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Teacher’s Guide - ASAP-NJ 2010/images/Sticks_and_Stones_BCPO_… · Teacher’s Guide Written by:...

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  • Teachers Guide

    Writtenby:

    AndrewYeager

    StudentAssistanceCoordinatorCer isttifiedSchoolPsycholog

    2009AndrewYeager

    WARNING:Thecontentsanddepictionsinthisfilmmaybeupsettingtosomeviewers.

    Pleasereadalldirectionsandguidelinespriortoviewing.

    eBergenCountyPrAllrightsreserved.

    SticksandStonesisproducedbyth osecutorsOfficeandChaseWilson.

  • Acknowledgements

    ThankstothefollowingfortheirassistanceinthedevelopmentofthisTeachersGuide:

    MattCoriMarkCosgroveRichDEliaDanFabrizioC sTaraVanLaereharlesKovac

    KellyWeberFayYeager

    Specialthanksto:

    EileenYeagerFairLawnMiddleSchools

    FairLawn,NJ

    LieutenantJosephRampollaParkRidgePoliceDepartment

    ParkRidge,NJ

    DetectiveLieutenantAndrewDonofrioand

    nCountyProsecutoBergenCounty,N.J.

    2

    TheBerge rsOffice

  • TableofContents

    CastofCharacters .....................................................................................................................4

    Introduction ...............................................................................................................................5

    PriortoViewing ........................................................................................................................6

    ViewingtheFilm .......................................................................................................................7

    ProcessingtheFilm..................................................................................................................8

    ImportantInformationonSuicide......................................................................................9

    ClassroomActivities ............................................................................................................. 10 FilmReviewandDiscussionGuidelines.................................................................................. 11 Pre/PostTest .................................................................................................................................. 24 ClassroomDebate............................................................................................................................ 40 WhostoBlame? ............................................................................................................................... 48 DecisionTree .................................................................................................................................... 51 HowWellDoYouKnowYourselfOnline? ............................................................................. 55 AdditionalSuggestionsforClassroomActivities ................................................................. 59 PersonalInternetSafetyCommitment .................................................................................... 60

    TeachersHelper.................................................................................................................... 62 EnduringUnderstandings ............................................................................................................ 63 CorrelatinglessonplansandclassroomactivitieswithLearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestions......................................................................................................................... 64 SuggestedOnGoingCurriculum............................................................................................. 65 SampleParentNotificationLetter............................................................................................. 67 MoreAboutPeerPressure ........................................................................................................... 68 MoreAboutSuicide......................................................................................................................... 69 TheTeenageBrainandDecisionMaking................................................................................ 71

    ALetterfromtheWriter/DirectorofSticksandStones....................................... 73

    3

    BehindtheScenes .............................................................................................................. 76

  • CastofCharacters

    4

    Brandon DeMarco

    Lindsay Boone

    Corey (Lindsays boyfriend)

    Steve (Coreys friend)

    Kristen (Lindsays friend)

    Alyssa (Lindsays friend)

    Ryan (Brandons friend)

    Zach (Brandons friend)

  • IntroductionThefilmSticksandStonesisacomprehensivelookatseveralrelevantissuesfacingteenstoday,particularlyregardingthedangersofinternetbullying,harassment,peerpressure,peerconflict,hatespeechandsuicide.Thefilmalsoighlightsthedangersinherentinonlinecommunicationsandprovidesaforumfor

    gies.hdiscussingeffectiveconflictresolutionskillsandsocial/emotionalcopingstratehefilmshouldbeconsideredonlyonepartofanoverallprogramfocusingonnternetsafetyinparticularandcopingandcommunicationskillsingeneral.TII

    ncludedinthismanualare:

    etailedguidelinesforviewinganddiscussingthefilm;D

    APre/PostTesttopreparestudentsforthefilmandsubsequentlessonswhichmayalsobeusedasatooltomeasureanddemonstratetheeducationalbenefitsandimpactofthefilmandrelatedactivities;

    varietyofclassroomassignmentsandactivities;A

    SpecificLearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionsforeachassignmentalignedwithDepartmentofEducationCoreCurriculumContentStandards1;

    listofsampleEnduringUnderstandingstohelpdesignandguidelessonlans;Ap

    dditionalinformationonadolescentpeerpressure,suicideawareness,anddolescentdecisionmakingskills;Aa

    Suggestionsforongoingcurriculumdevelopment;

    Usefullinksa

    ndresourcesforadditionalinformation.

    1 All subject area standards and objectives are based on the New Jersey Department of Education Core Curriculum Content Standards. For more information, see: http://www.state.nj.us/education/cccs/

    5

  • PriortoViewing

    WARNING:Ifthisfilmisbeingshowninaschooldistrictortownwheretherewasarecentsuicide,consultyouradministrator,schoolpsychologist,studentassistancecounselor,andothermentalhealthprofessionalspriortoviewing.Priorto toothers,teachersorgroupfacilitatorsshould:showingthisfilm

    Previewthefilm.

    Reviewtheguidelinesonviewingandprocessingthefilm

    Reviewtheincludedlessonplanstohelpdesignpreparatoryandfollowupactivitiesthatwillreinforcethelessonsbroughtoutinthefilm,guidediscussions,andensurecompliancewithschooldistrictlearningobjectivesandstatemandatedcorecurriculumcontentstandards.

    Makearrangementstoensurethepresenceofschoolcounselorsorothercommunitymentalhealthprofessionalsduringtheviewingandimmediate

    processingofthefilm.

    ConsiderusingtheSampleParentNotificationLetteronpage65.

    Considertheaudience.Thefilmisdesignedforstudentsinhighschoolandabove,butalwaysattheteachersdiscretion.Differentgrades,agelevels,anddevelopmentalissuesshouldbeconsideredwhendecidingwhoshouldviewthefilmandhowitshouldbeprocessed.

    Considertimerestrictions.Thefilmshouldbeshowninitsentiretyduringonesitting,makingsurethatyouhaveadequatetimeforprocessingthefilmandsurveyingtheemotionalstatusofaudiencemembers.Thetypicalclassperiodmaynotprovidesufficienttime.Blockschedulingandlabperiods

    mayresolvethisproblem,butotheroptionsinclude:

    o Conductingtheprograminanassemblyformat.Thisprovidessufficienttime,aswellasaccesstotheenhancedaudiovisualequipmentinmostschoolauditoriums.Butdiscussionofthefilmworksbetterinrelativelysmallgroupsandmakesiteasiertomonitor

    studentsreactions;

    o Wheneverpossible,begindiscussionsandrelatedactivitiespriortoshowingthefilm.Thiswillallowtheteachertoguidestudentsinconsideringrelevantideasandtopicspriortoviewing.Someoftheactivitiesinthismanualmaybeusedpriortoviewingthefilm.

    6

  • ViewingtheFilmtisstronglyrecommendedthatthefollowingguidelinesarefollowedwhenviewinghefilm:It

    Schoolcounselorsmustbepresentduringtheviewingofthisfilm.Thesubjectmatterislikelytogenerateemotionalreactionsamongviewersparticularlyintheareasofbullying,victimization,harassment,hatespeech,homophobia,socialisolation,grief,lossandsuicide.

    Projectthefilmonalargescreen.Thisfilmportraysthecurrent

    communicationmethodscommonlyusedbyadolescents,particularlytheuseofinstantmessaging(oncomputers)andtextmessaging(oncellphones).Muchoftheimportantconversationsinthefilmactuallytakeplaceinthisformat.Asmalltelevisionmonitorwillmakeitdifficultforaudiencememberstoreadkeymessagesbeingsentovercomputersandcellphones.

    Useagoodsoundsystem.Thedialogue,backgroundcomments,andmusicalsoundtrackhaveallbeencarefullydesignedtotellthestorybasedonrealisticadolescentexperiencesandbehaviors.MakesurethataudiosettingsontheDVDplayeraresettostereo.

    Watchforemotionalreactionsamongaudiencemembers.Beawarethatpeoplewillhavedifferentreactionstothefilm(refertothenextsectiononProcessingtheFilmforexamplesofwhattolookfor).Notifyacounselorimmediatelyifyouobserveanyunusualreactionorbehavior.

    Itisrecommendedthatastaffmemberispresentattheexit(s)oftheroom.Studentswhoattempttowalkout(foranyreason)shouldbeassessedandmonitored.Ifthestudentlooksupsetinanyway,notifyacounselorimmediately.

    Studentswhoappearupsetshouldbemonitoredcloselyfortheremainderoftheday.Contacttheparentofanystudent(s)whoappearsupset.Followupcontactwithimpactedstudentsshouldcontinueasneeded.

    7

  • ProcessingtheFilm

    es.AcriticalwindowofopportunityopensafterviewingthefilmSticksandStonTheemotionalimpactofthefilmcreatesfertilegroundtoteachandreinforceelevantlessons,enhanceselfawareness,andraisethecommitmenttopositiverbehaviorchange.Takeadvantageofthisopportunitybyincorporatingthediscussionguidelines,essonplans,classroomactivities,andthePersonalInternetSafetyCommitmentlincludedattheendoftheassignmentsection.mmediatelyfollowingthefilmpresentation,beginwithaclassroomdiscussionofItheinitialimpactandsalientfacts.hismanualprovidesyouwithacomprehensiveoutlinetofacilitatethisgroupiscussion(seetheFilmReviewandDiscussionsectionbelow)Td

    IMPORTANT

    Monitorstudentsreactionscarefully.

    Themostcommondifficultiesmayinclude:

    CryingAngerorirritabilityAgitationoranxiety

    Somaticcom ,dizziness)plaints(headaches,nauseaRefusaltodis dinthefilmcussthefilmorspecificissuesraise

    AttemptstoleavetheclassInappropriatecommentsorjoking

    Notifyacounselorimmediatelyifyouobserveanyunusualorintensereactionsorbehaviors.

    8

  • ImportantInformationonSuicidehefilmSticksandStonesisabullyingpreventionprogram.ItisnotintendedforTuseasasuicidepreventionprogram.owever,thefilmprovidesauniqueopportunitytoraiseawarenessofthenatureofH

    suicideandrelatedtopics.

    lea P

    se remembertwoimportantissuesregardingsuicide:

    1. Suicideistypicallytheresultofcomplexfactors,andisrarelycausedbyaentalsingletriggeringevent.Themostcommoncorrelatesofsuicidearem

    illness(usuallysomeformofdepression)orsubstanceabuse.2. Adolescents,especiallywhendistraught,oftenbelievethattheywillalways

    feelthewaytheydonow.Coupledwithpoorimpulsecontrolandlackofeffectivecopingskills,theriskofsuicidalideationorintentcanincrease.

    herefore,whenprocessingthefilmwithstudents,facilitatorsshouldconsidernd/orTa

    addressthefollowing:

    Anystudentexhibitingdepression,substanceabuse,excessiveangerorimpulsivity,orexperiencinganyemotionallychargedsituation,isataheightenedriskforalltypesofselfdestructivebehavior,andshouldbereferredtoacounselor;

    Helpstudentsunderstandthatsuicideispermanent.Suicidalteensoftenseesuicideasatemporarysolutiontoapermanentproblem.Althoughthiscanbedifficult,helpstudentsrealizethatproblemsaretemporary,nomatterhowbigorpainfultheymayseeminthemoment.

    In the film, Brandon not only reacted to a temporary situation, but also to aim.misunderstanding:hebelieveditwasLindsaywhowassayingcruelthingstoh

    Thefollowingboxshowsthedifferencebetweenrationalandirrationalthinkingegardingsuicide.Helpstudentsexplorethedifferenceandreinforcetherealisticeliefsystem.rb

    9

    Irrationalbelief

    Suicideisatemporarysolutiontoapermanentproblem.Andevenifitispermanent,Iwillalways

    tefeelthewayIdonow,sosuicideisanappropriachoice.

    Realisticbelief

    Suicideisapermanentsolutiontoatemporaryproblem.AndeveniftheproblemsImdealingwithnowarebig,theywillnotlastforeverandtherearepeoplewhocanhelpmeresolvethem.

  • ClassroomActivities

    FilmReviewandDiscussionGuidelines

    Pre/PostTest(andDiscussion)

    ClassroomDebate

    WhostoBlame?

    DecisionTree

    HowWellDoYouKnowYourselfOnline?

    AdditionalSuggestionsforClassroomActivities

    PersonalInternetSafetyCommitment

    10

  • FilmReviewandDiscussionGuidelines

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:(2.1.12F.2)Analyzetheimpactofphysicaldevelopment,socialnormsandxpectations,selfesteem,andperceivedvulnerabilityonadolescentsocialandeemotionalgrowthandbehavior.2.1.12F.3)Analyzehowpeernormsandexpectations,theavailabilityofweapons,(substanceabuse,mediaimagesandpoorrolemodelscontributetoviolentbehavior2.1.12F.4)Predicttheconsequencesofconflict,harassment,bullying,vandalism,(andviolenceonindividuals,families,andthecommunity.2.2.12B.1)Evaluatefactorsthatinfluencemajorhealthdecisionsandpredicthow(thosefactorswillchangeorconflictatvariouslifestages.6.2.12E.9)Discusstheimpactoftechnology,migration,theeconomy,politics,and(urbanizationonculture.8.1.12B.2)Exhibitlegalandethicalbehaviorswhenusinginformationandechnology(t

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    11

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • AlthoughthefilmSticksandStonesraisesmultipleissues,itisstronglyrecommendedthatthefollowingbeaddressedafter

    everyviewing:Onlinecommunications:

    Onlinecommunicationsoftenleadtomiscommunicationsandmisunderstandings;

    Postinginappropriatepicturesofoneselfisriskyandpotentiallydangerous,regardlessofanypromisesorexpectationsofconfidentiality;

    Oncesomething(words,photos,videos)ispostedonline,itmightremainaccessibleontheInternetforever;

    Bullying:

    Bullyinghasimplicationsanddangersfarbeyondwhatmostpeoplecanimagine,andextendbeyondthevictimtocountlessothers,includingthebully;

    Homophobiaandracismaredisrespectfulandinappropriateandshouldneverbetolerated;

    Suicide:

    Suicideisneverarationaloreffectiveresponsetobeingbullied,oranyothersocialoremotionalissue;

    Suicideisoftenprecededbywarningsigns(seepage67foralistofthemostcommonsuicidewarningsigns).Thesewarningsignsshouldalwaysbetakenseriously;Notifyacounselor,teacher,ormedicalprofessionalimmediatelyifapersonexhibitsanysuicidewarningsign.

    12

    Ifanystudentisparticularlyupsetafterviewingthefilm,remindthemthatSticksandStonesisafictionalstorythatwascreatedtohighlightthedangersandinappropriatenessofbullying.

  • FilmReviewandDiscussion

    Thissectionguidestheteacherinfacilitatingagroupdiscussionaboutthefilm.Specificquestionsareprovidedtoaddressthemultipleandcomplexissuesraisedinhefilm.Summaryexplanationsandadditionalpointstoconsiderfolloweachuestion.tqYoumayalsorefertothedetailedexplanationsprovidedinthePre/PostTestiscussionsectionofthismanualforadditionalinformationtoassistintherocessingofthefilm.Dphenprocessingthefilm,continuetolookforsignsthatstudentsmaybehavingarticular y.Themostcommondifficultiesinclude:Wp

    difficult

    Crying

    Angerorirritability

    Agitationoranxiety

    hes,nausea,dizziness,etc.) icissuesraisedinthefilmSomaticcomplaints(headac

    RefusaltodiscussthefilmorspecifAttemptstoleavetheclass

    InappropriatecommentsorjokingReferstudentsexhibitinganyoftheabovereactionstoacounselor.

    Inadditiontoclassroomdiscussion,youmayalsoselectsomeofthediscussionquestionstobeusedforshortanswerwriting,persuasiveessaytopics,orother

    classroomactivities.

    Youmayalsoprinteachquestiononaseparateindexcardandhavestudentspickoneatrandom,givingthemanopportunitytoanswerthequestionfirstbefore

    openingupthediscussiontotheclass.

    13

  • DiscussionQuestions:(seenextpagefordiscussio

    1. HOWDOYOUFEELAFTERWATCHINGTHISFILM?

    nguidelines)

    2. ISANYONETOBLAMEFORBRANDONSSUICIDE?

    3. DIDLINDSAYDOENOUGHTOPREVENTCOREYFROMBULLYINGBRANDON?

    4. WH TA WASTHEROLEOF:

    a. COREY? b. STEVE(Coreysfriend)?c. ALYSSAANDKRISTEN.

    (Lindsaysfriends)? hehallway,library,schoolbus)?d THEKIDSATSCHOOL(int

    e. BRANDONSFATHER?f. THETEACHER/SCHOOL?

    5. HOARETHEVICTIMSINTHISFILM?W

    6. INWHATWAYSAREINTERNETBULLYINGANDREALLIFEBULLYINGTHESAME?INWHATWAYSARETHEYDIFFERENT?HOWDOESTECHNOLOGYMAKEITEASIERTOBULLYOTHERS?

    7. WHATARETHERIGHTSANDRESPONSIBILITIESOFTHEBYSTANDERWHENSOMEONEISBEINGBULLIED?

    8. HOWEASYISITTOASSUMESOMEONEELSESIDENTITYONLINE?

    9. WHATARESOMEOFTHEDANGERSOFUSINGTHEINTERNETORCELLPHONESTOSHARECOMPROMISINGPHOTOS?

    10. WHYDOYOUTHINKHATESPEECH(racism,homophobia,sexism,etc.)ISSOOFTENUSEDWHENBULLYING?

    14

    11. WHATCANBEDONETOADDRESSORPREVENTBULLYING?

  • GUIDELINESFORANSWERINGDISCUSSIONQUESTIONS1. HOWDOYOUFEELAFTERWATCHINGTHISFILM?

    Assiststudentsinidentifyingandexpressingfeelingsofanger,sadness,anxietyandfear.Somemayalsoexperiencefeelingsofguilt,remorse,orshameiftheyhavebulliedothers,especiallyifitledtoconsequencesforthevictim.Manystudentshaveahistoryofbeingbullied,andsomehaveahistoryofsuicidalthoughtsorattempts.Thesestudentswilllikelyexperienceheightenedfear,anxiety,oranger.Allowstudentstoexpresstheirreactionsfreelyandwithoutfearofjudgment.Bullying,victimization,peerconflict,hatespeechandsuicidearealllikelytobringingupwiderangingandpowerfulfeelings.

    2. ISANYONETOBLAMEFORBRANDONSSUICIDE?

    Helpstudentsunderstandthedifferencebetweenhurtingothersandcausingasuicide.Thisisacomplexissueandhardforadolescents(andadults)tounderstand.Rarelydoessuicideresultfromasingletriggeringevent.Suicideismoreoftentheresultofmultiplefactors,usuallyinvolvingsomeformofmentalillness.This,however,doesnotabsolveteenagersfromassumingresponsibilityfortheirbehaviortowardsothers.Despitethatfactthatoneeventmaynotbethesolecauseofasuicide(orothersignificantconsequence),thoseinvolvedinharassmentorbullyingwilllikelylivewithfeelingsofguiltandremorsefortheirbehaviorandperceivedroleintheutcomeofotherschoices.NooneistoblameforBrandonssuicide.Severaleoplearetoblameforthebullying.op

    IMPORTANT:Often,apersonwhoissuicidalexhibitswarning maybesignsthatothers

    awareof,butnotnecessarilyassociatewithsuicide.DiscussthesuicidewarningsignslocatedintheTeachersHelpersection.

    . DIDLINDSAYDOENOUGHTOPREVENTCOREYFROMBULLYINGBRA

    3

    15

    NDON?

    IsLindsaycruel,weak,orjustanothervictimofpeerpressure?Moststudentssittingintherelativesafetyofawelllitclassroomonabrightschooldayarequicktocomeupwiththerightanswer:CertainlyLindsay

  • couldhavedonemore.Butwhenteenagers(oradults)findthemselvesintheheatofthemoment,theyaremorelikelytooptforthesafetyofgoingalongwiththecrowd,particularlyifthecrowdconsistsofotherswhoareperceivedashavinghigherstatus.ResearchbyPaulSlovicandothersconfirmsthatpeoplearelesslikelytoconsiderrisksandconsequenceswhentheyareengagedinactivitiesseenasbeneficial(peerinclusion)orwhentheyfindthemselvesintheheatofthemoment.2(SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestion#11inthePre/PostTestAnswerKeyandiscussionsectionandMoreAboutPeerPressureintheTeachersHelpersectionforD

    amoredetaileddiscussion.)This,however,isagreatopportunitytohelpstudentsunderstandthatpeerpressurecanbecumulative,andthatitiseasiertotakeastandwhenthestakesarenotsohigh.Inthefilm,LindsaysinabilitytopreventCoreyandtheothersfromassumingheronlineidentityandbullyingBrandoncouldbearesultofherinabilitytostandupforBrandonatthepartywhenCoreyconfrontedhiminthekitchen,askinghimWhoinvitedyou?andLindsayjustturnedawaysayingnothing.ThisinturncouldhavebeenanoutgrowthofherinabilitytoadmittoherfriendsthatsheinvitedBrandontotheparty,whichultimatelycouldbetracedbacktoherinabilitytoacknowledgethatsheandBrandonarefriends(intheearlyscenesatschoolorontheschoolbus).Herinabilitytotakeastandatthebeginning(whichismucheasier)ledtomoredifficultsituationswheretakingastandwasmuchharder.

    TheCumulativeEffectof eerPressureintheFilmP

    Furtherdiscussion:Seeifstudentscanidentifytimeswhenabadsituationcouldhavebeenavoidediftheytookastandbeforethingsreachedthepointofnoreturn.

    16

    2 Slovic, Paul, The Perception of Risk, (2000) pp xxiv, 419.

  • 4. H T EROLEOF:W

    A WASTH

    a. COREY?AssiststudentsinidentifyingCoreysmotivationforbullyingBrandon.HowmuchofCoreysbehaviorwasmotivatedbyinsecurity?Entertainment?Showingoff?EstablishingpowerandcontrolinhisrelationshipwithLindsay?(SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestion#1inthePre/PostAnswerKeyandDiscussionsectionforalistofreasonswhykidsbullyothers.)

    b. STEVE(Coreysfriend)?

    ManystudentswillseeSteveascomplicitinCoreysbullyingofBrandononthecomputer.Thisisaccurate.Although,eachofthefriendsispickinguponeachotherscues.Thiscancreateasnowballeffectthatignitesuicklyandgrowsexponentially.Often,friendsactaseachothersudienceinsocialsituations.qa

    c. ALYSSAANDKRISTEN(Lindsaysfriends)?AlthoughAlyssaandKristenarebothencouragingtheonlinebullying,somestudentsmaybeperceptiveenoughtoseeadifference:KristenrespondstoLindsaysattempttostopthebullyingbytellinghertolightenup.Alyssaismoreovertlyencouragingthebullying;Kristenakessomeattempt(albeitaweakone)tostopCorey,sayingtohim:Thatsmessedup,Corey!m

    17

    d.

    THEKIDSATSCHOOL(inthehallway,library,schoolbus)?Teenagersliketoseethemselvesasuniqueindividuals,consciouslyresistingconformity.Yetwhenitcomestopeers,manyteensarenotabletoriskrejectionbystandingapartfromthecrowd.Moreoftenthanwe(orteens)liketoadmit,adolescentsoccasionallyfindthemselvesinsituationswherethepressuretogoalongwiththecrowdcouldoutweighsomeoftheirdeeplyheldbeliefs,ethicalstandards,anddesiresforpersonalsafety.

    WasStevereactingtoCo eysbehavior,orwasherin fluencedbywhathethoughtCoreywantedhimtodo?

    WasthismoreaboutbullyingBrandonorgoingalong

    withfriends?

  • Inanattempttobuildcamaraderie,peopleorgroupssometimesscapegoatoneormoreindividualsasawayofreinforcingtheirowngroupcohesion.Unfortunately,thismaybedoneatanothersexpense.Thisdynamicpartlyexplainsarangeofsocietalissues,fromracism,omophobiaandgeneralintoleranceonalargescaletorelationalggressionandostracizingofaparticulargirlinmiddleschool.ha

    e.

    BRANDONSFATHER?WhenCoreyandthegrouparebullyingBrandononthecomputer,BrandonsfatherknocksonthedoorandasksBrandonifheisOK.BrandonscreamsImfinebutisclearlydistraught.WouldthingshavebeendifferentifhisfatherpickeduponhowdistraughtBrandonsoundedanddidntjustwalkaway?Considerhowoftenteenagersspeakthiswayotheirparents.IsitpossiblethatBrandonsfatherhasbecomeesensitizedtotheheightenedemotionaloutburstsfromateenageson?td

    f. THETEACHER/SCHOOL?

    Shouldtheteacherintheclassroom(ortheschoolingeneral)havebeenmoreobservantregardingtheuseofcellphonesintheclassorschool?Keepinmindthatadolescentsareskilledintheabilitytowriteandsendtextmessages,evenwithoutlooking.Whataboutmonitoringstudentsinthehallwayorinthelibraryscene(whenBrandonisbeingtaunted)?

    18

    Helpstudentsconsider:

    Whethertheirparentsareanessentialpartoftheirsupportsystem.Whichotheradultsintheirlivescanbeincludedintheirsupportsystem?Whataresomeoftheobstaclespreventingstudentsfromutilizingadultsupportwhentheyneeditmost?

  • 5. WHOARETHEVICTIMSINTHISFILM?

    All students are victims of bullying, whether they are direct bullies, victims or bystanders. As discussed in Question #7 below, bullying not only affects those involved, but also perpetuates a climate of vulnerability and tension for everyone. The ripple effect of a suicide impacts countless others. Help students consider the more obvious effects on:

    Brandon Lindsay Corey Steve (Coreys friend) Alyssa and Kristen (Lindsays friends) Zach and Ryan (Brandons friends) Brandons parents

    Now consider the less obvious, but still significant effects on:

    Brandons extended family: grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc. Anyone who taunted Brandon at school The person(s) who had a locker next to Brandon The students who sat next to Brandon in class Brandons teachers (past and present) Other friends of Lindsay, Corey and Brandon Brandons neighbors Anyone who ever had a friend or relative commit suicide Anyone who ever experienced the death of a teenager for any reason Whoever found Brandons body hanging from the bridge The police / EMT personnel who had to retrieve the body The doctor/medical examiner who had to pronounce Brandon dead The police officer / medical personnel who had to notify Brandons

    parents Friends and co-workers of Brandons parents Coaches Clergy The overall neighborhood / community Anyone who ever knew Brandon

    IMPORTANT: Some people attempt suicide in a misguided attempt to punish others. Help

    students explore the irrationality of this idea. Notify a counselor immediately if a student exhibits significant anger and/or makes any comment implying the appropriateness of using suicide to express

    anger or to get back at others

    19

  • 6. INWHATWAYSAREINTERNETBULLYINGANDREALLIFEBULLYINGTHESAME?INWHATWAYSARETHEYDIFFERENT?HOWDOESTECHNOLOGY

    MAKEITEASIERTOBULLYOTHERS?

    Thereasonsthatpeoplebullyothersonlineorwithcellphonesaresimilartothereasonspeoplebullyingeneral.ButsomeofthereasonsforbullyingarespeciallyprominentwiththeuseoftheInternetandcellphones,inparticular:

    efalsesecurity,relativeanonymity,entertainmentvalue,andimpulsivity.Technologyprovidesasaferandmoreimmediateforumforbullying.Communicationincyberspacemakesiteasiertosaythingsthatwouldntordinarilybesaidinfacetofacecommunications,andinteractingwithsomeoneinavirtualworld,oftenfromtherelativesafetyofonesownroom,createsafalsesenseofsecurityandsafety.(SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestions#1and#9inthePre/PostAnswerKeyandDiscussionsectionforamoredetaileddiscussion.)Inthepast,victimsofbullyingwereabletofindasafehavenbycominghome.ow,cyberbullyingcreatesaroundtheclockaccesstobullyingandictimizationeveninapersonsownbedroom.NvFormostpeople,postingmessagesonlinefallssomewherebetweenfacetoface

    communicationandwritinganonymousgraffitionabathroomwallnotfantasy,butnotquitetherealworldeither.

    . WHATARETHERIGHTSANDRESPONSIBILITIESOFTHEBYSTANDER7

    20

    WHENSOMEONEISBEINGBULLIED?

    Whenconsideringthenegativeeffectsofbullying,mostpeopleareawarethatthevictimismostimpacted.Somemayalsorecognizethepotentialnegativeconsequencesforthebully.Butthebystanderinmanywayssharestheconsequencesofboththebullyandthevictim.Theymightempathizewiththevictimssenseofanger,hurt,fear,humiliation,andinjustice,aswellassharingsomeofthebullyssenseofguiltandremorse.Bystanderseitherfeeltheycantdoanythingaboutbullying(leadingtofeelingsofpowerlessness,vulnerabilityandchronicanxiety)orknowthattheycouldhavedonesomethingbutdidnt(leadingtofeelingsofguiltandremorse).Itisimportanttohelppeople

  • recognizethatwitnessingbullyinghasadirectimpactonthem,evenwhennothingisdirectedtowardsthemornothingcatastrophichappensasaresult.Inddition,bullyingperpetuatesaclimateofvulnerabilityandtensionforaeveryone.Althoughthereisnouniversallyacceptedprofileofaschoolshooter,theonethingmanyhaveincommonisthefactthattheywerevictimsofchronicullying.Retaliatoryviolence,substanceabuse,eatingdisorders,selfinjury,

    .bdepression,andsuicideareallpotentiallysignificantconsequencesofbullyingBystandersaremorelikelytodosomethingaboutotherpeoplebeingbulliedwhentheyrealizethattheysufferalongwiththebullyandthevictim.Thisealizationmightbenecessarytogiveapersonthemotivationtodotherighthing.rt

    8. HOWEASYISITTOASSUMESOMEONEELSESIDENTITYONLINE?

    Theinabilitytoseewhomyourecommunicatingwithonlineorintextmessagesisfurthercomplicatedbytheillusoryreassurancethatcomesfromseeingascreennameorcellphoneidentification.Itiseasytoassumethatanonlineidentificationispositiveproofthatyoumustbetalkingwithwhomyouthinkyouretalkingto.Butthisonlyshowswhichonlineaccountorcellphoneisbeingusedtosendinformation,andNOTwhoisactuallyworkingthatparticularkeyboard.Manystudentsremainloggedintoemailandsocialnetworkingsitesathome,andcellphonesarealwaysloggedintoanetwork.Howeasyisittograbsomeonescellphoneandsendatextmessagetoanyone,includingeveryoneintheiraddressbook?Inaddition,howmanyteenagerssharetheirusernamesandpasswordswithothers?(SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestions#4and#5inthePre/PostAnswerKeyandDiscussionsectionforamoredetaileddiscussion.)

    21

    9. HATARESOMEOFTHEDANGERSOFUSINGTHEINTERNETORCELLWPHONESTOSHARECOMPROMISINGPHOTOS?Adisturbingtrendhasemergedamongadolescentsregardingthesharingofcompromisingpicturesonlineandthroughcellphones.Takingandsendingnakedorotherwiseprovocativepicturesofoneselforothers(recentlyreferredtoassexting)hasbecomeacceptedandevenexpectedamongmanyteens.The

  • moreadolescentsseethesepicturesbeingsharedonsocialnetworkingsitesandascellphonepicturemessages,themoreaccepteditbecomes,whichleadstomoreandmoreteenagersdoingit,thusfurthernormalizingthebehavior.Andvenwhenpicturesaretakenandsentforfun,thesepicturescanbealteredandesenttoanyone.er

    Inthefilm,BrandonsendsatoplesspictureofhimselftoLindsaywhichCoreyfoundonhercomputerandresentit altered)asawaytohumiliateBrandon.(

    Therearepotentialpsychological,socialandlegalconsequencestothisbehavior.Fewadolescentsconsidertheimpactontheirselfesteemandreputation,aswellasthepotentialconsequencesforpresentandfuturedatingrelationships.Often,picturesaresharedbetweenfriendsorboyfriends/girlfriendswithanexpectationofconfidentiality,butifthereisafightorabreakup,thosepicturescanbesharedfreely.Teensrarelyconsiderthepotential(andserious)legalramificationscreatingorsendingpicturesofthemselvesorotherscouldleadtochargesandprosecutionforcreatingordistributingchildpornography.

    (SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestions#6,#7and#8inthePre/PostAnswerKeyandDiscussionsectionforamoredetaileddiscussion.)

    22

    10. WHYDOYOUTHINKHATESPEECH(racism,homophobia,sexism,etc.)ISSOOFTENUSEDWHENBULLYING?Bullyingisanattempttoelicithurtandfearinthevictimwhilebuildingcoalitionsamongthosewhoarebullying.Hurtisachievedthroughoffensivelanguage.Fearcanbecreatedthroughthreatsofphysicalharm,butalsothroughfearofrejectionandexclusion.Fewthingsinadolescenceareaspainfulasbeingostracized(rejected)andpubliclyhumiliated.Forcingsomeoneintofeelingthattheyarealone(orintheminority)canheightenfeelingsofvulnerability.Hatespeechisoftenusedasaneffectiveshortcutintheattempttohurt,humiliate,ostracize,andcreatefeelingsofvulnerability.(SeeanswerguidelinesforQuestion#15inthePre/PostAnswerKeyandDiscussionsectionforamoredetaileddiscussiononwhyhatespeechisoftenusedwhenbullying.)

  • 11. WHATCANBEDONETOADDRESSORPREVENTBULLYING?Oncestudentsrealizethepotentialconsequencesforthebully,victimandbystander,theyaremorelikelytowanttodosomethingaboutit.Themainobstaclestospeakingoutare:thefearofretaliation,thinkingthatyouareintheminorityforspeakingout,feelingasifyoudonthavethesupportfromotherstospeakout,anderroneouslybelievingthatbullyingisnormal(kidswillbekids).Itisimportantforpeopletounderstandthatthesearetheverydynamicsthatbullyingisbasedupon.Realizingthatthemajorityofpeopledisapproveofbullyingcangoalongwaytowardshelpingkidsbelievethattakingastandagainstbullyingactuallyputstheminthemajority.Childrenneedtotrustthatauthorityfiguresarealsounwillingtoacceptbullyingandarealliesintheattempttoeradicatebullying.Theyneedtoidentifytheirsupportsystem,whichypicallyincludesfriends,parents,teachers,schoolcounselors,schooltadministrators,andlawenforcementpersonnel.Bystandersarethekey.Theyserveasamicrocosmofsocietyandthereforesetthetoneforwhatisacceptablebehavior.Bullying,particularlywhenitisbasedonhatespeech,racismandhomophobia,canbereducedonlywhenchildrenacceptthatthisbehaviorisunacceptabletothemandhurtseveryonewhetheritisthebully,thevictim,orthebystander.

    23

    IdentifyingaSupportSystem

    Itisimportanttohelpstudentsidentifytheirsupportsystemorbullying,victimization,oranyotherdifficultsituationPRIORftothetimeitsactuallyneeded.Supportsystemsaredifferentforeachperson,butshouldconsistof:

    ParentsExtendedfamily(uncles,aunts,grandparents)

    hologists,GuidanceSchoolcounselors(SACs,SchoolPsycrs)

    andschooladministratorsCounselo

    rs Teache

    CoachesClergy

    LawenforcementTalkingwithfriendsisanimportantandoftenbeneficialsourcefsupportformostteenagers,butanyhealthysupportsystemhouldincludeadultsaswell.os

  • Pre/PostTest

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:2.1.12F.3)Analyzehowpeernormsandexpectations,theavailabilityofweapons,(substanceabuse,mediaimagesandpoorrolemodelscontributetoviolentbehavior2.1.12F.4)Predicttheconsequencesofconflict,harassment,bullying,vandalism,(andviolenceonindividuals,families,andthecommunity.2.2.12A.4)Employstrategiestoimprovecommunicationandlisteningskillsand(assesstheireffectiveness.2.2.12B.1)Evaluatefactorsthatinfluencemajorhealthdecisionsandpredicthow(thosefactorswillchangeorconflictatvariouslifestages.

    ingdecisions.(2.2.12B.4)Analyzetheuseofethicsandpersonalvalueswhenmak(3.5.12B.1)Analyzemediaforstereotyping(e.g.,gender,ethnicity).(3.5.12C.1)Useprintandelectronicmediatextstoexplorehumanrelationships,ewideas,andaspectsofculture(e.g.,racialprejudice,dating,marriage,family,andnsocialinstitutions).6.2.12E.9)Discusstheimpactoftechnology,migration,theeconomy,politics,and(urbanizationonculture.8.1.12B.2)Exhibitlegalandethicalbehaviorswhenusinginformationandechnology(t

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    24

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • Pre/PostTest

    eoplewhoareharassedorbulliedhavedonesomething

    TRUEorFALSE1. Ptodeserveit.

    2. Peoplewhoareharassedorbulliedtendtobeunpopular.

    ed.

    TRUEorFALSE

    3. Mostpeopleknowwhytheyarebeingharassedorbulli

    TRUEorFALSE

    4.

    5.

    Peoplealwaysknowwhotheyaretalkingwithonline.omepeoplesharetheirusernameandpasswordwith

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSESfriends.anypeopleseeinappropriateimagesofsomeonethey6. M

    knowonline.anyteenspostinappropriateimagesofthemselveson

    TRUEorFALSE

    7. Mline.anyteenshavepostedinappropriatepicturesofothers

    TRUEorFALSE

    8. Monline.ostteenshaveharassedorbulliedatleastoneother

    TRUEorFALSE

    9. Mpersononline.

    TRUEorFALSE

    10.

    11.

    Mostteenshavebeenharassedorbulliedonline.havewatchedwhilemyfriendsharassedorbullied

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSEIsomeoneelseonline.eoplewhoareharassedonlineusuallyknowthe12. Pdifferencewhenitsseriousorjustfoolingaround.oolingaroundbypretendingtobesomeoneelseonline

    TRUEorFALSE

    13. Fcanleadtotragicconsequences.henwitnessingafriendbullysomeoneelse,mostpeople

    TRUEorFALSE

    14. Wwillstepintopreventit.eensuseracist,homophobic,orotherformsofhatepeechwhenbullyingorharassingsomeoneelseonline.

    TRUEorFALSE

    1

    5. Ts

    TRUEorFALSE

    25

    CIRCLE

  • Pre/PostTest

    AnswerKeyandDiscussion

    hissectionprovidestheteacherwithadditionalinformationtohelpfacilitateaiscussionaboutthePre/PostTest.Tdlongwiththeadditionalinformationabouteachissue,thissectioncontainsvariousarkerstoconnectthetopicstothefilmSticksandStones.

    AmThePre/PostTestcanbeusedsolelyforclassroomdiscussionandasameanstoenhanceawarenessamongstudentsregardingbullying,Internetsafety,andtheirownonlinebehaviors.Itcanalsobeusedasanassessmenttooltodemonstratethatthefilmand/orotherrelatedteachingstrategieshaveademonstrableeffectonlearning.HavingstudentscompletethePre/PostTestpriortoshowingthefilmorparticipatinginanyclassroomactivity,andthenreassigningthePre/PostTestafterllclassroomactivities,willhelptodeterminewhetherstudentshaveincreasedheirknowledgeorinsight.atNOTE:SeveralofthequestionscanbeansweredaseithertrueorfalseormoreaccuratelyastrueANDfalse.Thediscussionabouteachquestionismoreimportantthananyobjectiveaccuracyoftheanswer.Thechallengefortheteacheristohelpstudentsunderstandthatteensoftenengageinhighriskbehaviorswithoutrealizingeithertheextentorimplicationsofthesebehaviors.

    26

  • 1. Peoplewhoareharassedorbulliedhavedonesomethingtodeserveit.

    FALSE

    Although a specific incident could trigger the bullying or harassment, many kidsully or harass others because of strong social and emotional factors that mightav hesefactorsinclude:bh

    enothingtodowiththevictim.Someoft

    Attentionandapprovalgettingnoticed.Approvaloracceptanceearning/reinforcingmembershipinthegroup.Reputationshowingofftofriendsbybullyingsomeoneelse.

    Identitytryingtoestablishatoughguyorqueenbeeimage. Status believing that harassing others will enhance ones st

    atus as either atoughguyorqueenbee.Bondingenhancingarelationshipbytrashingsomeoneelse.Angerexpressingangerbytakingitoutonsomeoneelse.Projectionbullyingothersasawayofdealingwithbeingbulliedoneself.

    entvEntertainm aluefindinglaught randamusementinbullyingorharassing.

    eLoneliness or boredom creating something to do (now) and gossip about(later).

    Selfprotection erroneously believing that bullying others will intimidateothersandmakethebullylesslikelytobebulliedorharassedhimorherself.

    cPower and ontrol attempting to gain the uppe hand in social situations;tryingtoeliminatecompetitionby educingsomeoneelsessocialstatus.

    rr

    Jealousy or insecurity bullying, intimidating, or attempting to destroy thereputationofarival.

    Falsesecuritybullyingorharassingsomeoneincyberspaceiseasierandlessthreateningthanareallifeconfrontation. Thecombinationof interactingwithsomeone in a virtualworld, often from the relative safety of ones own room,createsafalsesenseofsecurityandsafety.

    Impulsivity communicating in cyberspace makes it even more difficult toforeseepotentialconsequencesofthosewordsandactions.

    27

    Relate it to the film

    WhichoftheaboveissuesmightexplainCoreysbehaviortowards

    Brandon?

  • 2. eoplewhoareharassedorbulliedtendtobeunpopular.P

    FALSE

    Althoughbullies tend to targetotherswitha lowersocial status, it is common forvictims tobechosenbasedonbeingperceivedas easy targets. Easy targetsareseenaslesslikelytodefendthemselves.Peopleidentifyeasytargetsasthosewhorevery forgiving, tendtoavoidconflict,oraremore likely togoalongwith theaahrassmentandlaughwithothers,evenattheirownexpense.

    Theneedtofitinandbeapartofthegroupisparamountinadolescence.Thisexplainswhysometeenswillallowotherstobullythem,andevenlaughalongwith

    thegroup,inanattempttobeincludedinofthegroupactivity.

    3.Mostpeopleknowwhytheyarebeingharassedorbullied.

    FALSE

    The factorsdiscussed inQuestion1aboveshowthatbullyingandharassment isacomplex issue thatmighthave little todowith thevictim. Question2shows thatspecific factors that lead to victimizationmay not even be related to the specificincidentthatthepersonisbeingbulliedabout.Bullyingfrequentlyoccurswhenaerson sees another as a threat. Often, it is based on competition for status in arouporrivalryoverapotentialorpresentloveinterest(boyfriendorgirlfriend).pg

    28

    Relate it to the film

    DidBrandondoanythingwrong?ItisimportantforstudentstoseethatBrandonwasaninnocentvictiminthebullying,andthatnoneofthethingssaidabouthimwereconnectedtohimorhis

    behavior.

  • 29

    4.Peoplealwaysknowwhotheyare alkingwithonline.t

    FALSEItiseasytoconcealonesidentityonline.Manypeopleremainsignedintoemail,instant messaging, and personal web page accounts throughout the day andevening. Friends come and go in roomswhere these accounts remain active andaccessible. A farmore dangerous situation occurswhen friends share their usernamesandpasswordswitheachother.Thismakesiteasytosignintoanaccountandposeasthatperson.Attimes,friendshaveafight,ortherelationshipbecomesstrained, giving each other addedmotivation to sign in with the others identity.Text messaging on cell phones also provides an easy way to send information,here the receiver of the information only knowswhich cell phone themessageamefrom(butoftenassumesitiscomingfromtheownerofthatcellphone).wc

    5.Somepeoplesharetheirusernameandpasswordwithfriends.

    TRUE

    Asmentioned above, this is fairly commonandpotentiallydangerous. Manykidssharetheirpersonallogininformationasagestureoffriendshipandtrustwithoutrealizingthatadolescentrelationshipscanbeturbulentandunpredictable.Ifafightoccurs between two friends, neither one is likely to remember to change theirusernameandpassword. Thisallowsonepersontogainaccessandcontrolofthe

    Relate it to the film

    WhatwouldhavehappenedifBrandonverified(byphone)ifit

    wasindeedLindsayhewastalkingwithwhenCoreywaspretendingtobeher?

  • otherspersonal information,andmakes iteasytoassumetheothers identityonline. Evenwhen friendsaregettingalong,havingaccess toanothers account cancreateopportunitiestoinnocentlyhave funorelicit informationfromothersonine, potentially leading to unforeseen situations where sensitive information isnexpectedlyshared.lu

    6.Manypeople see inappropriate images of someone theyknowonline.

    TRUEOne of the striking developments in the past few years is the increased socialacceptability of sharing inappropriate images on social networking sites such asMySpace andFacebook. Theoverall pornificationofour society (reflected inoverly sexualized advertisements, movies, television and other media) combinedwithpervasivedisclosureandlackofinhibition(reflectedinrealityTVshows,tellall books, and celebrity confessions) hasmade provocative images and behaviorsothcommonplaceandacceptableparticularly forchildrenandadolescentswhorehighlyinfluencedbymediaimagesandcelebritylifestyles.ba

    30

    StreetVocabulary:Sextingthesendingofprovocative,sexualized,nudeorseminudephotosovercellphonesas

    picturemessages

    FYIDeceitfulbehaviorsuchas3waycalling(with

    oneofthepartiesnotawareofthethirdlistener)iscommonamongteenagers.

  • 31

    7.Manyteenspostinappropriateimagesofthemselvesonline.

    TRUEThemorepeopleareexposedtoinappropriateimagesonline,themorelikelytheyare to see it as normal. Social networking sites, especially among teenagers, arebecomingmore andmore likely to include images andmessages that glorify sex,violence, or drug and alcohol use. Overly sexualized pictures that are posted byteenagers generate positive attention and comments from others. Many girlsregularlyseetheseimagesonotherpeoplessites,aswellasthepositivecommentsthese pictures generateparticularly from boys. These experiences createpowerful(butoftensubconscious)pressuretoparticipateinthisnewlanguageofinternetcommunication,leadingtoanincreasedlikelihoodtopostimagesandmakestatements thatwouldnotordinarilybe shared inother contexts. And themoreeopleengageinthisbehavior,themoreitiswitnessedbyothers,leadingtofurtherormalizationofthebehaviorthusreinforcingthecycle.pn

  • 32

    8l. Many teens have posted inappropriate pictures of others onine.

    TRUEAsmentionedabove,theincreasedexpectationsandsocialacceptabilityofpostinginappropriate pictures causes many teenagers to post images of themselves. Inaddition,manyteenspostpicturesoftheirfriendsaswell.Thisisdoneasawaytorepresentwho is inonessocialnetwork. Becausethesesitesarevisitedbymanyothers (known or unknown), there is a tendency to post pictures that are morelikelytostandout.Thatdoesntmeanthatthepicturesoffriendswillnecessarilybeprovocative, but it does increase the likelihood that the pictures will be selectedbasedonthetendencytostandout.Furthermore,teensoftenpostgrouppicturesofthemselveswith their friends. Therefore,evenwhenpeopledontpostunsuitableicturesofthemselvesontheirownsites,itispossiblethatinappropriatepicturesndupbeingpostedonotherssites.pe

    9o.Most teenshaveharassedorbulliedat leastoneotherpersonnline.

    TRUE

    Theheighteneduseandacceptanceofputdowns,ridiculing,joking,andgeneralonlinebanter,particularlyduringtheteenyears,makesitdifficultforkids(andadults)torecognizethedisrespectfulnatureofmany interactions. This isexacerbatedby

    Relate it to the film

    Inthefilm,BrandonsentatoplesspictureofhimselftoLindsaywithoutanyideaorexpectationthatanyoneelsewouldseeit.LindsaysboyfriendCoreyfoundthepictureonhercomputer,

    alteredit,andsentitoutforeveryonetosee.

  • the fact that communication in cyberspace makes it easier to say things thatwouldntordinarilybesaidinfacetofacecommunications.Asaresult,manyteensunwittinglybullyorharassotherswithoutrealizinghowthreateningorhurtfultheommunication really is. Furthermore, the difficulties inherent in online

    tioccommunicationincreasethelikelihoodofmisunderstandings(Seeques n10,below).Studentsmight answer this question (andQuestions 10 and 11) as FALSE eventhough theyhavebulliedothersonline. This isbecausemaking inappropriateorthreateningcommentstoanotherpersonisnotnearlyasmemorableaswhentheyaresaidaboutus.Whenstudentsclaimthattheyhaveneverbullied,threatened,orintimidated anyone else online, remind them that just because they dontemembersayinganythingorevenintendingtohurtsomeoneelse,theycanneverrulyknowifthey(unintentionally)everhurtsomeoneelseonline.rt

    10.Mostteenshavebeenharassedorbulliedonline.

    TRUE

    Foreverybully,thereisat leastonevictim. Infact, it islikelythattherearemorevictims than therearebullies. Mostbullyingandvictimization is intentional. Butonlinecommunicationscanbehurtfulevenwhenitwasnotthespecificintentionofthesenderofthemessage.Adolescentsinparticularcanberecklesswiththethingstheysay(type)online,andoverlysensitivetothethingssaidto(orabout)them.Inaddition, there is always a heightened risk of miscommunication andisperceptionswhenthingsarecommunicatedonline.Thesefactorsincreasetheikelihml

    oodofhurtfeelingsandperceivedvictimization.

    Peopleareimpactedbybullyingeveniftheyarenottheintendedtarget.

    33

    Relate it to the film

    DoyouthinktheCorey,Steve,AlyssaandKristenrealizedhow

    muchtheywerehurtingBrandonordoyouthinktheybelievedCoreywhenhesaid,Werejustgoingtohavealittlefun?

  • 11. Ihavewatchedwhilemyfriendsharassedorbulliedsomeoneelseonline.

    TRUE

    Peer pressure is ubiquitous and influential in adolescence, but also frequentlymisunderstood.Asksomeonetogiveanexampleofpeerpressureandmostpeoplewilldescribeascenewherethere isagroupof teenagersencouraging,coaxing,orcoercing an individual to do something that is both risky and negative. But thepower (and certainly the danger) of peer pressure comesmore from its subtlety.Insteadofthearmtwistingcoercionthatmostpeopleassume,peerpressureofteninvolves less obvious cues and reinforcements that exploit the high need forinclusion,approval,recognitionandstatus. Ratherthanbeingdirectlyencouragedby others, many teenagers might engage in behaviors based on an anticipatedreactionfromothers.Inotherwords,anadolescentmightsayordosomethingthathey hope (consciously or subconsciously) will result in heightened recognition,tacceptance,approval,reinforcement,andultimatelyhigherstatus.Thisisalsothetypeofpeerpressurethatmakesitmoredifficultforteenagerstospeakoutagainst inappropriatebehaviorengaged inby theirpeersthe fear thatpeakingoutwill lead to ridicule, rejection, lowered status, or thepossibility thatsbullyingbehaviorwillthenbedirectedbackatthem.Often,theimportanceplacedonfriendsstickingtogetherovershadowsthemoralorethical considerations related to any specific group behavior. This is whymanyadolescents feel pressure to go alongwith the group as opposed to doingwhatheyconsidertobeethical,fairorappropriate.(SeeMoreonPeerPressureattheendofhissectionformoredetails.)tt

    34

    Further Discussion

    Have students react to the following phrase:

    To be right is not always popular To be popular is not always right.

  • 12. Peoplewhoareharassedonlineusuallyknowthedifferencehenitsseriousorjustfoolingaround.w

    FALSE

    Communicationisnotaperfectart.Communicationstheoristsstudythedistortionsinherent inmost conversations, andarewell awareof thedoubledistortions thattypicallyoccurinconversations:thesenderofamessageisnotcompletelyaccuratewiththewordstheychoose,andthereceiverof themessage interprets thewordsthey hear based on their own biases, experiences, expectations, and emotionalstates. Althoughwords arenever truly sufficient in capturing the exactnatureofomplex ideas, real world dialogue is aided by the use of nonverbal

    ic st , prccommun ationssuchasge ures facialex essions,andtoneofvoice.Online communications are fraught with obstacles to clear, effectivecommunication. Words are sparse and quickly typed,making it difficult to trulyencapsulate the intended meaning. And of course, the physical separation thatexistsonlineeliminatestheabilitytouseorperceivenonverbalcuesthathelptocommunicate the emotional tone of a message in ways that are often moremeaningful thanwords themselves. Theuseof computer icons are anattempt torovideanemotionaltonetocommunications,butaretoogenericandsimplifiedtorulyconveytherichemotionaltonesofafacetofacecommunication. pt

    35

    How many different ways can your students say the following sentences, using different tones of voice?

    1. Dont be ridiculous 2. Yeah, right 3. Are you serious? 4. Dude

    How many different ways can they be typed?

  • 36

    1l3.Foolingaroundbypretendingtobesomeoneelseonlinecaneadtotragicconsequences.

    TRUEDeveloping trust is a skill that requires practice and experience. Learning andpracticingsocialskillsofteninvolvesaseriesofoverdoingandunderdoingthingsuntil therightbalance isachieved. Therefore, it is likely that teenagerswillmakemistakesbyeithertrustingotherstoomuchornotenough.Oneexampleoftrustingtoomuch is the sharingof passwordswith friendswithout realizing thepotentialdangers (e.g.providingaccess toapersonalaccountbysomeonewhowasa closefriend but then becomes an enemy or rival. While adolescents are learning theboundariesnecessary toengage inhealthy, trusting relationships, it is common tosee examples of manipulation, entrapment, and deceitparadoxically in theattempt to establish trust. A common example of this is when teens use 3waycallingwithout tellingonepersonthatanotherperson ison the line. Othertimes,teenswillassumesomeoneelsesidentityonlineinanattempttoelicitinformationfrom others. Feelingmanipulated or deceived not only undermines trust in thepersonwhowasdeceived,butitcanalsounderminetrustamongallthefriendswhoerecomplicit in thedeceit, as theybegin to realize that theymaynotbeable torusttheirfriends(orthemselves),andmaywonderiftheymightbethenextvictim.wt

    1t4. Whenwitnessinga friendbullysomeoneelse, friendswilltryopreventit.

    FALSEAs discussed above in Question 11, peer pressure is a powerful, but oftenmisunderstoodforcethataffectsteenbehaviorandrelationshipsinprofoundways.Perhapsthebestexampleiswhenfriendsaredoingsomethingthatonememberofthe group is uncomfortable with but feels unable to either speak up or removethemselvesfromthesituation.Mostadolescents(andadults)believethattheywouldikelyspeakupiftheyareunhappywiththebehaviorofoneormoreoftheirfriends,uttheunfortunaterealityisthatmanyofthemdont.lb

  • StudiesofHurricaneKatrinaand its aftermath taught researchers that the reasonmanyresidentsdidnotevacuatewasbecausethepalpablerisksofevacuatingwereperceivedasstrongerthantheabstractfearofstaying.3Thisappliestoadolescentsinconflictingsocialsituationswherethepalpableriskofridicule,rejection,orgoingagainst the group is often stronger than the abstract fear of potentially harmfulconsequences. Infact,disasterpreparationattemptshaveoftenbeenhandicappedbythedifficulttaskofgettingpeopletotakeactionwhentheweatherisstillcalm,making it difficult to conceptualize or appreciate the pending danger. This alsoexplainswhy students sitting in a typical health class on aweekdaymorning cansincerely express their commitment to avoid dangerous behaviors such asdrug/alcohol use, driving while intoxicated, not wearing seat belts, engaging inunprotectedsex,orcheatingonthepersontheyaredatingandaliedetectortestwouldprobablyshowtheyaretellingthetruth.Buthowmanyofthemmightfindthemselves engaging in one of these behaviors that very weekend? This is notbecausetheyarelying.Itisbecauseofthecombinedinfluenceofsocialpressures,eer influences, the impulse towards immediate gratification, and the inability tooreseeconsequences.pf

    3 Ripley, Amanda, The Unthinkable (2008), p. 38

    37

    Relate it to the film

    DoyouthinkeitherCorey,Lindsay,andtheirfriendswereabletoseethepotentialrisksoftheirbehaviorwhenbullyingBrandon?Ifso,doyouthinkthemoreimmediate(butlesssevere)riskofrejectionorridiculeoutweighedthelesstangible(butmore

    severe)consequencesofwhattheyweredoing?

  • 1w5.Teensuseracist,homophobic,orotherformsofhatespeechhenbullyingorharassingsomeone online.else

    TRUE

    eenagers (and adults) use inappropriate and offensivewords formany reasons,ut ostofthoserTb

    m easonsfallintooneofthefollowing:

    1. Conformity.Peopleareproductsoftheirculture,andinfluencedbywhattheysee and hear. Culture includes the family, the immediate peer group, thelargerschoolculture,thecommunity,andsociety(includingthemedia)asawhole.Thecarelessuseofracialstereotypes,epithets,andimagesareoftenusedbecausethepersonhasheardothersusingthistypeoflanguageandhasincorporated the words (and possibly the erroneous belief systems thatsupportthosewords).

    Peopleuseoffensivewordsbecausetheyhearothersusingthem.

    2. BullyingandHarassment. Intentionaluseof offensive, emotionallychargedwordsandimageryarespecificallydesignedtohurtthevictimand/orevokeahigher levelof intensityintheconflict. StephenPinkerwrites:Languagehasoftenbeencalledaweapon,andpeopleshouldbemindfulaboutwhereto aim it andwhen to fire.4 This idea is often cited as the reason peopleshould be careful about using words or engaging in behaviors that othersmight perceive as vulgar or offensive, particularly when these words areused without considering their implications. But when hurting orintimidating others is intended, offensive or inflammatorywords are oftenuseddeliberately(andeffectively).

    Peopleuseoffensivewordsbecausetheypackanemotionalpunch.

    3. Rebellion. Racist,homophobic,provocative,andother formsofhatespeechmaybeused intentionally,butnotnecessarily tobullyor intimidate. Manypeople,particularly inadolescence,use inappropriate languageasawayofshowingoffbyviolatingsocialnorms.Thegoalisrebellionorshockvalue,rather thanbullying. However, the impacton thevictimandbystanders isthesameasintentionalbullying.

    Peopleuseoffensivewordsforshockvalueandtoshowoff.

    38

    4 Pinker, Stephen, The Stuff of Thought, (2007), p. 369.

  • 39

    Have Students React to the Following Statement:

    When you use hate speech, you say more about yourself than about the person/group youre referring to.

    Relate it to the film

    WasBrandonthevictimofhatespeech?

    WhywerestudentsaccusingBrandonofbeinggay?

    Whatarethee

    ffectsofusingthistypeofhatespeechon:

    ntsingeneral)? Thevictim(Brandon)?

    stude nity?Bystanders(friendsandThegay/lesbi ncommu

    Thelargercommunity?a

    Exploretherecenttrendintheuseofthewordgaytodescribe

    situationsthataresilly,annoying,orgenerallynegative.

    Relatethistrendtothethreecommonreasonsforusinghatespeech

    describedabove(conformity,bullying,andrebellion).

    Discusshowtheuseofthisworda asynonymforanythingnegativeisrecklessandoffensivetoothers.

    s

  • ClassroomDebate

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:

    (2.1.12F.2)Analyzetheimpactofphysicaldevelopment,socialnormsandxpectations,selfesteem,andperceivedvulnerabilityonadolescentsocialandeemotionalgrowthandbehavior.2.2.12B.1)Evaluatefactorsthatinfluencemajorhealthdecisionsandpredicthow(thosefactorswillchangeorconflictatvariouslifestages.

    ns.(2.2.12B.4)Analyzetheuseofethicsandpersonalvalueswhenmakingdecisio

    e.(2.2.12B.5)Critiquesignificanthealthdecisionsanddebatethechoicesmad2.4.12A.3)Recommendstrategiestoenhanceandmaintainmature,loving,(respectful,andhealthyrelationships.

    9.2.12A.2)Describeandapplyconstructiveresponsestocriticism.(

    40

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • ClassroomDebate

    tudentswillprepare,conduct,andprocessthefollowingdebate:S

    PRO:LindsayshouldhavedonemoretopreventCoreyfromassumingher

    ullyingBrandononline.

    CON:Lindsaydidthebestshecouldwithoutriskingsignificantconsequencesofherown.identityandb

    HANDOUTS:TeamDirectionsforD

    ss

    ebatebothteamsTable1bothteamable2bothteamTTable3audience

    UGGES STEDDIRECTIONS:

    Dividestudentsintotwoteams(ideally57studentsperteam).

    Theremainingstudentsintheclasswillserveastheaudiencewhowillhavetheoptiontoaskquestionsattheendofthedebate,andwillultimatelyvote

    eythinkwonthedebate.onwhoth

    HandoutTeamDirectionsforDebate,Table1,andTable2tobothteams.lluseth

    Teamswi esetablestoprepareforthedebate.

    HandoutTable3totherestoftheclass.Theaudiencewillusethistabletorecordpointsmadebyeitherteamandgeneratequestionstheywouldliketo

    posetoeachside.

    Reviewthescenefromthefilm(SeeSceneSummarybelow).Thiscanbe

    eitherreadoutloudorcopiedandhandedout.

    Providetimeforteamstomeetanddiscusstheintroductorystatement,mainrategy.

    pointsandoverallst

    Conductthedebate.

    Voteonawinner.

    Directclasstowriteareactionpaper(seeOtherSuggestionsfortheDebatebelow).

    41

  • SCENESUMMARYLindsayandBrandonhavebecomegoodfriends,buttheirrelationshiphasdevelopedprimarilyonline.WhenLindsayseesBrandoninschool,onthebus,orinotherpublicplacesshedoesnotfeelcomfortablehangingoutwithhim,duetoheranticipationofdisapprovalfromeitherherfriendsorboyfriend(Corey).CaughtbetweenherdesiretohangoutwithBrandonandherdesiretoavoidrejectionorridiculefromherpeers,Lindsaywalksaveryfineline,limitingherinteractionwithBrandontotheInternet.Inevitably,thosetwoworldscollideatherfriendAlyssasparty,whereaconfrontationoccursbetweenBrandonandCorey.Shortlyaftertheparty,CoreyandLindsayarehangingoutwiththeirfriendsAlyssa,Kristen,andSteve.CoreybecomesawarethatBrandonisattemptingtocommunicatewithLindsayonline.Thissetsthestageforapivotalshowdown,asCoreytakesadvantageoftheopportunitytobullyBrandonbypretendingtobeLindsayduringanonline(IM)conversation.Corey,encouragedbyhisfriends,issayingviciousthingstoBrandon.BrandonbelievesthatitisLindsayheistalkingto.

    Alyssa,Kristen,Steve,Corey,Lindsay

    42

  • HANDOUTTeamDirectionsforDebate

    PRO:LindsayshouldhavedonemoretopreventCoreyfromassumingher

    ullyingBrandononline.

    CON:Lindsaydidthebestshecouldwithoutriskingsignificantconsequencesofherown.identityandb

    DIR TEC IONS:

    1. EachteamwillcompleteTables1and2.Asagroup,brainstormideastodevelopaunifiedandpersuasiveargument.Eachteammembermustbe

    ebate.

    assignedatleastonespecificpointthattheywillpresentduringthed. Onerepresentativefromeachteamwillmakeanopeningstatement,

    rposition.2

    providingsomebackgroundinformationandsummarizingthei

    3. OnememberofthePROteamwillpresentthefirstmainpoint.

    ut.

    4. TheCONteam(asagroup)willhavetheopportunitytoreb

    5. OnememberoftheCONteamwillpresenttheirfirstpoint.

    6. ThePROteam(asagroup)willhavetheopportunitytorebut.

    Thisal tinu adeternatingpatternwillcon euntilallpointsarem

    PROIndividual,point1 CONGrouprebuttalCONIndividual,point1 PROGrouprebuttalPROIndividual,point2 CONGrouprebuttalPROIndividual,point3 CONGrouprebuttalCONIndividual,point3 PROGrouprebuttal

    PROIndividual,point4 CONGrouprebuttalCONIndividual,point4 PROGrouprebuttal

    7. OnememberofthePROteamwillprovideaclosingstatement.

    tatement.

    8. OnememberoftheCONteamwillprovideaclosings

    9. Audiencememberswillaskquestionstoeitherside.

    43

    10. Theaudiencewilldiscussallpointsandvoteonawinner.

    11. (Option)Studentswillwriteaonepageessay,selectingeitherthePROorCONposition,andjustifyingtheirdecision.

  • Table1Inthistable,youwillcomeupwithandintroductorystatement(providingsomebackgroundregardingtheissue)anddevelopwhatyouthinkarethestrongestpointstosupportyourposition.fteryouhavewrittendownyourbestarguments,trytoimaginehowtheopposing

    urmainpoints.AgroupwillcountereachofyoIntroductoryStatement: Ourmainpoints: Anticipatedrebuttal:1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    44

  • Table2nthistable,listthemainargumentspresentedbytheopposingteam.Considerourresponsetoeachoftheirmainpoints.Iy Opposingteamsmainpoints: Ourrebuttal:1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    45

  • Table3Audiencememberswillusethistabletokeeptrackofconvincingargumentsmadebyeitherteam,andgeneratequestionstheywouldliketoaskeithersidetowardsheendofthedebate.Thisformwillbeusedasthebasisofanydiscussionoreactionpaperattheendofthedebate.tr Convincingarguments(PRO) Convincingarguments(CON)1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    Questionstoaskeitherteam:

    46

  • OPTIONS:ReactionPaper

    Directstudentstofollowtheseguidelines:

    tion?Whichsidemadethemoreconvincingargument?WhatisyourultimatedecisionregardingLindsaysroleinthissitua

    Regard hichsideyouselect,whatwouldbeyouradviceto:lessof

    o

    wo Lindsay

    Coreyo Steve,Alyssa,andKristen

    PartnerDebateSimplifiedVersion(Inlieuofperforminganactualdebate)Pairstudentsintogroupsoftwo.Eachdyadmustworktogethertowriteasingleessaysummarizingbothsidesofthedebate.

    MockTrialAsanadditionaloroptionalclassroomactivity,thisdebatecanalsobeconductedasaMockTrial.Divideteamsintoprosecutionanddefenseandselectajudgeandajury.Studentscanroleplaycharactersinthefilm,eitherasplaintiffs,defendants,or

    forteamstopreparetheircase,conductthetrial,characterwitnesses.AllowtimeandhavExamp

    ethejuryrenderitsverdict.leprosecutionscouldbe:

    BrandonsparentssueCoreyandLindsayforcontributingtothedeathof

    theirson.Coreyischargedwithharassment,recklessendangermentandhatespeech

    ThepoliceconfiscateBrandonscomputer.Coreydeniesanyinvolvement.ecauseLindsaysscreennameisidentified,sheischargedwithharassment,Brecklessendangermentandhatespeech.

    iscussthesimilaritiesanddifferencesbetweenfeelingguiltyandbeingfoundguiltynacourtoflaw.

    47

    Di

  • Who me?stoBla(PieChart)

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:

    8.1.12B.2)Exhibitlegalandethicalbehaviorswhenusinginformationand(technology8.2.12A.1)Useappropriatedatatodiscussthefullcosts,benefitsandtradeoffs,ndrisksrelatedtotheuseoftechnologies(a

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    48

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • WhosToBlame?

    PieCharthisactivityisdesignedtohelpstudentsidentifytherolesandresponsibilitiesofhedifferentcharactersinthefilm.TtDirections:Havestudentscreateapiechartthatdepictstherelativeblametheywouldassigntoachofthecharactersinthefilm.Theactivitycanbedoneindividually,inpairs,ornsmallgroups.eimportant:piechartsshouldreflectwhotheythinkistoblamefortheconflict,I nothesuicide.tStudentsmusti

    ncludethefollowing:BrandonLindsay

    Corey(Lindsaysboyfr

    iend) AlyssaandKristen(Lindsaysfriends)

    Steve(Coreysfriend) OtherstudentswhotauntedorridiculedBrandon

    Theymayincludeothersiftheyfeeltheyarepartlytoblame,suchas:ZachandRyanBrandonsfriends);theteachersorschool(fornotmonitoringcellphoneuseorallwaytaunting);mediaandtechnology;Brandonsparents,etc.(h

    49

    Uponcompletion,studentscansharetheiropinionsthroughclassroomdiscussions,PowerPointpresentations,orwrittenessays.

  • 50

  • DecisionTree

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:

    (2.1.12F.2)Analyzetheimpactofphysicaldevelopment,socialnormsandxpectations,selfesteem,andperceivedvulnerabilityonadolescentsocialandeemotionalgrowthandbehavior.2.1.12F.4)Predicttheconsequencesofconflict,harassment,bullying,vandalism,(andviolenceonindividuals,families,andthecommunity.2.2.12A.3)Teachothershowtousecommunicationskills,includingrefusal,(negotiation,andassertiveness.(2.2.12B.1)Demonstrateandevaluatetheuseofdecisionmakingskills.2.2.12B.2)Evaluatefactorsthatinfluencemajorhealthdecisionsandpredicthow(thosefactorswillchangeorconflictatvariouslifestages.

    .(2.2.12B.4)Analyzetheuseofethicsandpersonalvalueswhenmakingdecisions9.2.12A.1)Applycommunicationsanddataanalysistotheproblemsolvingandecisionmakingprocessesinavarietyoflifesituations(d

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    51

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • DecisionTree

    hisactivityisdesignedtohelpstudentsconsiderpossibleoutcomestovarioushoicesinordertoenhancetheirdecisionmakingskills.TcDirections:Studentswillcompletethehandoutbelowbychoosingascenefromthemovieandidentifyingdifferentchoicesthatcouldhavebeenmade,thenexploringthelikelyoutcomesofthosedecisions.(SeeTheTeenageBrainandDecisionMakingintheTeachersHelpersectionformoreinformation)Forexample,whatif:

    LindsayacknowledgedtoCoreyatthepartythatsheinvitedBrandon?

    LindsaysfriendspickedupontheirfriendsdiscomfortandsupportedherinherdecisiontostopCoreyfrombullyingBrandon?

    himLindsaydecidedtoleavetheroomandcontactBrandonbyphonetellingthatitwasCoreypretendingtobeheronline?

    BrandondecidedtocallLindsaytoconfirmthatitwasherandtalkmoreeffectivelyonthephone?

    BrandonsfatherdidnotjustwalkawaywhenBrandonyelledImfinethroughthedoor(butwasclearlyupset)?

    Brandonsfriendsweremoresupportivewhenhewasbeingridiculedonlineandthroughtextmessages?

    AlternateactivityHavestudentsdrawcomicbookcellstoshowadifferentoutcometooneofthescenesinthefilm(oradifferentendingforthefilm).

    52

  • DecisionTree

    SelectoneoftheOutcomesanddescribeadditionalchoicesandconsequences:_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    53

    Chooseascenefromthefilm:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ChoiceA:____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    ____________

    ChoiceB:___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    _____________

    Outcome1.________________________________________________________________________

    Outcome2.________________________________________________________________________

    Outcome3.________________________________________________________________________

    Outcome4.________________________________________________________________________

  • DecisionTree(Sample)

    SelectoneoftheOutcomesanddescribeadditionalchoicesandconsequences:

    Outcome#2:Astheconflictbeginstogetheated,KristendecidestosupportherbestfriendLindsay.CoreyandSteveleave,forcingAlyssatochoose.Shechoosestoleavewiththeboys.LindsayandKristencontactBrandontoapologizebeforeitstoolate.

    54

    ChooseascenefromthefilCoreyispretendingtobeLindsayonline.

    m:

    ChoiceA:

    LindsaydefendsBrandonandmakesmoreofanefforttostopthebullying,perhapsenlistingthehelpofhergirlfriends.

    ChoiceB:Lindsayyieldstothepressure,joinsinwithherfriends,encouragingthemandevenprovidingadditionalinformationtouse against Brandon.

    Outcome1.CoreyandfriendsstopbullyingBrandon.

    Outcome2.ThegroupturnsonLindsayandbeginstobullyorharassher.

    Outcome3HarassmentofBrandoncontinues.Lindsaysguiltgrows.

    . Outcome4HarassmentofBrandonescalates.Lindsaysguiltintensifies

    .

    further

  • HowWellDoYouKnowYourselfOnline?

    RelevantNJCCCStandards:(2.1.12F.2)Analyzetheimpactofphysicaldevelopment,socialnormsandxpectations,selfesteem,andperceivedvulnerabilityonadolescentsocialandeemotionalgrowthandbehavior.2.1.12F.3)Analyzehowpeernormsandexpectations,theavailabilityofweapons,(substanceabuse,mediaimagesandpoorrolemodelscontributetoviolentbehavior2.1.12F.4)Predicttheconsequencesofconflict,harassment,bullying,vandalism,(andviolenceonindividuals,families,andthecommunity.2.2.12B.1)Evaluatefactorsthatinfluencemajorhealthdecisionsandpredicthow(thosefactorswillchangeorconflictatvariouslifestages.(3.5.12C.1)Useprintandelectronicmediatextstoexplorehumanrelationships,ewideas,andaspectsofculture(e.g.,racialprejudice,dating,marriage,family,andnsocialinstitutions).6.2.12E.9)Discusstheimpactoftechnology,migration,theeconomy,politics,and(urbanizationonculture.8.1.12B.2)Exhibitlegalandethicalbehaviorswhenusinginformationandechnology(t

    SeetheTeachersHelpersectionforsuggested:EnduringUnderstandingspage61.

    55

    LearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestionspage62.

  • Howwelldoyouknowyourselfonline?

    1.

    2.

    IalwaysknowwhoImtalkingtoonline.tleastoneotherpersonknowsmyusernameand

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSEApassword.haveseeninappropriateimagesofsomeoneIknowon3. Iline.havepostedinappropriateimagesofmyselfonline

    TRUEorFALSE

    4. I(sexual,provocative,obscene,drug/alcoholuse,etc.).

    ofother

    TRUEorFALSE

    5.

    6.

    Ihavepostedinappropriatepictures sonline.wouldbecomfortableshowingmyteacherseverything

    page.

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSEIthatsonmyMySpaceorFacebookwouldbecomfortableshowingmyparentseverything

    page.7. I

    thatsonmyMySpaceorFacebookwouldbecomfortableshowingmygrandparents

    orFace

    TRUEorFALSE

    8. IeverythingthatsonmyMySpace bookpage.wouldbecomfortableshowingthepoliceeverything

    TRUEorFALSE

    9. IthatsonmyMySpaceorFacebookpage.

    nonline.

    TRUEorFALSE

    10. Ihaveharassedorbulliedanotherperso

    TRUEorFALSE

    11.

    12.

    Ihavebeenharassedorbulliedonline.havewatchedwhilefriendsofmineharassedorbullied

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSEIsomeoneelseonline.eoplewhoareharassedonlineusuallyknowthe13. Pdifferencewhenitsseriousorjustplayingaround.

    .

    TRUEorFALSE

    14.

    15.

    Iknowthelastnameofeveryoneonmyfriendslisthavespenttimehangingoutwitheveryoneonmyfriendslist.

    TRUEorFALSE

    TRUEorFALSEI

    56

    CIRCLE

  • (Optional)

    GuidelinestodiscussingHowWellDoYouKnowYourselfOnLine?

    Inordertoincreasethelevelofselfhonestyandselfawareness,thechecklistHowWell Do You Know Yourself OnLine? is designed for students to answeranonymously and without any expectations that the answers will be shared in apublic forum. However, you may decide to facilitate a basic discussion of themportant lessons in the checklist, highlighting the following items foronsideration:

    icQuestions1and2

    Fewadolescentsverifytheauthenticityofthepersontheyaretalkingtoonline.Thesequestionsaredesignedtohelpstudentrecognizetheeaseofbeinglulledintoafalsesenseofsecurity.(SeediscussionguidelinesnPre/PostTestsection,Questions#4nd5)iaQuestions35

    Theuseofprovocativelysexual,violent,orotherwiseinappropriateimagesandstatementsiscommonplaceontheInternet.Regularandongoingexposuretothesewordsandpicturesdecreasestheiremotionalimpact.Whenteensseethesebehaviorsasnormal(orevenexpected),theyaremorelikelytoengageinthem,thusperpetuatinghenormalizingofthebehaviorsforhemselvesandothers.ttQuestions69

    Adolescentsmistakenlyfeelthattheirfriendsaretheonlyoneswhohaveaccesstotheirsocialnetworkingsites,textmessagesandemails.Thesequestionsaredesignedtohelpteenagersunderstandthatpersonalinformationontheinternet

    isneverreallypersonal,thattextmessagesandemailscanbeeasilyforwarded(accidentallyordeliberately),andthatonlineprofilesandblogscanbeaccessedbyanyonefromfriends,torivals,toexualpredatorsevendespiteersonalprivacysettings.spQuestions1012

    Thesequestionshelpidentifytherolesandexperiencesofthebully,victimandbystander.Thisisanopportunitytodiscusssomeofthefactorsan ddynamicsinvolvedforeach,suchas:Thebullyattention,reputation,identity,status,bonding,anger,projection,entertainment,loneliness,powerandcontrol,falsesecurity,impulsivity,etc(seediscussionguidelinesinPre/PostTestsection,Question#1)Thevictimfear,insecurity,injustice,anger,embarrassment,passiveparticipation,d

    57

    esiretogoalongorfitin(selfdeprecation),etc.Thebystanderfear(ofretaliationorexclusion),desiretofitin,identificationwiththebully,entertainment,etc.

  • ThemisperceptionofsafetyandvirtualrealityoftheInternetmakesitmorelikelythatteenagerssaythingsonlinethattheymightnotsayinperson.Andtherelativeanonymityofinternetbasedprofilesandcommunicationscanexaggeratethenormalroleexperimentationandrisktakinginadolescence.

    Similartoquestions3,4and5(above),peopleareeasilydesensitizedtobehaviorsthatareubiquitousorwidespread,andlikelytoperpetuatebehaviorsthattheywitnessothersengaginginparticularlysexualizedimageryofthemselves,provocativelanguage,theglamorizationofillicitbehaviors(alcoholanddruguse,violence,etc),andbullying.Onlinecommunicationalsomakesitmoredifficulttodeterminethe

    seriousnessofthebehaviorandwhetherthecommunicationisesignedtobeplayfulteasingorutrightintimidationandbullying.doQuestions14and15

    Nowhereistheadolescentneedforstatusmoreeasilyrevealed(anddistorted)thantheuseoffriendslists.Manyteenagershavealargenumberofpeopleidentifiedasfriendsdespitethefactthattheyhavenevermet,andmightknowverylittleaboutthem.Thiscreatesseveraldangeroussituations,includingthefactthatthesefriends(reallystrangers)haveaccesstoonespersonalinformationandcollectivelyformalargerbutlessstableproportionofanindividualspeergroup.

    58

  • AdditionalSuggestionsforClassroomActivities

    Writingassignments,persuasiveessays,groupdiscussions: ReadtheletterfromtheWriter/DirectorofSticksandStonesattheendofthissection.Useasaforumfordiscussionordirectstudentstowritetheirownthoughts.

    ups?CouldBrandonandLindsayeverhavedateddespitethedifferencesinpeergro

    Towardstheendofthefilm,LindsaysentfranticinstantmessagestoBrandon,pologizingandsaying:ImsorryIwassuchabitch.Wassheabitchorwassheaweak?WritealetterfromLindsaytoBrandonsparents.

    ledit.ickatimewhenyoufacedatoughdecision.Discusshowyouhandfyoucouldgobackintime,whatmightyouhavedonedifferently?PITechnologyandcommunication: WriteatextorIMconversationbetweenthefollowingcharactersimmediatelyupon

    LindsayandCorey,LindsayandKristen,CoreyandhearingofBrandonsdeath:Steve,orZachandRyan. avestudentstrytotranslateafamouspassageorlyricstoapopularsongintoanH

    instantmessage.Talkabouthowmuchgetslostinthetranslation.Developadifferentendingtothefilm(asascript,cartooncells,drawing,etc.)Discussschoolrulesandguidelinesontheuseofcellphonesandinstantmessaging(youcanusethePersonalInternetSafetyCommitmentonpage57asaguide).avestudentsdevelop,print,andsigncellphoneorInternetsafetyrulesforinsidendoutsideofschool.Ha

    59

    Researchactivity:HavestudentsresearchandreportontheMeganMyerscase(aboutamotherwhofooledMeganbyposingasateenageboyinordertogetinformationaboutherowndaughter,leadingtothetragicsuicideofthe14yearoldMyers).

  • PersonalInternetSafetyCommitment

    (Handout)

    Followingthefilmpresentationandsubsequentdiscussionsandclassroomctivities,studentsshouldbemostreceptivetomakingthecommitmenttoamaintaininghealthyandsafeonlinebehaviors.ThefollowingPersonalInternetSafetyCommitmentallowsstudentstoformalizehiscommitment.Thecomponentsofthedocumenthavebeenextrapolatedfromalltofthediscussionquestionsandclassroomactivitiesabove.Obviously,thiscontractisnotalegaldocument,butreviewingthecomponentswillhelpreinforcethelessonsofthisprogram,andformallymakingapledgeinritingandhavingitwitnessedbyeitherafriendorfamilymembermayhelpnhancestudentscommitmenttofollowingthroughwiththebehaviors.we

    60

  • My Personal Internet Safety Commitment Asare llowingcommitments:

    sponsiblepersonandloyalfriend,Iherebymakethefo

    IwillalwaysconsiderthepossibilitythatthepersonIthinkImcommunicatingwithonlinemaynotactuallybethatperson.

    IwillonlysaythingsonlinethatIwouldbecomfortablewithanybody

    seeing.

    IwillrememberthatInternetorcellphonetextmessagesareliabletobemisconstruedandIwillusecautioninselectingthewordsIuseandtryto

    d.

    clarifycommunicationwhenIsensethatthingsarebeingmisinterprete

    Iwillnever(ornolonger)postprovocativeorcompromisingphotosofmyselforothers,regardlessofanypromisesorexpectationsofprivacyor

    confidentiality.

    Iwillalwayskeepmysigninnameandpasswordtomyself.

    IwillrememberthatpeoplehaveaccesstoinformationandpicturesthatIpostonsocialnetworkingsites,regardlessofpersonalprivacysettings.

    Iwillnotbullyorharassothersandstickupforthosewhoarebeingbullied,

    harassedorintimidated.

    otherformsofhatespeech.

    Iwillavoidusingracist,sexist,homophobic,or

    willencourageallmyfriendstodothesame.I

    Signed: Witnessed:

    ______________________________________ ______________________________________

    (Name) (Friendorfamilymember)

    Date:_______________________________ Date:_______________________________

    61

  • TeachersHelper

    EnduringUnderstandings

    CorrelatingAssignmentsandClassroomActivitieswithLearningObjectivesandEssentialQuestions

    SuggestedOngoingCurriculum

    SampleParentNotificationLetter

    AdditionalInformationon:

    PeerPressureSuicideAwareness

    TheTeenageBrainandDecisionMaking

    LetterfromWriter/DirectorDanFabrizio

    BehindtheScenes

    62

  • EnduringUnderstandingsSomeexamplesofEnduringUnderstandingstohelpdesignandguidelessonplans

    StudentswillunderstandthatThereareriskstoonlinecommunications.TherearewaysIcanprotectmyselfonline.nindividualsonlinebehaviorsareinfluencedbythecollectiveonlineA

    behaviorsofothers.ullyinghasconsequencesforeveryoneinvolved:thebully,thevictim,Bandthebystander.Hatespeechisaformofbullying.Onlinepeerpressuresaresimilartorealworldpeerpressure.echnologyandrelatedonlinecommunicationsmakeiteasiertobullyTothers.hereareresourcesavailabletohelpstudentswhoareinvolvedinTincidentsofbullying.

    ullyingislesslikelytooccurinanenvironmentthatdoesnttolerateit.B

    63

  • CorrelatinglessonplansandclassroomactivitieswithLearningObjectivesEssentialQand uestions

    Classr tivities:oomAcFR WBFilmReviewandD WhostoBlame?(piechart)iscussionP Discussion DTPre/PostTest(and ) DecisionTreePDClassroomDe HWHowWellDoYouKnowYourselfC

    64

    bate Lesson LearningObjectives EssentialQuestions

    FR,PP,CD,HW

    Studentswillbeabletoevaluatetheironlinebehaviors.

    Howdomyonlinebehaviorsimpactothersandmyself?

    FR,PP,CD,HW

    Studentswillbeabletounderstandtheisksinherentinonlineommunications.rc

    Whatare linecom

    therisksassociatedwithonmunications?

    gsitessuchbook

    Socialnetworkin

    asMySpace/FaceextmessagingT

    Instantmessaging

    FR,PP,CD,WB,HW

    Studentswillbeabletounderstandtheangersandinappropriatenessofondlineharassmentandbullying.

    Howdoestechnologymakeiteasiertobullyorharassothers?

    FR,PP,CD,WB,DT,HW

    Studentswillbeabletoassociatetheirownonlinebehaviorsrelevanttothoseinthefilm.

    Howdoonlinebehaviorsleadtopersonalmiscommunication,confusion,conflict,bullyingorvictimization?

    FR,PP,CD,DT,HW

    Studentswillbeabletorecognizeeffectivepreventionandinterventiontrategiesregardingtheirownonlineehaviorsandcommunications.sb

    Whatcanteensdotominimizetheikelihoodofbullyingintheirschoolorommunity?lc

    What can teens do once bullying is occurring?

    FR,PP,CD,WB

    Studentswillbeabletounderstandandevaluatetheroleofhatespeech,acism,sexism,andotherformsof

    g.rharassment,intimidationandbullyin

    Howdoeshatespeech,suchasracism,sexismandhomophobia,contributetoharassmentandbullying?

    FR,PP,CD,WB,HW

    Studentswillbeabletoidentifytherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevictim,erpetrator,andbystanderduring

    nt.pincidentsofbullyingandharassme

    Whataresomeoftherolesandresponsibilitiesofthevictim,perpetrator,andbystanderduring

    ?incidentsofbullyingandharassment

    FR,PP,CD,DT,HW

    Studentswillbeabletolearnandracticeeffectivecopingskillsrelatedptobullyingandvictimization.

    Whataresomeofthemosteffectivewaysofdealingwithbullyingandvictimization?

    FR,PP,CD,DT

    Studentswillbeabletoidentifyesourcesthatcanbeutilizedwhenacingsocial/emotionaldifficulties.rf

    Whatresourcesareavailableforteenswhencopingwithanysocialoremotionalproblem?

  • SuggestedOnGoingCurriculum

    (Ifshowingthisfilmtothesamestudentsatdifferenttimesorgradelevels.)The film Sticks and Stones highlightsmany important topics facing teens today.lthough the film is primarily about Internet bullying, there are opportunities toA

    addressotherrelevantissues.Becausetherearesomanyissuesraisedintheviewingandprocessingofthisfilm,teachersmaywant to address certain issues during subsequent viewingseitherduringaparticularschoolyearorspreadoutoverdifferentgradelevels. Thiswillhelp reinforce prior learning, allow students to explore new topics, and developimportant socialemotional coping skills. Of course, any of these topics can beaddressedatanygradelevel.orexample, the filmcanbeshownatdifferent timeswitha specific focuson theollowingissues:Ff

    GradeLev Focus

    revention

    el

    8thGrade Internetbullyingandsuicidepingills

    Socialproblemsolv Decisionmakingsk

    Hatespeech

    revention

    p10thGrade Internetbullyingandsuicideillss

    Emotionalcopingskunicationskill Comm

    Datingissues

    revention 12thGrade Internetbullyingandsuicidep

    RiskperceptionDecisionmakingskills

    Note:Internetsafetyandsuicidepreventionshouldremainafocusatallgradelevels.

    65

    Thefollowingtableofferssomeideasaboutdesigningcurriculumaroundvariousimportanttopicsthatmighthaveparticularrelevanceatdifferentgradelevelsandstagesofadolescence.

  • DesigningCurriculumGoalsBasedonSpecificTopics

    Topic Focus/Goal

    InternetBullying

    Identifytheroleoftechnologyinbullyingandvictimization

    Establishguidelinesforsafeonlinecommunications

    Developandreinforcecopingstrategiesgandinterventionsrelatedtobullyin

    (victim,bully,bystander)

    CommunicationSkills Exploretheinherentproblemsand

    challengesofreallifeandonlinecommunication

    SocialProblemSolving

    Developstrategiestosolvesocial,s

    problemsandcopewithpeerpressureconflict,rejection,reputationandstatu

    EmotionalCopingSkills

    Identifyandpracticeeffectivewaysto,copewithemotions(anger,isolation

    jealousy,rejection,etc)

    RiskPerception Identifythedifficultiesinaccurately

    nt

    perceivingrisksandthesubsequevulnerabilitiesamongadolescents

    DecisionmakingSkills

    betweenExploretherelationshipdecisionsandconsequences(positiveandnegative)

    HateSpeech,Tolerance,Diversity

    Understandtherelationshipbetweenbullyingandhatespeech,homophobia

    andracism

    hIdentifyandevaluatethedangersandsocial/legalconsequencesofhatespeec

    SuicidePrevention

    Recognizethewarningsignsrelatedtosuicide

    Exploresuicidepreventionstrategies

    basedonriskassessmentandeffectiveproblemsolving/emotionalcopingskills

    entIdentifyresourcesrelatedtoadolescsuicideprevention

    DatingIssues

    Explorethedynamicsofadolescentrelationshipsintermsofstatus,cliques,andoverallsocialnormsandpressures

    66

  • SampleParentNotificationLetter

    DearParent/Guardian;TheInternetandcellphonetechnologyhaverevolutionizedthewaywelearnandinteract.Thebenefitsareimmense,butsoarethepotentialdangers.Forteensinarticular,cyberbullying,harassment,stalking,spying,sextingandsexualppredationarereachingdangerouslevelsthroughoutthecountry.Inordertohelpreinforcesafeonlinebehaviors,wewillbeshowingthefilmSticksandStoneson____________________.Thisfilmaddressesmanyoftheseissuesinahardhittingbutrealisticway.ThefilmwascoproducedbytheBergenCountyrosecutorsOfficeandChaseWilson,theEmmynominatedcreatorsoftheDWIPpreventionfilmStonedCold.Severalimportantlessonswillbehighlightedduringthefilmpresentationandlassroomdiscussions.Weencourageyoutotalktoyourchildaboutthefilmafterheyviect

    wit,inparticular:

    andbystanders;Thenatureandconsequencesofbullyin

    gonthevictim Thedangersofsharingcompromisingphotosonline;

    Theinappropriatenessofhatespeech; Thewaysthatonlinecommunicationscanleadtorealworld

    consequences; Theproblemsinherentinonlinecommunication(particularlytheeaseby

    whichpeoplecanbefooledbyapersonassumingsomeoneelsesonlineidentity).

    uidetodiscussingthefilmandInternetsafetyingeneral,Foracomprehensiveg

    pleaserefertothefollowingwebsites:

    s/AYeager www.bcpo.net

    www.parkridge.k12.nj.u www.chasewilson.com

    anyquestions,pleasefeelfreetocontactme.Ifyouhave

    incerely,S

    67

    Yourname.

  • MoreAboutPeerPressureMostpeoplethinkpeerpressureisanattempttogetsomeonetodosomethingdangerousorunhealthybytheuseofheavyhanded(andattimesthreatening)taunts,pleadings,ordemands.Peopletypicallyassumetherearerelentlessattemptsbyagroupofbadkidstoconvinceagoodkidtodosomethingrebelliousordangerous(suchasusingdrugsorviolatingalaworschoolrule).Butcloserexaminationofthenatureofadolescentpsychologyandbehaviorrevealsthatthisformofpeerpressuremakesuponlyasmallportionofthemanywaysthatpeersdirectlyorindirectlyinfluenceeachothersbehaviors.

    Peerpressureisnotalwaysovert,threatening,andrelentless.Infact,sometimesitisntevenspokenoractedoutatall.Firstofall,aprimaryinfluenceinanyteenagerslifeisoftenhisorherclosestfriends.Althoughminoracquaintancesandevenstrangerscouldexertsomeamountofpeer

    dspressure,itisusuallytheclosefrienwhoaremostinfluential.Second,peerpressurecanbeinfluentialevenwhenitissubtleanddifficulttodetect.Ateenagergoingtoapartyandsimplyobservingbehaviorssuchasdrinkingorotherdruguse,smokingcigarettes,sexualactingout,etc.,createssignificantpressuretoconformandcontributestodefiningthenorm.Thisisalsothewaymedia(popularsongs,television

    andmovies)contributetoestablishingandreinforcingadolescentstandardsofbehavior.Third,itistheneedforattentionandtheexpectationofhowapersonwillbeperceivedthattendstoshapebehavior.Theperceptionofhowapersonthinkstheyarebeingseenmaybedifferentfromhowtheyareactuallybeingperceived.Forexample,astudentwhoactstoughandthreateningtoanotherpersoninordertoimpressonlookersmaythinkheisbeingseeninapositiveway,wheninrealitytheaudienceisannoyedandturnedoffbyhisbehavior.Anotherwaytheperceivedaudiencebecomesafactoriswhenapersoncomesupwiththeideatotryanewbehaviorandbringsittothegroup.TheprimaryobjectiveofthebehaviorisIwanttobeseenascoolbyothers.Thepeersmightnotsayordoanything,yetstillbethemajorfactor(orpressure)inshapinganindividualsbehavior.Weoftenassumethatthegroupthatfirstinitiatesabehavioriswherethepressurecomesfrom,butpeerpressurecanactuallycausenewbehavior(ifapersonisplayingtoan

    o

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    audience)aswellascausingotherstconform.Themoreweknowaboutpeerpressureandthemanyformsittakes,thebetterwewillbeabletotalktoourkidsandhelpthemidentifystrategiestocope.

  • MoreAboutSuicide

    AccordingtotheNationalCenterforHealthStatistics,morethan32,000peopleintheUnitedStatesdiebysuicideeveryyear.Thatworksouttoalmost90peopleeveryday,makingitthe11thleadingcauseofdeathintheUnitedStates.

    Suicideisoftenmistakenlybelievedtobeadrasticreactiontoaspecificevent,butthemajorityofsuicidesresultfromacomplexseriesofissuesandexperiences,ofteninvolvingsometypeofmentalillness(usuallydepression).Theseissuesaffectpeopleofallages,butthereareuniqueriskfactorsforteenagers.Thedevelopingadolescentbraincanmakeitmoredifficulttoconceptualizethefuture,resistimpulses,postponegratification,andregulateemotions.This,combinedwithalackofexperienceinproblemsolvinganddecisionmakingskills,aswellastheincreasedlikelihoodofsubstanceabuse,createaheightenedlikelihoodtoseeingsuicideasanoption.Ifteenagersfeeltheyareaburdentoothers,orfeeltrappedinasituationwheretheycannotseeanysolution,theyposeahigherriskforsuicide.

    Suicidalitycanbecategorizedinthreelevelsofseverity:ideations,gestures,andattempts.Ideationsarethoughtsaboutsuicide.Itisnotuncommonforpeople(particularlyteenagers)toentertainthoughtsaboutsuicide.Thesethoughtsoftencenteraroundageneraldesiretonothavetodealwithparticularfeelingsorsituationsbuttypicallydonotincludespecificplansforhowasuicide

    attemptwouldbecarriedout.Fantasiesaboutwhowouldshowupatthefuneral(selfesteem),howpeoplewouldrespond(emotionalmanipulation),thewishtoliveproblemfree(inabilitytoconceptualizethefutureorgraspthepermanenceofsuicide),impulsivity,andinabilitytocopewithintensefeelingscanallleadtosuicidalthoughts.

    Suicidalgesturesareactionstakenthatarepotentiallylifethreatening,butnotnecessarilywiththeultimateintentiontod

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Teacher’s Guide Written by: Andrew Yeager Student Assistance Coordinator Cer ist tified School Psycholog © 2009 Andrew Yeager WARNING: The contents and depictions in this film may be upsetting to some viewers. Please read all directions and guidelines prior to viewing. e Bergen County Pr All rights reserved. “Sticks and Stones” is produced by th osecutor’s Office and Chase Wilson.
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