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Teacher’s book - Hachette Livre International

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            Teacher’s book
Unit 3  Technology ............................................................................................................................................ 12 
Unit 5  Gender and education ..................................................................................................... 24 
Unit 6  Citizenship ............................................................................................................................................... 30 
Unit 7  Sport .................................................................................................................................................................. 36 
Unit 8  Science ........................................................................................................................................................... 42 
Unit 9  Wildlife .......................................................................................................................................................... 47 
Unit 10  Culture ........................................................................................................................................................... 53 
Unit 1 - People
Lead in # p. 7 1. Possible answers The boy on the left is sitting in an armchair in his bedroom. He’s doing nothing. He’s probably just daydreaming. The girl on the right is in her bedroom, sitting at her desk in front of her computer. She’s sitting very upright. She seems to be studying.
Vocabulary # p. 7 3. Positive adjectives: ambitious – focused – hard- working – studious – confident – curious – organised – efficient – patient – flexible – responsible Negative adjectives: selfish – bossy – lazy Both positive and negative: stubborn The boy looks lazy, because he’s doing nothing and his bedroom is really messy. He didn’t make his bed and his school things are spread out on the floor. The girl looks studious, organised and responsible. She may also be hard-working. Her bed is made and her bedroom is very tidy. She’s sitting at her desk with books next to her.
4. Antonyms unambitious – unfocused – unselfish – disorganised – inefficient – impatient – irresponsible
5. 1/ studious, hardworking, responsible 2/ curious 3/ ambitious 4/ stubborn 5/ responsible 6/ lazy 7/ bossy, confident 8/ organised, responsible
6. Speaking Possible expressions to use I think you have to be … to be a successful student. I think you can’t succeed if you’re not… To succeed in your studies, you should be… / you should try to be...
Reading # p. 8 1. Before you read Answer B
2. True: 4 (paragraph 7) and 5 (paragraph 7) False: 1 (paragraph 1, ‘There are five eating styles which are more common than others.’), 2 (paragraph 3, ‘People who eat fast tend to put other things and people before themselves.’) and 3 (paragraph 6, ‘People who like trying new foods are often creative’)
3. Slow eaters: stubborn – self-centred Fast eaters: focused – efficient Mix foods: responsible – unfocused Eat foods separately: organised – methodical Enjoy new food: creative – curious – adventurous
4. 1/ go on a date 2/ fake 3/ kick in 4/ make a point of 5/ make the most of 6/ have trouble
5. Discussion Possible expressions to use 1/ I think I am… / I belong to the category of… 2/ My friends / My parents are… I think my parents / my friends (don’t) have the same eating style as I do. I think they belong to the category of… Some of my friends are…, but others are… 3/ I would say / In my opinion, my parents’ / my friends’ eating habits (don’t) correspond to their personalities, because… 4/ Some aspects of our personality can be revealed by the way we smile / we laugh / we sneeze…
Vocabulary extension # p. 9 → Adjectives and adverbs 6. 1/ slowly 2/ fast (irregular) 3/ quickly 4/ instinctively 5/ separately 6/ incredibly The regular adverbs are formed with the suffix –ly.
7. 1/ loudly 2/ personally 3/ universally 4/ fundamentally 5/ methodically 6/ patiently
Pronunciation # p. 9 → Stressed syllables 8. methodical: 4 syllables patient: 2 syllables loud: 1 syllable personal: 3 syllables fundamental: 4 syllables
9. For each pair of words, the noun and the adjective are stressed differently.
Grammar # p. 10 → Present tenses: present simple and present continuous 1. 1/ is eating 2/ doesn’t like 3/ often goes 4/ grow 5/ is doing
Rules a/ present continuous b/ present simple c/ present simple d/present continuous
2. 1/ do – think 2/ am learning 3/ don’t understand 4/ hope 5/ is – running 6/ do – live 7/ does – rise 8/ don’t usually wear
3. 1/ a) looks – b) am looking 2/ a) feels – b) is feeling 3/ a) is smelling – b) smells 4/ a) am tasting – b) tastes 5/ a) think – b) is thinking
4. Speaking Possible expressions to use The person I chose is wearing… He / She is carrying / walking / looking at…
He / She looks like… because... He / She must be a local / a foreigner because... I think he / she comes from… because… He / She is probably going to… because I can see…
5. Writing Possible answers The woman is wearing a traditional dress with a necklace and she’s wearing sandals. She looks like a local. She’s walking in the street and pushing a motorbike. She may be coming from home and going to get her motorbike repaired. The man is wearing a white T-shirt, a white cap and blue shorts. He’s carrying a blue backpack on one shoulder. He looks like a foreigner; I think he comes from Europe. He’s probably a tourist going to visit the town.
Communication # p. 11 → Suggesting and responding 1. 1/ like 2/ love 3/ busy 4/ going 5/ idea 6/ go 7/ don’t 8/ suggest 9/ about
4. 1/ motorbike – window shopping 2/ fried plantains – pepper soup – green tea 3/ birthday party – babysit – listen to music
5. Writing and Speaking Possible answer A/ Are you free next Saturday? B/ No, I’m not. I have to babysit. A/ And what about next Sunday? B/ Yes. Why? A/ Would you like to go swimming? B/ I’m not too fond of swimming. But you could come to my house and we could play chess and listen to some music. A/ I’m very bad at chess. Why don’t we play video games instead? B/ OK, let’s do that!
Reading # p. 12 1. Before you read Possible answers On the picture on the left, I can see a group of 3 boys pointing their fingers at another boy. They
© Hachette Livre International, 2015 2 Contents
seem to be making fun of / laughing at him. They may be saying something like ‘Hey! Look at you! You will never manage! / You look so ridiculous / stupid! / You really think you can go like that?!’ On the second picture, a girl and a boy bathing in a river are inviting a girl to join them. They are making gestures telling her to come and could be saying ‘Come with us, it’s really nice! We’re having fun! / Don’t worry, it’s not dangerous! And the water is warm!’ But the girl on the side is making a hand gesture to show she doesn’t want to go.
2. Title A
4. The picture on the left illustrates negative peer pressure, whereas the one on the right illustrates positive peer pressure. Negative peer pressure: making you skive off school – smoking – lying to your parents Positive peer pressure: making you do well at school – making you excel at sport – getting you involved in clubs, sports or religious groups Ways of dealing with peer pressure: stand up for what you believe in – develop friendships - pay attention to your feelings
5. 1B - 2C - 3A - 4C - 5A - 6B
6. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ making someone drink alcohol or use drugs; encouraging someone to steal; encouraging someone to try a new sport; making someone join an association… 2/ When I was… / Last year / A few years / days ago, some friends told me to… / convinced me to… / encouraged me to… Some older students asked me to… / wanted me to… 3/ I thought it was a good idea so I agreed. / I didn’t want to but I felt I had to do like the others. / I thought it was bad and I told them. / I did what they asked me to but then I told my friends / my parents about it. 4/ You can ask a friend for help. / You can clearly state your opinion and explain it. / I could have… / People should only do what they believe is right. 5/ Bullying implies repeated physical or verbal violence against one person, whereas peer pressure only consists in trying to influence someone’s behaviour. Peer pressure is often more temporary. If someone tries to take money from somebody else, for example, or repeatedly insults somebody, it’s bullying, not peer pressure.
Vocabulary extension # p. 13 → Phrasal verbs 7. The phrasal verb with three words is ‘stand up for’.
8. 1/ fit in 2/ grow up 3/ give in 4/ deal with 5/ skived off 6/ stand up for 7/ believe in
Grammar # p. 14 → Gerunds and infinitives 1. 1/ learning = gerund 2/ to learn = infinitive – going = gerund 3/ Learning = gerund 4/ to learn = infinitive
2. 1/ Eating all those sweets wasn’t a good idea. 2/ Meeting them will be fun. 3/ Driving home didn’t take long. 4/ Learning irregular verbs is important. 5/ Getting lost in this place is easy. 6/ Seeing Eto playing was exciting.
3. 1/ It’s difficult to find a good job. 2/ It won’t hurt him to work at weekends. 3/ It’s dangerous to ride a motorbike without a helmet. 4/ It was fantastic to see them win the match. 5/ It takes time to learn another language. 6/ It’s against the law to cheat in exams.
→ Verb patterns: -ing form and infinitive 4. Followed by the -ing form: can’t face – anticipate Followed by an infinitive: tend – refuse.
5. Verb + infinitive: would like – want – hope – decide Verb + -ing form: enjoy
6. 1/ to deny 2/ to realise 3/ to improve 4/ going 5/ studying 6/ having 7/ to think 8/ to pass
Vocabulary # p. 15 1. Lead in On the left, I can see two boys playing music together. One is playing the piano and the other one is playing the flute. They seem to be friends and to be enjoying themselves. On the right, two girls are frowning at each other. One is wearing fashionable clothes; she’s listening to music and swaying her hips. The other one has folded arms and looks angry. They don’t seem to like each other.
2. The boy on the left wearing yellow is Obame. The boy playing the flute is Yedo. The girl wearing glasses is Maty. The girl wearing a bandana is Binta.
3. Speaking Possible expressions to use My sister / my brother / my friend and I get on well because we both… I don’t get on with… because we / he / she… I got to know … at …. Now we… … is younger than me but we have a lot in common / we have similar interests; we’re both keen on…
Listening # p. 15 4. Before you listen Possible answers and expressions to use A role model is someone who influences you, someone you want to imitate. Role models can make you change your behaviour and the way you act in life. No, I personally don’t have any role model. / Yes, I have a role model, it’s... He / She influences me because...
5. a1 - b3 - c2 - d4
6. 1/ completed 2/ his own fault 3/ an older girl 4/ are improving
7. Speaking Possible expressions to use He / She is from… He / She works as a… His / Her actions have influenced me / made me change my mind on… because… I don’t know him / her personally but… We have a really close relationship. We both… I think if he / she hadn’t been there / if I hadn’t met him / her, I would have… / I would never have…
Writing # p. 16 → A description of a person 1. 1/ Main idea of paragraph 2: The definition and causes of peer pressure. Main idea of paragraph 4: Ways of dealing with peer pressure. 2/ Paragraph 2: ‘When people of your own age and status try to influence how you act, it’s called peer pressure.’ Paragraph 4: ‘Nearly everyone experiences peer pressure sooner or later, so it’s important that you learn to deal with it and only do what is right for you.’ 3/ In each paragraph, the sentence introducing the main idea is the first sentence of the paragraph.
2. 1c – 2b – 3d – 4a
3. The correct order is: 2, 4, 1, 3. The topic sentence is sentence 2.
Writing task # p. 16 5. Possible answer (120 words) My grandfather is a very important person to me. I see him almost every day after school, and I spend a lot of time with him. He always listens to me. He is curious about what I’m learning at school and about my friends. My mother says he was really bossy and inflexible with her, but with me he is patient and understanding. He’s very good at telling stories, and I love them. Sometimes I tell them to my little brother, and he enjoys them too. Later, I would like to write children stories. I’ve already written a story for the school magazine. Being with my grandpa always makes me happy. He inspires me and makes me feel more confident.
Check Unit 1 # p. 17-18 1. 1/ make the most of 2/ stubborn 3/ go on a date 4/ stand up for 5/ Skiving off 6/ bossy
2. 1/ He got into trouble because he skived off his Maths class. 2/ She wanted to fit in. 3/ My best friend always stands up for me if other people bother me.
4/ I grew up in a small village. 5/ You must learn how to deal with peer pressure. 3. responsible – responsibility – curious – curiosity – stubborn – studious
4. irregular – disorganised – disagree – inability / disability – irresponsible – unavailable – immature – impatient
5. 1/ is crying 2/ is the baby crying 3/ cries 4/ do you do 5/ happens 6/ feed 7/ sing 8/ Do you remember 9/ forget 10/ Does he ever help 11/ is planting 12/ is sleeping
6. Possible answers: make my bed – have breakfast – take a shower – wash my hair – do my hair – brush my teeth – get dressed – get my school bag – put on my shoes…
7. Possible answer I usually get up before six o’clock, never after 6.15. I generally make my bed and then have breakfast. I often take my shower after breakfast, but sometimes I take it before. Around 6.30, I brush my teeth, get my school bag and put my shoes on. I leave home at 6.45 to get the school bus.
8. V + infinitive: tell – expect – offer – intend – want – choose – force – attempt – ask V + -ing form: enjoy – avoid – give up V + infinitive or -ing form: start – hate – continue – like
9. 1/ to quit 2/ to take 3/ working 4/ working 5/ meeting 6/ helping 7/ to adapt 8/ to work 9/ taking 10/ earning
10. Possible answers My sister / brother likes going out in the evening, but she / he dislikes having to come home before 10 pm. I don’t mind taking care of my brothers and sisters on Sundays, but I hate getting up early. My younger brother tends to follow me wherever I go. My parents intend to travel abroad next summer, and they want me to join them. My grandmother enjoys telling stories about her past.
Unit 2 - Health and lifestyle
Lead in # p. 19 1. Possible answers On the first picture we can see surgeons in a hospital operating room. They are wearing protective gowns, masks and head protections. They are operating on a patient / performing surgery on a patient. They may be treating the patient for a severe disease, trying to save his or her life. The picture on the right shows a doctor, wearing a white blouse, examining a baby with his stethoscope. The baby is in his / her mother’s arms. They are probably at a medical centre. The mother probably brought her baby to see the doctor because he / she is ill and she wants the doctor to treat him / her.
Vocabulary # p. 19 2. Diseases: AIDS – conjunctivitis – diabetes – flu – heart attack – infection – malaria – tuberculosis – Ebola – allergy Symptoms: ache – cough – diarrhoea – fever – itching – unconscious – vomiting Remedies: antibiotic – boil – injection – painkiller – tablet – vaccine The most serious diseases are AIDS (symptoms: fever, headache, muscle aches, itching, diarrhoea, cough) and Ebola (symptoms: fever, headache, diarrhoea, vomiting).
3. True statements: 1– 2 – 4 – 6 – 7 – 8 (answer to statement 8 may vary)
4. Speaking Possible expressions to use If / When you suffer from this disease, you generally feel… / you have… / you can feel… This disease makes you… and… You should take … / get… It is a very serious disease and you should treat it well, because…
5. Writing Possible answer Malaria is a very serious infectious disease. In most serious cases it can cause death. It is transmitted by the bite of a female mosquito called anopheles.
Its symptoms include high fever, headaches and vomiting. If you suffer from malaria, you should take anti-malarial tablets and medicine. To avoid catching malaria, you should use a mosquito net.
Reading # p. 20 1. Possible answer The picture shows a police officer checking drug packets. He’s probably a customs agent seizing illegal products. I suppose that when he opened the boxes containing medicine, he saw that they were fake drugs and so he is inspecting every packet and putting the fake ones in a bag. This illustrates the problem of fake drugs sold by illicit traders around the world.
2. Title A
3. 1/ Joseph Houssou suffered from malaria. 2/ His family bought him medicine and antibiotics from the market. Then, they took him to a health clinic. 3/ They buy drugs from the market because they are cheaper. 4/ The fake drug trade is doing well because it is controlled by criminal organisations and is very profitable. 5/ They are dangerous because the quantity of correct ingredients is so low that they are ineffective. 6/ They found 1.4 million packets of fake anti- malaria medicine. 7/ Most of the drugs come from South East Asia or the Middle East. 8/ The solution is to produce authentic drugs locally and sell them at a cheaper price.
4. 1/ seizes 2/ tougher 3/ cannot afford 4/ raided 5/ warehouse 6/ sustainable
5. Discussion Possible expressions to use 1/ I’ve already suffered from… / When I was … I caught… / I had...
My parents treated me with… / I was given … / I had to take… 2/ The most serious diseases are… / A lot of people suffer from… / die from... 3/ Yes, I know someone / someone from my family / a friend who has taken fake medicine. He / She suffered from … and after taking the medicine he / she… No, I don’t know anyone personally / I haven’t heard of anyone who has taken fake medicine. 4/ Governments should encourage the production of cheaper authentic medicine / should encourage people not to buy fake goods / should help poor families have access to treatments / could ask the police to make more controls and punish criminals more severely…
Vocabulary extension # p. 21 → Synonyms 6. counterfeit / fake; medicine / drugs; genuine / authentic; illicit / illegal; trader / vendor
7. 1/ illness 2/ remedy 3/ recover 4/ germs 5/ wound
Grammar # p. 22 → Past tenses: past simple, past continuous and past perfect 1. 1/ fell: past simple – died: past simple 2/ arrived: past simple – had disappeared: past perfect 3/ was sleeping: past continuous – arrived: past simple
Rules a/ past simple b/ past perfect c/ past continuous
Examples of past simple in the text: fell – did – bought – took – arrived – said – raided – confiscated – turned out – made – found Examples of past perfect: had always done – had arrived Examples of past continuous: was dying – was treating – were making – were checking
2. 1/ hadn’t flown 2/ was cleaning – was doing
3/ had bought – got 4/ arrived – had already left 5/ was crossing – knocked 6/ had lost
3. 1/ had spent 2/ was walking 3/ met 4/ hadn’t seen 5/ talked 6/ got 7/ had gone 8/ were 9/ got
4. 1/ while 2/ When 3/ already 4/ As soon as
5. Writing Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ While I was having lunch, I saw a strange thing happen in the street. / the baby was screaming. 2/ As soon as I had done my homework, I went out. / called my friend. 3/ As I was walking down the street, somebody called me. / I met... / saw... / heard… 4/ This time yesterday, I was at school / doing my homework / playing outside / going home / talking to... 5/ We went home after we had visited… / after my brother / my parents had finished… 6/ I was tired because I had run from school / I hadn’t slept much at night / I had helped my mother with…
Communication # p. 23 → Asking for and giving advice 1. 1/ do 2/ talk 3/ to do 4/ go 5/ get 6/ do 7/ see
4. 1/ Problem: Efua no longer speaks to me – Advice: talk to her / let me talk it over with her 2/ Problem: Mum’s phone is broken – Advice: get her a new phone for her birthday 3/ Problem: I haven’t finished paying for the excursion – Advice: tell your parents / explain the situation to the coordinator
5. Writing and Speaking Possible answer A/ You look worried, Fatou. What’s the matter? B/ I have to stay home again next Saturday. My parents are always asking me to look after my brothers and I can’t stand it anymore! A/ Have you talked to them about it? B/ I’ve tried to. But they don’t really listen to me. What do you advise me to do? A/ Why don’t you talk to your uncle Joseph? You get on well with him, he could help you. B/ Do you think so? A/ Sure! If I were you, I’d go see him right away. B/ You’re right. Maybe he can tell my parents I have something important to say. I think I’ll try!
Reading # p. 24 1. Before you read Possible answer The picture shows a very fat man sitting in an armchair, watching TV and eating a sandwich. He’s wearing a blue cap and a yellow T-shirt which appears to be much too small for him. On the floor next to the armchair we can see food leftovers (among which are an empty bottle, an empty can, a fishbone, an apple core...), which show he has been eating and drinking a lot. The man seems to be turning into a tree: his legs look like tree branches and his feet like roots. These roots are growing and even starting to cover the TV set. It suggests that the man has been sitting there for a very long time and is not moving anymore. The picture suggests the person has a very unhealthy lifestyle. The man appears not to be moving from his armchair or exercising at all, and it seems he just keeps eating and drinking while watching TV.
2. Answer 3
3. True sentences: 3 – 5 – 6 – 8 False sentences: 1 (When he was younger, Samuel Song had an unhealthy lifestyle.) – 2 (He was a future candidate for diabetes.) – 4 (He started eating grilled fish and vegetables for lunch.) – 7 (He doesn’t work out in a gym, but he walks everywhere.)
4. 1/ obese 2/ diet 3/ weight 4/ decade 5/ stamina 6/ diet Expressions: weight – diet; diet – weight
5. 1/ puts on 2/ work out 3/ cut out – cut down on 4/ work out 5/ give up 6/ take up 7/ stuck with
6. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ A balanced diet includes a little bit of every type of food: carbohydrates, sugar, protein, fat and vitamins. It should include a lot of fruit and vegetables, but not too much fat and sugar. 2/ I don’t get much exercise. I don’t think I get enough. / I think I should exercise more. / I practise sport only at school. I exercise a lot. I walk to school every day. / I go running / swimming in the evening / at weekends… / I practise… 3/ On the whole, I think my lifestyle is quite healthy because… / My lifestyle is not completely healthy because… / is more or less healthy… / is completely unhealthy… To improve it, I could exercise more / practise a sport more regularly. / I think I should walk more often / go running more often… / I could take up dance lessons / football / swimming… 4/ Carbohydrates: potatoes – bred – rice – pasta – beans… Sugar: soda – sweets – honey – chocolate… Protein: meat – fish – eggs – seafood… Fat: chips – fried chicken – butter – oil – cream… Vitamins: oranges – carrots – bananas – mushrooms – cabbages – green beans – pineapples…
Vocabulary extension # p. 25 → Collocations 7. 1/ diet 2/ weight 3/ diet 4/ go 5/ couch 6/ disease
Pronunciation # p. 25 → [] and [i] 8. []: since – kilometre – instead – grilled – it – fifteen – stamina [i]: eat – kilo – week – meet – obese – green – secret
Grammar # p. 26 → Used to 1. 1/ used to 2/ used to be 3/ didn’t use to We form the negative with did + not.
2. Answer a
3. 1/ People didn’t use to have electricity. 2/ Did your grandparents use to have a TV? 3/ We used to help dad on his farm. 4/ They didn’t use to go to school on Thursdays.
4. Possible answers and expressions 1/ What did you use to drink when you were a baby? → I used to drink milk. 2/ What games did you use to play when you were a small child? → I used to play… 3/ Who used to look after you when you were a baby? → My mother / grandmother / sister used to look after me. 4/ Did you parents use to have mobile phones when you were young? → No, they didn’t, because… / Yes, they did.
→ Get used to and be used to 5. 1a – 2b
6. 1/ get used to 2/ am used to 3/ are used to 4/ get used to
7. Writing Possible answers Life is my town used to be very different from now. People used to live in smaller houses. Girls didn’t use to have access to education. / People didn’t use to care about girls going to school. People used to die younger; today the life expectancy is higher. Women used to have a lot more children. / Women didn’t use to have jobs outside of the house. There didn’t use to be so many sport facilities in town. Few people used to own a car. People didn’t use to have TV sets and mobile phones. Today, a lot of families have their own TV set. A lot of people own a mobile phone and use it every day. People used to wear only traditional clothes, but today many people wear occidental clothes.
Vocabulary # p. 27 1. Lead in Possible answers This poster is campaigning against smoking. It is focusing on women smoking during their pregnancy, highlighting the fact that smoking is also dangerous for the future baby.
2. 1/ threat 2/ ban 3/ epidemic 4/ target 5/ prevent 6/ addicted
3. 1/ banned 2/ threat 3/ target 4/ epidemic – addicted 5/ Prevention
4. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use I think some young people take up smoking because they want to imitate others / they feel they have to smoke to fit in / to be accepted by the others. They are afraid of being marginalised if they don’t smoke. I don’t know many smokers, but I know… / I know a lot of people who smoke in my family… / There are many smokers among my friends, some are really addicted to cigarettes… / some only smoke during parties or when they are part of a group. People can become addicted to drugs, alcohol, medicines like sleeping pills…
Listening # p. 27 5. Before you listen Possible answers and expressions to use Smoking can cause cancers of the lung, throat, mouth, bladder and oesophagus. It can also cause heart and cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, dental diseases, bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, as well as problems during pregnancy and childbirth. Yes, I know someone who has (had)... He / She was smoking a lot and.... / I have heard of someone in my family who has (had)... No, I don’t know anyone / I haven’t heard of anyone who has (had) a smoking-linked disease.
© Hachette Livre International, 2015 9 Contents
6. True statements: 1 and 4.
7. 1/ 6 2/ 600,000 3/ 100 4/ 1 5/ 90 6/ half
8. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ I think the best way to prevent people from taking up smoking is to inform them about the many diseases that can be caused by smoking. / To prevent people from taking up smoking, all governments should ban smoking in public places / governments should raise the price of cigarettes / campaigns should be organised to make people aware of all the smoking-related risks. 2/ Yes, I think they are effective, because by informing people, they can make them aware of their responsibilities. No, I don’t think they are effective / I think they are ineffective / I think they are not always effective / they are not sufficient: people who already smoke can find it hard to stop / some people still believe they can smoke from time to time and never be ill / some people like smoking and don’t want to quit. 3/ Yes, I think it should, because it can be a way of limiting the number of smokers / it can protect non-smokers from second-hand smoke. No, I think it shouldn’t / it’s not the government’s role. I think smokers should be given the freedom to smoke if they want to, and should be allowed to smoke everywhere.
Writing # p. 28 → An informal email 1. Before you write Possible answers 1/ This student’s behaviour may change. For example, he / she may ignore his other friends or stop talking to them. He / She’s also likely to be more aggressive / irritable and selfish. He / She may withdraw from organisations or associations he / she belonged to, and drop out of school or become uninterested in studies. 2/ This friend can appear to be tired or sick all the time. He / She may appear unhealthy / absent- minded / dazed / restless / bad-tempered. He / She may start daydreaming more than usual and change the way he / she talks to his / her friends. 3/ This person may seem exhausted / constantly out of breath / depressed. He / She may have trouble concentrating and listening to other
people. He / She may become inactive and spend a lot of time sleeping during the day.
2. Answers B and C
3. 1/ The style is informal. 2/ Pamela starts with ‘Dear Zohra’, and ends with ‘Love’ and her signature. 3/ Paragraph 2 describes the consequences. 4/ Pamela asks for advice in paragraph 3. 5/ Paragraph 1 states the problem.
4. 1/ The adverbs come before adjectives. 2/ The strongest is ‘extremely’. 3/ The weakest is ‘very’.
6. Writing task Possible answer (116 words) Dear Joseph, I really need your advice. I’m quite worried about my friend Daniel. He’s made friends with a group of boys who have a very bad influence on him. They hang out in bars together almost every night, smoking and drinking a lot of alcohol. Daniel used to really like school and say he wanted to study medicine, but now he never does his homework anymore and his results are getting very bad. He’s always looking exhausted and is extremely irritable. What’s more, he says he doesn’t care about studying anymore. What do you suggest I do? Should I tell his parents, or talk to a teacher about it? Write soon, Bye for now, Samuel
Check Unit 2 # p. 29-30 1. 1/ malaria 2/ diabetes 3/ tuberculosis 4/ conjunctivitis
2. 1/ antibiotics – infection 2/ heart attack 3/ vomiting – diarrhoea 4/ injection 5/ allergies 6/ vaccine
3. 1/ put on weight: b 2/ take up: a 3/ give up: e 4/ stick with: f 5/ cut out: c 6/ work out: d
© Hachette Livre International, 2015 10 Contents
4. 1/ putting on – take up 2/ work out 3/ stick with 4/ cut out
5. 1/ rebelled 2/ rebels 3/ recorded 4/ record 5/ deserted 6/ desert 7/ close 8/ close
6. 1/ Azim and Ebrimat were having fun in the park and riding bikes. 2/ My parents were sitting on a bench and watching children. 3/ The President was making a speech about social problems. 4/ Mr Fachola was driving his car to the village. 5/ Mrs Fachola was shopping for food at the market.
7. Possible answer This time yesterday my family and I were at different places and were doing different things. I was at school and I was listening to the English teacher. My father was at work and he was helping a customer repair his car. My mother was at the health centre, she was buying medicine for my little brother. My sister was at home, she was studying for her university exams.
8. 1/ They migrated to the States after they had sold their house. 2/ They had lived in that country for twenty years when war broke out.
3/ He got home after a burglar had broken into his house. / A burglar had broken into his house before he got home. 4/ They decided to watch a movie after they had finished eating dinner. / They had finished eating dinner when they decided to watch a movie. 5/ The 10.30 train (had) left for Ouagadougou when he arrived at the train station. / He arrived at the train station after the 10.30 train had left for Ouagadougou.
9. 1/ The family used to live in a slum, but now they live in one of the nicest and most beautiful houses in the city. 2/ The kids used to go to school on foot, but now they drive to school. 3/ Mrs Adamon used to cook food and do all the domestic chores, but now a maid does everything. 4/ Mr Adamon used to borrow money from neighbours, but now he runs a microcredit project and he lends money to poor women. 5/ The Adamons didn’t use to travel, but now they are globetrotters and visit every part of the world.
10. Possible answers A: I’m putting on a lot of weight these days. What should I do? B: Do you exercise regularly? A: No, I mostly watch TV when I’m at home. B: Well, I think you should start walking every day, it could help. You should also watch your diet.
A: I’m having trouble concentrating in class. What do you think I should do? B: Do you sleep enough at night? A: Not really. I go to bed late and I’m always tired. B: Try going to bed earlier, I’m sure it will help. And don’t forget to have breakfast in the morning.
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Unit 3 - Technology
Lead in # p. 33 1. Possible answers On the picture on the left, a teenage girl is taking a picture of a landscape – a river or a lake with mountains in the background – with her mobile phone. On the second picture, three teenage girls are looking at their mobile phones, probably sending text messages. Mobile phones have changed people’s lifestyle. Many people keep their phone constantly with them and use it very often, to call, to listen to music, to send text messages or to take pictures for example. They couldn’t imagine their lives without a mobile phone.
Vocabulary # p. 33 2. charger = chargeur – icon = icône – battery = batterie – calculator = calculatrice – SIM card = carte SIM
3. airtime – download – landline – ringtone – handset – network – text message – keypad – password – SIM card – touch screen
4. 1/ password 2/ ringtone 3/ keypad 4/ airtime 5/ text message 6/ handset 7/ landlines 8/ download
5. Speaking Possible answers 1/ I know a lot of people who have a mobile phone. / Almost all my friends have one. I don’t know many people who have a mobile phone. / Only a few people I know have a mobile phone. 2/ My friends / I use it to send text messages, to chat with friends, to check the time, to call, to take pictures, to listen to music, to play games... My father / mother uses it to check emails / to pay bills / to check the weather forecast / to check the train schedule / to contact clients / to look for a job...
3/ They use it from time to time / when they need it / on a regular basis / every day / once or twice a day / several times a day / very often / all the time...
Reading # p. 34 1. Before you read Possible answers 1/ I agree with this statement. I think landlines will disappear because people won’t need them anymore: everyone will have a mobile phone. I don’t agree: I think some people will always keep their landlines even if they also have mobile phones. 2/ I agree. Some scientists think that radiation produced by mobile phones could be dangerous for people who use them excessively. I don’t agree. I don’t think the radiation could be powerful enough to cause diseases. 3/ I agree. In my opinion, some phones are really too expensive. People spend a lot of money on phones and on airtime but many could do without a phone. / don’t really need a phone. I don’t agree. Some phones are not too expensive, and they can be really useful to communicate, especially for people who don’t have landlines.
2. business people – farmers – workers
3. 1C – 2B – 3C – 4A – 5D
4. 1/ uprisings 2/ rely on 3/ forecasts 4/ exploded 5/ lends 6/ dwellers
5. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ Having a mobile phone enables you to communicate faster and more efficiently. / The main advantages of having a mobile phone are that you can use it to... and... / it can enable you to... It can be used in places with no landlines, and it can be used by business people as well as teenagers. It’s easy to use and it’s quick.
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2/ With a smartphone, you can have access to the Internet and go online, so for example you can receive and send emails, or watch television. This means that people have access to a lot of information very easily and very quickly. I think smartphones could / may replace computers one day. 3/ Mobile phones can become very addictive. Some people never leave their phone and cannot stay away from it, even for 5 minutes. They don’t turn it off at night and it can affect their sleep. What’s more / Besides, looking at the screen all day long can be bad for your eyes. The obsession with mobile phones can also create a lack of direct communication between people. 4/ If I had a smartphone, I would use it to... / I use my smartphone to...
Vocabulary extension # p. 35 → Verbs + prepositions 6. belong to – rely on – respond to – chat with – benefit from
7. 1/ with 2/ from 3/ to 4/ about 5/ on 6/ for
8. Writing Possible answers This bag belongs to my cousin. They didn’t respond to his request. I spend hours chatting with my best friend. Everyone will benefit from the new hospital. I don’t always agree with my parents. My sister suffered from malaria last year. My brother keeps complaining to my parents. I always worry about tests. The government should spend more on education. You should apologise for being rude.
Grammar # p. 36 → Present perfect 1. Rule: a Examples of the present perfect in the text: has exploded – has changed – has spread – have now become – has already started – have played – have made it possible – has benefited – has already become – Has it changed – has changed – ’ve just downloaded – haven’t tried
2. 1/ have bought 2/ have seen
3/ hasn’t done / has not done 4/ has won 5/ hasn’t washed / has not washed 6/ haven’t eaten / have not eaten
3. a/ already and just b/ ever and yet c/ yet, still and never
4. 1/ has already visited 2/ hasn’t met – yet 3/ Have you learnt / learned – yet 4/ have just arrived 5/ Have you ever eaten 6/ still haven’t written
5. 1/Have you learnt / learned all the irregular verbs yet? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. 2/ Have you ever swum in the sea? Yes, I have. / No, I haven’t. 3/ Has your friend ever broken his arm? Yes, he has. / No, he hasn’t. 4/ Has your teacher met your parents yet? No, he hasn’t. / Yes, he has.
6. Speaking Possible answers 1/ Have you already taken part in an exam? Yes, a few times. 2/ Have you ever sent a text message or an email? Yes, a lot of times. 3/ Have you ever used a smartphone to go online? Yes, twice. 4/ Have you already had bad marks in a test? Yes, occasionally. 5/ Have you ever sung in a choir? No, never. 6/ Have you been to the dentist’s? Yes, a few times.
Communication # p. 37 → Checking information 1. 1/ aren’t you? 2/ don’t you? 3/ have you? 4/ didn’t you? 5/ were you? 6/ are you? 7/ won’t you?
4. 1/aren’t you? 2/ do you? 3/ have you? 4/ didn’t you? 5/ haven’t you? 6/ aren’t you?
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5. Writing and Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use You are ... (years old), aren’t you? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not, I’m... You live in..., don’t you? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t, I live in... Your favourite subject is..., isn’t it? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. I prefer... / It’s... Your favourite food is..., isn’t it? Yes, it is. / No, it isn’t. It’s... You like cooking, don’t you? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. You enjoy..., don’t you? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. I prefer... You’re fond of..., aren’t you? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. I’m fond of... You want to become a..., don’t you? Yes, I do. / No, I don’t. I want to become a... In 10 years, you will be / have..., won’t you? Yes, I will. / No, I won’t. I will be / have...
Reading # p. 38 1. Before you read Possible answers The people in the picture are standing on a stage and sending text messages. They are taking part in an American texting championship. The language used in text messages is special because the words are generally not written out in full. Text messages use a lot of abbreviations, initials or symbols. I think (that) people who text a lot are not used to writing complete words anymore. They are more likely to do a lot of spelling mistakes when they have to write at school for example. / I don’t think (that) texting affects writing skills negatively. People just use a different language when they send text messages. / In my opinion, texting affects writing skills positively, because people get used to writing all the time.
2. A3 – B5 – C2 – E4 – F1
3. 1B 2A 3B and C 4A 5A
4. 1/ tech-savvy 2/ launched 3/ damages 4/ keep in touch 5/ overtaken 6/ literacy
5. Discussion Possible answers give a call – check your emails – go online – take pictures – take videos – watch TV – listen to music – listen to the radio – download music – download games – play games – record yourself – check your location...
6. Play a game 1/ Fine and you? 2/ Don’t be late! 3/ Hi, how are you today? 4/ Great, can I see you tonight? 5/ Ok, see you at 7.30. 6/ Hi John. Order of the conversation: 6 – 3 – 1 – 4 – 5 – 2
Vocabulary extension # p. 39 → Adjectives + prepositions 7. 1/ popular with (paragraph 3) 2/ fluent at (paragraph 4) 3/ concerned about (paragraph 4)
8. 1/ in 2/ with 3/ about 4/ of 5/ to 6/ of
Pronunciation # p. 39 → /hv/ and /hv/ 9. Dialogue 1: /hv/ – /hv/ – /hv/ Dialogue 2: /hv/ – /hv/ Dialogue 3: /hv/ – /hv/ – /hv/
Grammar # p. 40 → Present perfect + for and since 1. Rules a/ for b/ since
2. For: three weeks – a long time – ages – ten years. More examples: two months – thirty seconds – the school year... Since: July – Christmas – 2010. More examples: last month – I arrived – Monday...
3. 1/ since 2/ Have 3/ for 4/ How long 5/ since 6/ for
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→ Present perfect and past simple 4. a/ Sentence 2. The tense is past simple. b/ Sentence 1. The tense is present perfect.
5. 1/ flew 2/ have already done 3/ have visited 4/ have been 5/ haven’t visited any museums yet 6/ saw 7/ have just eaten 8/ has gone
Vocabulary # p. 41 1. Lead in Possible answers The people in the picture are watching TV. They are sitting outside, in a courtyard. Scenes like these can be seen in rural areas / in small villages / in remote villages where people don’t have TV sets at home, and where a TV set is used by a whole community / by different families from the same community. In big towns, a lot of people have their own TV set at home, so each family watches TV individually. Communities don’t have to meet to watch TV.
2. 1/ channels 2/ adverts 3/ aerials – satellite dishes 4/ broadcast 5/ reception 6/ flat screen TV
3. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ There are both state-owned and private TV channels in my country. 2/ There are many annoying adverts which interrupt programmes on the TV channel we watch / on the private TV channels. 3/ Most houses still have ugly aerials in my town, because only a few people have satellite dishes. 4/ The TV channels I watch broadcast all over Africa / the country. 5/ The reception in my village is very good because we have a strong signal. / The reception is not always good: it depends on the quality of the signal. 6/ We just bought a new flat screen TV set and got rid of our old-fashioned TV. / We would like to buy a flat screen TV set but we can’t afford it for the moment.
Listening # p. 41 4. Before you listen Possible answers and expressions to use I watch television several times a day / very often / every evening / almost every day / occasionally / from time to time / when there is an interesting show or programme / when I’m interested in the programme... My favourite programmes are..., but I also like watching... or... I never miss..., I love it! / Every... at..., I watch...
5. 1/ Nigeria 2/ first 3/ public 4/ two 5/ couldn’t 6/ many 7/ satellite dishes
6. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ The first time I watched TV, it was with... and... / I was at home / I was... years old. I remember that the first programme I watched was... / I don’t really remember the first time I watched TV. 2/ When I was young, TV was... / the programmes were... / the adverts were... / there were a lot of programmes about... 3/ Today, TV is more... / the programmes are more... The programmes have changed and are... / The programmes used to be about... and now they are more about... I think the programmes are more interesting / are less interesting / haven’t changed so much since I was a child. A big difference is that now, TV channels broadcast 24 hours a day. There are more channels / more adverts for... The reception is better today because... The quality of the images is much better / has improved since I was a child. Besides / What’s more, the TV screens are much thinner than when I was a child.
Writing # p. 42 → An informal letter 1. Before you write Possible answers If my family had moved to another country, I think I would find it difficult at first to adapt to the new country, to my new school, and to make new friends. I would miss my friends / my village / my town / my school / my neighbours / my community / my relatives / my grandparents / my cousins...
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2. 1/ Christine is in Ivory Coast, in Dabou, and Roger is in Benin, in Parakou. 2/ They know each other because Christine used to live in Parakou. 3/ The question Christine is answering is probably: ‘Are you happy in Dabou now?’ / ‘Did you get used to living in Dabou?’ / ‘Do you enjoy it better in Dabou now?’ 4/ Christine misses her relatives.
3. Starting a letter: Hi! – How are things? – How are you? – It was great / lovely to hear from you. – Thanks for your letter. I’m sorry I haven’t written for ages. Ending a letter: Bye – Write back soon – All the best, – Bye for now – Love – Take care – That’s all for now – Say hello to...
4. Questions in the letter : ‘Have you seen it?’ – ‘Has TV changed much since I left?’ – ‘Are there any English-speaking channels?’ – ‘What’s your favourite TV programme?’ Three questions (possible answers): How is your family doing? – Do you still play football / basketball? – Are you still learning the guitar? – Are you still fond of rock music / swimming / animals / old movies? – Are you still friends with... and... ?
6. Writing task Possible answer (145 words) Friday 15th April, Parakou Dear Christine, Thanks for your letter. I’m glad to learn that you have made new friends in Dabou. Here everything is fine, I’ve joined the theatre club this year and I really enjoy it. Peter is also part of it, you probably remember him from primary school, the boy who was always laughing! As for Rachel, she has moved to Porto-Novo with her parents, and she invited me to come visit her next month. I can’t wait to go! You asked if I have seen Questions pour un champion. Yes, a few times, and I also like it. But I prefer watching series; my favourite series is Emergency Room. Have you seen it? TV here hasn’t changed much since you left, except now we can watch some English-speaking channels. Do you know when you’re coming home? Maybe for Christmas? Write again soon, Take care, Roger.
Check Unit 3 # p. 43-44 1. 1/ smartphone 2/ airtime 3/ keypad 4/ landline 5/ ringtone 6/ app 7/ password 8/ network
2. youth culture – mobile phone – weather forecast – touch screen – satellite dish – social network – text message – TV channel – SIM card
3. 1/ satellite dish 2/ mobile phone 3/ text message 4/ SIM card 5/ social network 6/ touch screen
4. 1/ at 2/ of – on 3/ in 4/ about 5/ to 6/ of
5. 1/ a. I have visited Douala. b. I haven’t visited Douala. 2/ a. I have (already) had this. c. Have you (ever) had this? 3/ b. He hasn’t been / has never been top of his class. c. Has he (ever) been top of his class? 4/ a. She has bought a new dress. b. She hasn’t bought a (new) dress. 5/ a. They have sung the national anthem. c. Have they sung the national anthem? 6/ b. The train hasn’t left the station (yet). c. Has the train left the station (yet)? 7/ a. They have found their dog. c. Have they found their dog?
6. 1/ Has Mr Aballo travelled abroad? Yes, he has. 2/ Has Mrs Aballo used a smartphone? No, she hasn’t. 3/ Has Larissa sent text messages? Yes, she has. 4/ Have Flora and Romeo driven their parents’ car? Yes, they have. 5/ Have you eaten in a Chinese restaurant? Yes, I have. 6/ Have your parents met the President? No, they haven’t.
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7. 1/ Mr Aballo has travelled abroad several times. 2/ Mrs Aballo has never used a smartphone. 3/ Larissa has sent text messages once or twice. 4/ Flora and Romea have driven their parents’ car a couple of times. 5/ You have often eaten in a Chinese restaurant. 6/ They have never met the President.
8. 1/ have – waited 2/ have been 3/ Has – left 4/ has – left
5/ left 6/ Has – left 7/ hasn’t left 8/ leaves
9. 1/ How long 2/ for 3/ in 4/ ago 5/ since 6/ ever 7/ never
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Unit 4 - Looking forward
Lead in # p. 45 1. Possible answer The first picture shows a whole field covered with solar panels, a device that uses solar energy. The picture on the right shows an offshore oil rig. Solar energy is clean, because the production and consumption of this type of energy is done without emitting any greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. Oil, on the contrary, isn’t a clean energy.
Vocabulary # p. 45 → Energy 2. To check the meaning of the words, students can use a dictionary or refer to the Wordlist at the end of their Student’s book (pages 158-160).
Clean energy sources: solar – wind – biofuel (the consumption is clean, but not the production) – nuclear (except for the production of waste) – geothermal – hydroelectric
3. 1/ nuclear 2/ Coal 3/ firewood 4/ Hydroelectric energy 5/ Solar 6/ Biofuel 7/ gas 8/ Geothermal
4. wind turbine solar panel hydroelectric dam oil refinery nuclear waste
5. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ For cooking, I use firewood / gas / electricity / solar energy / biofuel, and for lighting I use electricity / solar energy / oil... 2/ At my school, electricity is produced thanks to / with / through gas / coal / hydroelectric energy / wind power / generators using oil... 3/ Nuclear energy, coal, gas and oil are fossil fuels.
Reading # p. 46 1. Before you read Possible answer The picture shows renewable energy produced from organic matter with a biogas digester. Organic matter – animal dung and human sewage – is put into a digester which turns it into gas. The gas can then be used for cooking for example.
2. Answer 2
3. career = carrière – decision = décision – sectors = secteurs – future = futur – technologies = technologies – energies = énergies – solar = solaire – sources = sources – article = article – region = région – gas = gaz – simple = simple – transforms = transforme – animal = animal – human = humain – methan = méthane – carbon dioxide = dioxyde de carbone – organic = organique – industrial = industriel – projects = projets – suggestions = suggestions
4. 1/ human sewage 2/ other organic matter 3/ affordable 4/ helps people save money 5/ methane
5. True sentences: sentence 1 (paragraph 2, ‘there will be plenty of jobs in renewable energies’) sentence 2 (paragraph 2, ‘Two of my friends are going to study engineering so they can work in solar energy.’) sentence 5 (Cynthia’s comment, ‘How can you consider a career in ANIMAL DUNG!? It’s unimaginable! Yuk!’) sentence 6 (Tonto’s comment, ‘Don’t let Cynthia put you off, Singh.’)
False sentences: sentence 3 (paragraph 4, ‘A biogas digester transforms animal dung... into gas...which is then used for cooking and lighting homes.’ → Biogas can also be a good energy source for homes.) sentence 4 (paragraph 5, ‘I can see a bright future for biogas, and I’d like to get into it. But how? Any suggestions?’ → Singh wants to know how to get into biogas.)
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6. 1/ farmers 2/ abroad 3/ search engine 4/ affordable 5/ career
Vocabulary extension # p. 47 → Adjectives with suffix -able 7. 1/ renewable 2/ affordable 3/ unimaginable
8. 1/ valuable 2/ unacceptable 3/ unreasonable 4/ enjoyable 5/ knowledge
9. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ I’m considering a career in... because I think... / I like... / I enjoy doing... and... / I’ve heard it’s... I’m not sure yet / I still don’t know what career I would like to do. 2/ Yes, I think I will continue studying after high school, because to be a... I need to study... / Yes, I would like to go to college / university, if my results are good enough / if I pass my exams / if my parents can afford it. No, I don’t think I will continue studying after high school, I think I will...
10. Writing Possible answer Thanks Singh for sharing the information! I had never heard about biogas before but it sounds great! And I think you’re absolutely right about renewable energies. I wish you good luck with your studies then!
Grammar # p. 48 → Will / won’t; may and might 1. Rules 1/ will /won’t 2/ may (might) 3/ might (may)
2. 1/ I think Comlan won’t study engineering at university. / I don’t think Comlan will study engineering at university. 2/ I think the world will be a better place in the future. 3/ I think humans will destroy our planet one day.
4/ I think people won’t live on other planets this century. / I don’t think people will live on other planets this century. 5/ I think oil will disappear by the end of this century. 6/ I think scientists will find a cure for cancer one day.
3. Possible answers 1/ Where will you live when you’re older? → I will / may live in... 2/ How many children will you have? → I think I will have... children. / I many have ... or ... children. / I don’t think I will have children. / I think I won’t have children. 3/ What job will you do when you’re older? → I think I will be a... / I will work as a... / I would like to work in a ... / I may / might be a... or a ... / I don’t know what I will do yet. 4/ When will you leave home? → I will / might leave home when I am... / after I... / I won’t leave home before... 5/ Will you write a book one day? → Yes, I will write a book! / Yes, I hope I will. / I may / might write a book. / I don’t think I will ever write a book. / No, I won’t. I don’t want to be a writer.
4. See exercise 3 for possible answers.
→ First conditional 5. 1/ take = present simple – ’ll learn = future 2/ won’t pollute = future – install = present simple We use a comma when the if-clause comes first.
6. 1/ I will not / won’t go to university if I fail my exams. 2/ If you arrive late, you will miss the bus. 3/ If you install a biogas generator, you will not / won’t have to buy kerosene. 4/ We will protect the environment if we use clean energy.
7. Writing and Speaking Possible answers 1/ If I finish my homework early, I will help my sister with her homework / play games / call a friend / listen to music... 2/ If my mum doesn’t feel well, I will stay at home to help her / tell my grandmother / call my dad / call a doctor / go with her to the health centre / make her rest... 3/ If a famous person comes to town, I will go see him or her with a friend / take a picture of him or her / stay at home and watch it on TV... 4/ If I have time this evening, I will watch TV / listen to music / call my best friend / clean up my room...
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Communication # p. 49 → Making travel arrangements 1. 1/ When’s 2/ leaves 3/ What time 4/ How much 5/ Can 6/ How long 7/ Could
4. 1/ Bouaké – 11 am – 3 pm – 5,000 francs 2/ Ngoundere – 5.45 pm – 6 am – 28,000 francs 3/ Tong – when the bus is full – 6 to 8 hours after departure – 4,000 francs
5. Writing Possible answer A How can I help you, Madam? B Could you tell me when the next bus to ... is? A The next one leaves at ... am / pm. B How long does it take? A It takes about... hours, depending on the traffic. B And how much is a ticket? A It costs ... francs. B I’ll take a return ticket, please. A Thank you. Here you are. And here’s your change.
Reading # p. 50 1. Before you read Possible answer The story seems to take place / probably takes place in the future / in a distant future / in a science fiction world. It takes place in space, on another planet.
2. Sola Kovak, Lennox’s daugther, is a famous explorer, a space captain. Vortex is a small planet in the universe where space adventurers live. It is the last planet in the Solar System, a six-month-journey away from the Earth.
3. 1/ adventurer 2/ medicine 3/ father 4/ planet 5/ daughter 6/ explorer 7/ arrives 8/ Earth 9/ spaceship
4. 1/ lands on – boarding 2/ disembarks
3/ heading 4/ takes off – lifting off 5/ checked out
5. Writing Possible answer Receptionist Could I help you, Sir? Dr Kovak Yes, please. I’d like to take the next flight to Earth. Could you tell me when it leaves? Receptionist Well, there’s only one flight to Earth every day. The next spaceship leaves tomorrow at 5 pm. You’ll be on Earth by the end of May. Dr Kovak That’s fine. Can I have a ticket, please? Receptionist Sure. Do you want a return ticket? Dr Kovak No, just a single ticket, please. Receptionist That’s 300 space dollars. Dr Kovak Here you are. Receptionist Thank you, Sir. Here’s your ticket. I hope you enjoy the flight!
Vocabulary extension # p. 51 → Suffixes –ist, -er, -or 6. 1/ receptionist 2/ doctor 3/ explorer 4/ adventurer 5/ manager
7. Possible answers -ist: archaeologist – dentist – journalist – scientist... -er: teacher – farmer – lawyer – butcher – baker – singer – taxi driver – hairdresser – writer – plumber – gardener – miner – painter... -or: actor / actress – sailor – tailor – aviator... other suffixes: astronaut – architect – shop assistant – cook – nurse – electrician – engineer – mechanic – pilot – secretary – vet – businessman / businesswoman – policeman / policewoman – fireman / firewoman – salesman / saleswoman...
Grammar # p. 52 → Be going to 1. Rule: explain plans and intentions
2. 1/ The students are going to / aren’t going to revise irregular verbs at the weekend. 2/ You and your parents are going to / aren’t going to (go to) church on Sunday. 3/ You are going to / aren’t going to visit my grandparents tomorrow. 4/ Ngono is going to / isn’t going to work harder next year. 5/ Oscar is going to / isn’t going to cook dinner tonight. 6/ I’m going to /’m not going to get married when I’m older.
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3. Possible answers 1/ Are the students going to revise irregular verbs at the weekend? Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. They’re going to play football / watch television / play games... 2/ Are you and your parents going to (go to) church on Sunday? Yes, we are. / No, we aren’t. We are going to stay at home / have lunch with my grandparents / visit my cousins... 3/ Are you going to visit my grandparents tomorrow? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. I’m going to visit them on Saturday / I’m going to help my parents / to babysit... 4/ Is Ngono going to work harder next year? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t. 5/ Is Oscar going to cook dinner tonight? Yes, he is. / No, he isn’t. He’s going to his football practise / My sister is going to cook / My mother is going to do the cooking... 6/ Are you going to get married when you’re older? Yes, I am. / No, I’m not. I’m going to stay single / I don’t want to get married.
→ Will and going to 4. 1/ b 2/ d 3/ a 4/ c
5. 1/ ’ll be 2/ ’s going to work 3/ ’re meeting 4/ ’ll come 5/ Will you lend
6. 1/ are going to play 2/ will win 3/ Will you come 4/ will celebrate
7. Writing Possible answers Predictions: People will use only renewable energies in a few decades. / New planets will be discovered one day. / In twenty years, there will be no landlines anymore. / Scientists will discover a cure for every disease one day. Plans or intentions: I’m going to travel to Britain this summer. / I’m going to meet my best friend this weekend. / My parents are going to move to Bamako next year. / I’m going to study engineering at university if I pass all the exams.
Vocabulary # p. 53 1. Lead in Possible answer The graph illustrates the rapid increase of world population / the overpopulation that is predicted to happen in the next decades.
1/ 4,000 2/ 1800 3/ 20th 4/ 7.2 5/ 9.2 6/ 2075
2. Speaking Answers may vary and are left to the judgment of each student.
Listening # p. 53 3. 1/ pessimistic 2/ pessimistic 3/ optimistic
4. 1/ India – overpopulation – 1.40 – poverty 2/ Bamako / Mali – lack of water / access to water – climate change – famines 3/ Sao Paulo / Brazil – energy / energy crisis – alternative energy – climate change
5. Speaking Possible expressions to use I agree with Padma / John / Lucas / speaker n°... Like him / her, I think / believe ... will be the most serious problem in the future, because... I don’t agree with... In my opinion, the most serious problem will be ..., not ..., because... / In my country, the situation is different, and the most serious problem will be..., because...
Writing # p. 54 → An article 1. Before you write Possible answers health: more vaccines / less diseases / longer life expectancy / better healthcare / still inequal access to healthcare... education: less illiteracy / higher literacy rate / more schools / more universities / better access to education / less unemployment / more unemployment...
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energy: crisis / shortage of fossil fuels / development of renewable energies / increase in energy prices / development of biofuel... transport: shortage in oil / increase in oil prices / less cars / more collective transports / faster trains and planes / more electric cars and buses... space: development of space travel / more spaceships / discovery of new planets / emigration to other planets... population: overpopulation / increase of population density in cities / more and more rural exodus / increase in immigration / decrease in immigration ... environment: a lot of species disappear / more pollution / better awareness / new strategies to protect nature / new laws...
2. Possible answer The writer seems to be an optimist. / On the whole, the writer is an optimist.
3. 1/ b 2/ Topic sentence in paragraph 2: ‘The 21st century will probably be a difficult time.’ → There will be a lot of serious problems in the 21st century. / People will have to face serious problems during the 21st century. Topic sentence in paragraph 3: ‘Things will start to improve from 2100.’ → From 2100, the situation will get better. / Starting from 2100, things / life will get easier. 3/ Paragraph 2: shortage of oil and gas – difficulties in transport and industry – overpopulation: 9 billion people in 2050 – wars for water and food Paragraph 3: development of solar and wind power – less pollution – space travel – life on other planets 4/ Paragraph 2 presents only negative details.
5. Writing task Possible answer (134 words) In my opinion, life in 2200 will be far from perfect. Some aspects of it will be better than what it is today, but there will still be serious difficulties. I think energy won’t be a problem anymore in the 23rd century. The energy crisis will be over because people will be using only renewable energy sources. That means there will also be less pollution. But I believe there will still be a lot of poverty and inequality in the world. Access to efficient healthcare services as well as higher education will still be an issue for the poorest populations, and inequalities will continue to grow.
On the whole, I am more pessimistic than optimistic about the future, even if I am sure that some aspects of life will have improved in 2200.
Check Unit 4 # p. 55-56 1. 1/ the sun 2/ organic matter 3/ water 4/ radioactivity 5/ the wind
2. solar panel – coal mine – oil refinery – hydroelectric dam – fossil fuel – renewable energy
3. 1/ fossil 2/ farms 3/ biogas 4/ panels 5/ dam 6/ energy
4. 1/ leaves 2/ ’re going to 3/ will 4/ might 5/ will 6/ will
5. 1/ will you fix 2/ ’m going to work 3/ will help 4/ will get 5/ is going to design 6/ will produce 7/ will explain 8/ will lend
6. 1/ may be / might be 2/ will 3/ will train 4/ ’m going to visit 5/ may / might 6/ Will she be able 7/ will 8/ are you going to do 9/ may visit / might visit 10/ will go
7. 1/ e 2/ f 3/ b 4/ c 5/ d 6/ a
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8. Possible answer Dear Nadia, How are you? I finally booked my tickets for next week. I’m leaving on Saturday morning at 9 and will be in
Yamoussoukro around 1 pm. I hope the bus won’t be late! I can’t wait to see you! Take care, Cathy
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Unit 5 - Gender and education
Lead in # p. 59 1. Possible answers Literacy is the ability to read and write. Illiteracy, on the contrary, is the inability to read and write. Countries where the problem of illiteracy is the most serious: Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, South Sudan and Afghanistan. Countries where the literacy rate is the highest: Canada, the United States of America, Cuba, Guyana, French Guiana, Argentina, Uruguay, the 28 countries in the European Union (except Portugal), Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Japan, South Korea, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa, Australia, New Caledonia and New Zealand.
Vocabulary # p. 59 → Problems and solutions 2. Students can use a dictionary or the Wordlist at the end of their book (pages 158-160).
3. True statements: 2 – 4 – 5 – 6 – 8 False statements: 1 – 3 – 7 – 9
4. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ The rate of literacy in my country is between ... and ... percent / is inferior to 35 percent. 2/ The African countries with the lowest literacy rates are Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger and South Sudan. The African countries with the highest literacy rates are Equatorial Guinea and South Africa. 3/ I think the causes of illiteracy are... / I think illiteracy can be caused by a lack of education / a lack of schools / poverty / ill-health / child marriage / child labour... 4/ We can reduce illiteracy by... / To reduce illiteracy, we can build more schools / reduce poverty / organise campaigns to raise awareness / fight against child marriage and child labour / encourage parents to send their children to school...
Reading # p. 60 1. Before you read Possible answers The first quotation suggests that children’s education is the only powerful and efficient tool
likely to improve the world. / that the world can be changed only thanks to children’s education. The second quotation means that girls’ education has more long-term consequences / is more powerful / is more important for the society as a whole than boys’ education. The third quotation suggests that people who have been educated are less likely to end up in prison / to become delinquents / to break the law.
2. The second quotation best summarises the text. Possible titles: Girls’ education / Girls and education / Gender discrimination in education / Educating girls
3. Possible answers 1/ It is still a problem in sub-Saharan Africa. 2/ It is expensive because families often have to pay school fees and buy uniforms and textbooks. 3/ Some poor families educate only boys because they can’t afford to pay for all their children. They favour boys’ education because they believe a woman’s place is at home, and they don’t see much value in educating girls. They think it’s a waste of money to educate a girl. 4/ Ethiopia increased the number of girls going to school by abolishing school fees. / when it abolished school fees. 5/ Girls are exposed to harassment when they have to walk long distances to school in rural areas, and when there are no separate toilets for girls at school. 6/ Traditional ideas encourage girls to stay at home, do the housework and get married very young, instead of going to school to be educated. 7/ Measures such as the abolition of school fees and the abolition of child marriage are helping to improve gender equality in education.
4. 1/ ‘gender discrimination in education is still relatively high’ 2/ ‘many poor families’ 3/ ‘some schools do not have any toilets that are specifically for girls’ 4/ ‘some cultures’ 5/ ‘countries’
5. Examples of words in the text which are similar in French and English: development = développement – communities = communautés –
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society = société – entrepreneurs = entrepreneurs – mortality = mortalité – economic = économique – discrimination = discrimination – sub-Saharan = subsaharienne – poverty = pauvreté – environment = environnement – attitudes = attitudes – roles = roles – families = familles – uniforms = uniformes – rural = rural – problem = problème – toilets = toilettes – traditional = traditionnel – marginalising = marginaliser – cultures = cultures – marriage = mariage – difference = différence
6. 1/ fees 2/ assaults 3/ legislating 4/ enrolment 5/ attendance 6/ means
7. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ No, I don’t know any girl who left school young. / Yes, I know many / some girls who left school young. They couldn’t continue their education because they were getting married / they had too much housework to do / their parents couldn’t pay the school fees / the school was too far from their house... 2/ My school is very / quite / not really girl- friendly, because... / My school is very unfriendly for girls, because there are... / there are no... 3/ To improve girls’ education, I think my school could abolish school fees (for girls) / build separate toilets for girls / hire more female teachers / encourage parents to educate all their children, boys and girls... I think the government should abolish child marriage / organise campaigns to raise parents’ awareness about the importance of educating both boys and girls...
Vocabulary extension # p. 61 → Adverbs 8. Modify verbs: widely – considerably – rapidly – greatly – actively Modify adjectives: relatively – especially
9. 1/ considerably 2/ smartly 3/ happily 4/ actively 5/ regularly 6/ greatly
10. Possible answers My friend plays the flute exceptionally well. You are absolutely right about girls’ education. I did badly at the test.
I don’t feel too well today. You will find my house easily; it is right in front of the bus stop. The situation is gradually improving. They have been happily married for 10 years. You should really try to work harder. He kindly invited me to come with him. She is amazingly good at singing.
Pronunciation # p. 61 → Syllable patterns 11. Oo: really – kindly Ooo: happily – gradually – easily Oooo: absolutely oOoo: amazingly oOooo: exceptionally
Grammar # p. 62 → Some and any 1. We use any in questions and negative sentences.
2. 1/ any 2/ some 3/ any 4/ some 5/ any 6/ any
→ Countable and uncountable nouns with much, many, a lot of, (a) little, (a) few 3. Countable nouns: areas – countries – girls Uncountable nouns: time – interest – time
Rules: uncountable – countable
4. Countable nouns: energy / energies – person / persons – school / schools – student / students Uncountable nouns: danger (‘danger’ may also be countable, when it refers to a specific risk) – homework – information – time (‘time’ may also be countable, when it means ‘a moment, an occasion’) – work More countable nouns: house / houses – car / cars – society / societies – girl / girls – boy / boys... More uncountable nouns: food – tea – coffee – winter – summer – freedom – music – health – money...
5. 1/ many 2/ a lot of 3/ many 4/ A few
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5/ much 6/ much 7/ a lot of 8/ little 9/ many 10/ a lot of
6. Writing Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ In my school, there are ... students. 2/ In my classes, there are ... students. / In my school, there are about ... students per class. 3/ There are ... teachers in my school. 4/ Yes, the number of male teachers is more or less equal to that of female teachers. / No, there are (much) more male / female teachers than female / male teachers. 5/ Yes, boys and girls have separate toilets. / No, there are no separate toilets for boys and girls. / boys and girls use the same toilets. 6/ Yes, there are approximately as many girls as boys in my school. / No, there are (much) more boys than girls / girls than boys. / In my school, there are only boys / girls. 7/ In my school, girls have to... / cannot... / are not allowed to... / can be... / Girls don’t face any particular problems in my school.
Possible paragraph: In my school, there are ... students, and ... students per class. There are ... teachers in total in the school, but there are more male teachers than female teachers. There are also more boys than girls, and there are no separate toilets for girls. This causes problems for girls, who sometimes suffer from harassment when the toilets are not supervised.
Communication # p. 63 → Making deductions 1. 1/ may 2/ hasn’t 3/ must 4/ haven’t 5/ could 6/ can’t 7/ must 8/ might
4. 1/ glasses 2/ bathroom 3/ crying 4/ possible 5/ 6 pm 6/ got home early
5. Writing Possible answers 1/ You must have taken my phone. / You must have left my phone somewhere. / You must have forgotten to give it back to me. / My phone can’t have disappeared! 2/ Dad may / might / could have missed the bus / have missed the train / be delayed because of the traffic / be late because of a client / have lost his car keys / have had an accident / have got his bike stolen... / Dad can’t be far from home. / Dad must be on the way home. 3/ He may / might / could have missed the bus / have missed the train / be ill. / He must be on the way. / He can’t have forgotten the match.
6. Writing and Speaking Possible answers Situation 1 A I can’t find my mobile phone. Have you seen it? B No, I haven’t. But it must be somewhere in your room. A I have checked there, it isn’t. B Well, you might have left it at your friend’s house yesterday. A You may be right, I’ll call her.
Situation 2 A Mum, it’s getting late, what do you think Dad is doing? B Well, he may have been delayed talking to a client. A You’re right, I think he had an important meeting this afternoon. B But he might also just have missed his train one more time! A In that case, he must still be waiting for the next train.
Situation 3 A I wonder what David is doing. He can’t have forgotten the match! B He may have missed the bus. A Do you think he might be ill? B I don’t think so, he was fine this morning. A Well, he must be on his way then!
Reading # p. 64 1. Before you read Possible answer The woman in the photo is voting; she’s casting her ballot paper in a ballot box.
2. A2 – D3 – E1
3. True sentences: 3 and 4
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False sentences: 1 (section 1 → Nina Muller is from Austria.) – 2 (section 1 → You can vote when you’re 21 in Cameroon.) – 5 (section 3 → A quarter of French two-year-olds go to school.) – 6 (section 3 → Tanzanian children can’t leave school until they are 13.)
4. 1/ Argentina 2/ Brazil 3/ Japan 4/ Cameroon 5/ Ivory Coast 6/ Scotland 7/ England 8/ France 9/ Israel 10/ Germany 11/ Morocco 12/ Tanzania
5. 1/ Voting is compulsory in Australia, Argentina and Belgium. In those countries, taking part in elections is considered to be a citizen’s duty. 2/ In Yemen, there is no minimum age for marriage. 3/ As a consequence, many girls are forced to marry very young and suffer a lot, both physically and emotionally. 4/ In a majority of countries, the school-leaving age is 16. 5/ Children have to stay at school until they’re 18 in Israel and Germany.
6. 1/ duty 2/ consent 3/ compulsory 4/ lower 5/ sanctions
7. Speaking Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ In our country, we / you must be ... (years old) to vote in a national election. 2/ Yes, it is. / No, it’s not. 3/ The minimum age to get married is ... (years old). / You cannot get married under the age of ... / There is no minimum age to get married. 4/ Children have to start school at ... (years old) / when they are ... 5/ Children can leave school when they are ... (years old). / The legal school-leaving age is...
Vocabulary extension # p. 65 → Adjectives with suffix -al 8. 1/ emotional 2/ physical 3/ parental 4/ national
More adjectives with -al: exceptional – physical – classical – geographical – historical – hysterical
9. 1/ logical 2/ personal 3/ global 4/ regional 5/ musical 6/ original
10. Writing Possible answer In my country, we can vote in national elections when we are ... years old, but voting is not compulsory. The minimum age to get married is ... Children have to start school at ... and cannot leave school before the age of ...
Grammar # p. 66 → Have to, must and should 1. Rules 1/ have to 2/ must / mustn’t 3/ don’t have to 4/ should
2. 1/ have to 2/ mustn’t 3/ mustn’t 4/ have to 5/ don’t have to 6/ mustn’t 7/ mustn’t
3. Possible answers (ages will vary depending on the countries) 1/ have to / must – 18 2/ don’t have to 3/ mustn’t / cannot – 18 4/ have to / must – 6 5/ have to / must – 16
4. Possible answers 1/ I have to / must walk to school. 2/ I have to / must study English at school. 3/ I don’t have to cook dinner on school days. 4/ I have to / must study two foreign languages. 5/ I don’t have to do the food shopping. 6/ I don’t have to get up early on Saturdays. 5. Possible answers 1/ Teachers shouldn’t hit their students. 2/ The school-leaving age should be 18. 3/ In our school, we mustn’t eat in class. 4/ Older students don’t have to wear a uniform. 5/ In exams, we mustn’t cheat. 6/ When the teacher arrives, we must stand up.
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6. Writing Possible answers and expressions to use You have to turn off your mobile phone in the classroom, stand up when the teacher arrives and listen to the teacher. You mustn’t eat, chew gum or shout in class. You don’t have to wear a uniform or to arrive at 6 am.
Vocabulary # p. 67 1. Lead in Possible answers Some parents send their teenagers to boot camps because they behave badly and don’t obey them. Today, boot camps don’t use military-style methods anymore, and they offer special programmes to help teenagers.
2. 1/ prison 2/ crimes 3/ behaviour 4/ discipline 5/ law 6/ drugs 7/ delinquents 8/ trouble
3. 1/ got 2/ broke 3/ sent 4/ committed 5/ follow 6/ take
4. Discussion Possible answers and expressions to use 1/ In my country, some parents with difficult teenagers send them to special schools / boarding schools / private schools... / When their children behave badly and don’t obey them, some parents beat them or refuse to keep them at home. 2/ Yes, I think boot camps are a good idea. Going to a special school with special programmes can help teenagers overcome their difficulties and aggressiveness, and prevent them from being sent to prison later. No, I don’t think boot camps are a good idea. I think they may be a bad idea for some teenagers. Boot camps don’t work for everyone, and some teenagers may not adapt to the camp. They may react against it and become more violent, or suffer emotionally. 3/ In my opinion, the best way to reduce crime is to prevent it rather than punish it. To prevent children from becoming criminals, it is essential to
educate them well, and to educate their parents about the importance of non-violent raising practices. / To reduce crime, the government should punish criminal offences more severely / should hire more policemen and policewomen and train them better / should build more police stations...
Listening # p. 67 5. Yéro goes to a boot camp.
6. 1C – 2B – 3B – 4A – 5C – 6A
7. Possible answers A disadvantage of state schools is that the number of students per class is often very high. An advantage of single-sex schools is that girls cannot get harassed by boys. A disadvantage is that boys and girls cannot meet at school. An advantage of independent schools is that there are more activities and fewer students per class. A disadvantage is that they are often expensive. An advantage of boarding schools is that you can live at school and don’t need to travel long distances every day to go to school. A disadvantage is that you cannot go home often.
Writing # p. 68 → A description of a weekly routine 1. Before you write Possible answers 1/ I have to get up at 6.30 am. 2/ I start school at 8 am. 3/ I finish school at 4 pm. 4/ After school, I go to the computer club / the English club / the theatre club / the sports club / I practise basketball / football... / I go home and watch TV / cook dinner / I go shopping for food / I take care of my younger brother / sister... 5/ In the evening, I have to do my homework / cook dinner / help with the housework / do the washing up / tidy my room... 6/ At the weekend, I have to wake up early to work on Saturdays / babysit / go to church on Sundays / do my homework / visit my grandparents / help with the housework / go to the market...
2. Possible answers GJ’s routine is different from mine: I don’t have to get up at 6 am, I only get up at 7. Besides, I don’t go to any clubs, and I go home directly after school every day.
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Some elements of GJ’s routine are similar to mine: I also walk to school and I also finish school at 3.30. Like GJ, I have to help with the housework at home and I have to go to church on Sundays.
3. 1/ because 2/ so 3/ because 4/ so 5/ so
5. Writing task Possible answer (150 words) Every morning I have to get up at 6.30. I must take the bus at 7.30 because school starts at 8. I finish school at 4 pm. Before going home, I often play football with my friends. On Tuesdays, I go to the theatre club, so I get home later. At home, I must take care of my younger brother and help with the housework. I generally don’t cook dinner because my mother does it; I just have to do it on Thursdays. After dinner, I usually do my homework, so I don’t have much time to watch TV! On Saturday mornings, both my parents work, so I go shopping for food at the market. In the afternoon