgC 2.0 kgD 0.5 kg

4B IPC630 11/06The pictures show how an air bag functions in a collision. How much momentum in kg m/s does the air bag absorb from the crash-test dummy if all the crash-test dummys momentum is absorbed by the air bag?Car velocity = 6.3 m/sDriver velocity = 6.3 m/sDriver mass = 100 kgCar velocity = 0 m/sDriver velocity = 6.3 m/sDriver mass = 100 kgCar velocity = 0 m/sDriver velocity = m/sDriver mass = 100 kg

Energy (conservation)

Energy must be conservedKinetic energy = one half mass times velocity squaredKE = m x v2Gravitational potential energy = mass times gravitational acceleration times heightPE = mgh

Energy (conservation)

Energy MUST be conserved. (Along with mass and momentum.)

4A IPCB 11/06A 1-kilogram ball has a kinetic energy of 50 joules. The velocity of the ball is ---A 5 m/sB 10 m/sC 25 m/sD 50 m/s

6A IPCCWhat is the potential energy of the rock? 59,000 joules 64,600 joules 93,100 joules 121,600 joules

6A IPCB 11/06What is the approximate difference in gravitational potential energy of the two shaded boxes? 19J 39J 59J 79J

6A IPCA 11/04Solar Radiation and EarthAssuming the chart contains all energy transformations in the Earth system, how much solar radiation goes toward evaporating water? 40,000 terajoules 92,410 terajoules 121,410 terajoules 133,410 terajoules

EffectAmount of Energy per Second (terajoules)Solar radiation reaching Earth173,410Radiation reflected back into space52,000Radiation heating atmosphere, landmasses, and oceans81,000Radiation producing winds and ocean currents370Radiation used in photosynthesis40Radiation resulting in evaporation of water?

6A IPCA 11/04Why is the sum of the products energy in this reaction less than the sum of the reactants energy? Energy is given off as heat. The products absorb available energy. Energy is trapped in the reactants. The reactants energy is less than the melting point of glucose.C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2OGlucose Water Carbon Water Dioxide3000 kJ 300 kJ 200 kJ 150 kJ

Work and power and simple machines

Work = force times distance

W = F x d

Power = work divided by time

P = W / t

Work and power and simple machines

Work has NO time factor.

If the same force is applied over the same distance, the same work is done even if it is done faster in one case.

If work is done faster, more power is used. Power is how fast work is done.

Work and power and simple machines

Two basic types of machines:Lever type simple machines (levers, wheel and axles, pulleys) and

Inclined plane type simple machines(inclined planes, wedges, and screws)

Work and power and simple machines

Simple machines may change direction of motion. (Like a pulley)A machine may also trade distance for force OR trade force for distance. (A machine CANNOT do both.)A machine CANNOT increase the WORK done.

Work and power and simple machines

A simple machine increases output force over a shorter distance by requiring the force you put in to be applied over a longer distance. (You trade distance for force.)

Work and power and simple machines

The mechanical advantage of a machine is force output divided by force input. It is greater than 1 if the machine puts out more force than you put in. It is less than 1 if the machine puts out less force than you put in.

4A IPCA 10-04How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate is pushed 15 m with a force of 20N?A 300 JB 750 JC 1,000 JD 15,000 J

4A IPCBIf a force of 100 newtons was exerted on an object and no work was done, the object must have ---A accelerated rapidlyB remained motionlessC decreased it velocityD gained momentum

4A IPCC 11/04A mechanic used a hydraulic lift to raise a 12,054 N car 1.89 m above the floor of a garage. It took 4.75 s to raise the car. What was the power output of the lift?A 489 WB 1815 WC 4796 WD 30,294 W

4A IPCC 11/05A horizontal force of 600 N is used to push a box 8 m across a room. Which of these variables must be known to determine the power used in moving the box?A The weight of the boxB The potential energy of the boxC The time it takes to move the boxD The length of the box

4A IPCc 11/06A woman lifts a 57-newton weight a distance of 40 centimeters each time she does a particular exercise. It takes her 0.60 second to lift the weight. How much power does she supply for lifting the weight one time?A 24 WB 34 WC 38 WD 95 W

4A IPCHC 11/06An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the trucks engine do, compared to every other engine in its class?A Produce fewer emissionsB Operate more efficientlyC Perform work fasterD accelerate longer

4A IPCB 10/06A person pushes a large box across a level floor by applying a horizontal force of 200 N. If the person pushes the box a distance of 5 meters in 10 seconds, how much work does the person do on the box?A 2000 joulesB 1000 joulesC 400 joulesD 100 joules

4A IPCHC 11/04The weight lifter used a force of 980 N to raise the barbell over her head in 5.21 seconds. Approximately how much work did she do in raising the barbell?A 380 LB 982 JC 2,000 JD 10,000 J

4D IPCFA11/04A

BC

DWhich lever arrangement requires the least effort to raise a 500 N resistance?

4D IPCHC11/06A

BC

DWhich configuration of pulleys and belts shown below will result in the fastest rotation of spindle 2?

4D IPCC11/06Which of these represents a properly balanced system?

4D IPCGBThe diagram shows an electric motor lifting a 6 N block a distance of 3 m. The total amount of electrical energy used by the motor is 30 J. How much energy does the motor convert to heat?A 9 JB 12 JC 18 JD 21 J

EfficiencyEfficiency is calculated by dividing work output by work input and multiplying it by 100%.

The efficiency can NEVER be more than 100%.

4D IPCGB11/04What is the efficiency of an air conditioner if there is a work input of 320 J and a work output of 80 J?A 4%B 25%C 240%D 400%

Density = mass / volumeBe able to solve for any of the three values.

The unit is grams per milliliter or grams per cubic centimeter

g/ml or g/cm3

Circuits and electricityVoltage = current x resistance

V = IR

Power = current x voltage

P = IV

6F IPCA 10-04How much current is flowing through this circuit?A 0.32 AB 3.1 AC 4.0 AD 12.5 A

6F IPCA 10/06In this circuit, how much current flows through the lightbulb? 0.75 amp 1.50 amps 2.0 amps 3.0 amps

6F IPCC 10/06The bulb will light when a current supplied by at least one 1.5 V battery is available. Which current will fail to light the bulb?

6F IPC A 10-03Which switch, if opened, will cause the lightbulb to stop glowing? Q R S T

6F IPCG 10-03What is the current in a copper wire that has a resistance of 2 ohms and is connected to a 9-volt electrical source? 0.22 amp 4.5 amps 11.0 amps 18.0 amps

6F IPCJD10-04Which circuit is built so that if one lightbulb goes out, the other three lightbulbs will continue to glow?ACBD

Waves light and soundVelocity = frequency x wavelengthv = f x l

Two types of waves: compression and transverse wavesSound is a compression (longitudinal) waveLight is a transverse wave.

Properties of WavesInterference - waves cross over each other can increase or decrease amplitude

Properties of Waves

Resonance - the vibration of one object causes the vibration of another object without contact

Properties of WavesReflection - a wave ounces off a boundary

The angle of reflection is equal to the angle at which the wave meets the boundary.

Properties of WavesRefraction - the bending of a wave as it changes speed moving from one medium to another

Properties of WavesDiffraction - the bending of a wave as it moves around an obstruction or through an opening

Properties of WavesPolarization - allowing only one orientation of a transverse wave to pass

Only transverse waves can be polarized.

5A IPCB 10-04Which illustration best demonstrates compression waves?

5B IPCCOne tuning fork is struck and placed next to an identical fork. The two forks do not touch. The second tuning fork starts to vibrate because of --- interference the Doppler effect resonance standing waves

5A IPCA 10/06Which label on the model represents a wavelength? Q R S T

5B IPCC11/06An empty cup was tightly covered with plastic wrap, and a few grains of salt were sprinkled on top of the plastic. When a tuning fork was struck and placed slightly above the plastic wrap, the salt began to move. Which characteristic of waves does the movement of the salt best demonstrate? Echo formation Diffraction Resonance Specular reflection

5B IPCD11/06When a DVD is read, laser light touches the DVD surface and is then measured at location A. What allows light to return to location A after striking the DVD surface? Conduction Refraction Magnification ReflectionLaser Light Striking a DVD

5B IPCA11/04The pitch of a sound made by plucking a guitar string is determined by the --- frequency of the vibration produced strength of the plucking force distance between the strings shape of the guitar body

5B IPCA11/05A tuning fork with a frequency of 256 Hz vibrates when struck. Because of these vibrations, a nearby tuning fork begins to vibrate without being struck. Which of the following best accounts for the vibrations of the second tuning fork? Resonance Polarization Diffraction Refraction

5B IPCB11/06A guitar player is seated next to a piano. The piano player strikes an E key on the piano. The guitarist reports that this causes the E string on his guitar to vibrate. What is the name of this phenomenon? Polarization Resonance Reflection Diffraction

5B IPCB11/04 Reflection Refraction Diffraction PolarizationWhen trying to spear a fish in water, a person needs to take into account the way light bends as it moves from water into the air. The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another is known as ---

5B IPCF11/05A surface wave generated by an earthquake was recorded at Seismic Station 1. Forty seconds later the same wave was recorded at Seismic Station 2. What accounts for the time difference?The origin of the wave is closer to Seismic Station 1.The speed of the wave decreases with distance.The wavelength is longer at Seismic Station 2.The wave frequency increases when the wave passes through soil.

5B IPCB11/04Which wave has the greatest velocity?

5B IPCD11/04Which wave has the least velocity?

5B IPCD 11/06 Diffusion Reflection Diffraction RefractionDiverging lenses are useful to people who suffer from nearsightedness because the lenses can cause images of distant objects to be focused on the retina. Lenses allow images to be focused on the retina because of ---

5B IPCB 11/05The diagram shows waves approaching a barrier. Which pattern will be formed after the waves pass through the opening in the barrier?

Heat TransferConduction - transfer from one particle to another with contactConvection - transfer of heat containing particles in a fluid due to differences in densityRadiation - transfer from one particle to another without the need for contact

6B IPCBHeat convection occurs in gases and liquids. Heat convection does not occur in solids because solids are unable to --- absorb heat by vibrating transfer heat by fluid motion emit radiation by reflecting light exchange heat by direct contact

6B IPCB 11/06The transfer of heat by the movement of air currents in Earths atmosphere is an example of --- Conduction Convection Radiation Fusion

6B IPCA 10/04A man who was sleeping wakes up because he hears the smoke alarm go off in his house. Before opening the bedroom door, the man feels the door to see whether it is warm. He is assuming that heat would be transferred through the door by --- Conduction Convection Radiation Compression

6B IPCC 10/06In winter the air just above the top bunk of a bunk bed is warmer than the air just above the bottom bunk because warm air rises. Which of the following describes the method of heating that causes this difference in temperature?Radiation from the roomHeat transfer through wallsConvection currents in the roomHeat conduction through the bed

6B IPCA 10/06Which of these is the best example of heat transfer by radiation? A satellite is warmed by sunlight. Butter melts on warm bread. A ceiling fan cools a warm room. Puddles of water cool a warm tile floor.

6B IPCD 10/04Container P and Container Q each were filled with 0.5 liter of water. The water was heated to 90oC. The table shows the temperatures after both containers were allowed to cool for 3 minutes. Compared to Container Q, Container P is a better --- conductor absorber radiator insulatorTemperatures of Water inDifferent Containers

6B IPCD 11/04A

BC

DIn which container is the substance unable to transfer heat by convection?

6B IPCJ 10-03The primary way liquids and gases transmit heat is by the process of ---A. reflectionB. convectionC. radiationD. convection

6B IPCCA solar heater uses energy from the sun to heat water. The heaters panel is painted black to --- Improve emission of infrared radiation Reduce the heat loss by convection currents Improve absorption of infrared radiation Reduce the heaters conducting properties

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TAKS Physics What do you know?

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