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  • B e n c h m a r k e d u c a t i o n c o m p a n y

    Teachers Guide

    Themes Risk Supply and Demand

    social studies

    Gold RushLevel R/40

    skills & strategies

    anchor comprehension strategies

    Identify Sequence of Events Identify Cause and Effect

    Comprehension Writeaboutit

    Drawconclusions

    Usegraphicfeaturestointerpretinformation

    Vocabulary/Word Study Strategy Usecontextcluestodetermineword

    meaning

    Social Studies Big Idea Thequestforgoldhadsignificanteffects

    ontheeconomic,social,andpoliticallifeofwestern-expansionsettlements,aswellasonthephysicalenvironment.

  • Model metacognitive strategy: write about it

    Model comprehension strategy: identify cause and effect

    Use graphic features to interpret information: time lines

    Apply metacognitive strategy: write about it

    Guide comprehension strategy: identify cause and effect

    Use context clues to determine word meaning: definitions

    Apply metacognitive strategy: write about it

    Apply comprehension strategy: identify cause and effect

    Use context clues to determine word meaning: definitions

    Draw conclusions based on cause-and-effect information

    D a y

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    A c t i v i t i e s

    A dd i t i o n a l R e l a t e d R e s o u r c e s

    Notable Trade Books for Read-Aloud Gregory, Kristiana. Seeds of

    Hope: The Gold Rush Diary of Susanna Fairchild (Dear America). Scholastic, 2001.

    Kalman, Bobbie. The Gold Rush (Life in the Old West Series). Crabtree, 1999.

    Stein, R. Conrad. The California Gold Rush (Cornerstones of Freedom). Childrens Press, 1995.

    Web Site for Content Information PBSThe Gold Rush

    http://www.pbs.org/goldrush/ allabout.html

    PBS provides students and teachers with multiple opportunities to learn about the gold rush. The site includes classroom resources, tales from the mines, and fun facts.

    S a m p l e L e s s o n P l a n n i n g G u i d e

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC. All rights reserved. Teachers may photocopy the reproducible pages for classroom use. No other part of the guide may be reproduced or transmitted in whole or in part in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

    ISBN: 978-1-4108-1117-22

    Lesson at a GlanceBefore Reading (page 3) Build Background Introduce the Book Administer Preassessment

    During Reading (pages 410)Chapter 1 (pages 46) Model Metacognitive Strategy:

    Write About It Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Model Comprehension Strategy:

    Identify Cause and Effect Use Graphic Features to Interpret

    Information: Time Lines

    Chapters 23 (pages 78) Apply Metacognitive Strategy:

    Write About It Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Guide Comprehension Strategy:

    Identify Cause and Effect Use Context Clues to Determine

    Word Meaning: Definitions

    Chapters 45 (pages 910) Apply Metacognitive Strategy:

    Write About It Set a Purpose for Reading Discuss the Reading Apply Comprehension Strategy:

    Identify Cause and Effect Use Context Clues to Determine

    Word Meaning: Definitions

    After Reading (page 11) Administer Posttest Synthesize Information: Research and

    Draw Conclusions

    Writing Workshop (page 1213) Model the Writing Process: Write a

    Cause-and-Effect Paragraph Using Signal Words and Phrases

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships (page 14)

    Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Definitions (page15)

    Cause and Effect (page 18)

    Build background: quick-write about what students know about gold

    Introduce/preview the book: back cover blurb, table of contents, identify two chapters

    Navigators Lesson Guides provide flexible options to meet a variety of instructional needs. Here is one way to structure this lesson.

  • Before ReadingBuild Background Ask students to think about what they know about gold.

    Say: For one minute, I want you to write down everything you can think of about gold. When the minute is up, we will share what we know.

    When students are done writing, encourage them to share what they have written. Write down information students give on a chart similar to the one shown.

    Ask students what they know about the gold rush. Explain that gold had an important impact on American history.

    Introduce the Book Give students a copy of the book. Read the back cover blurb aloud

    to them. Ask: What do you think this book is about? (Students may guess the book will be about the California gold rush.)

    Have students turn to the table of contents. Ask volunteers to pick two chapters they find interesting. Skim the chapters with the class, looking at pictures, captions, and other graphic features.

    Explain that Gold Rush! is about the discovery of gold in various parts of the United States and the effects of that discovery on the country.

    As a point of reference, locate the four placesnorthern California, Nevada, Colorado, and Alaskaon a map in your classroom or in a social studies text to identify where the gold rushes in the book took place.

    Administer Preassessment Have students take Ongoing Assessment #15 on page 66 in the

    Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 4).

    Score assessments and use the results to determine instruction.

    Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder. For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students.

    Time Place People Other Details

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Assess students ability to locate chapters using the table of contents.

    2. Document informal observations in a folder or notebook.

    3. Keep the folder or notebook at the small-group reading table for handy reference.

    4. For struggling students, place a ruler beneath the title of any chapter in the table of contents. Have students draw an imaginary line from the chapter to the corresponding page number. Then have students locate the chapter.

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC GoldRush!3

    Gold

  • During Reading: Chapter 1Model Metacognitive Strategy: Write About It

    Use a real-life example of writing about it. Say: Good readers write down thoughts about what they are reading whenever a thought strikes them. Last week I was reading a book about a woman who studied gorillas in Africa. As I read, I thought about how hard it must have been for her to live alone with the gorillas. I jotted that thought down on a self-stick note. Later in the book, the woman described how hard it had been to be all alone. It was interesting to see how her description mirrored my thoughts.

    You can do the same thing. You can read a text and write down your thoughts about it. Today were going to write down our thoughts about gold.

    Read pages 23 aloud to students. After page 2, stop and say: People seemed to do whatever was needed in order to get to the gold. Ill write that on a self-stick note and place it in my book on the bottom of page 2. Just thinking about what Ive read isnt always enough to help me remember what Ive read. Ill remember more if I write my thoughts down on self-stick notes or in my journal.

    Set a Purpose for Reading Ask students to read pages 45 and look at the time line on

    pages 67 to find out about gold and gold rushes in the United States. As they read, they should jot down any thoughts they have about what they are reading. Encourage them to write their thoughts on self-stick notes and place them in the text. Tell them they will share their thoughts after finishing the chapter.

    4GoldRush! 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Good readers write about what they are reading. Writing

    about what is read helps readers stay engaged with the text

    and enhances understanding. To use this strategy, readers

    stop every so often and jot down a few thoughts about the

    reading in a journal or on self-stick notes. Good readers do

    not have to write a lot or write perfectly. The writing is for

    the reader and no one else.

    Content InformationExplain to students that gold has been considered precious for thousands of years. It has many unique characteristics.

    It is one of the heaviest of all metals. One cubic foot of gold weighs over 1,200 pounds.

    It can be hammered into very thin sheets and drawn into a very fine wire. One ounce of gold can be made into a wire fifty miles long.

    It is also very scarce.

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Have students plan what they would take if they were going to find gold. Tell them they must plan everything they will need for the three months it will take them to get to the gold fields.

    2. Have students work in pairs to make a list of supplies. Remind them that they must take food for themselves, their group, and their animals. They will need clothing and other supplies. They cannot take more than will fit in a single covered wagon.

    3. When students have finished, have them compare their lists with classmates lists. Students can determine what they have included that they might not need and what they have forgotten to include.

  • Discuss the Reading Ask students to share what they have written on their self-stick

    notes. Discuss how writing their thoughts helped them connect with the text and understand it more fully.

    Ask: What thoughts did you write down about what you read? What questions did the reading raise that you would like answered?

    Model Comprehension Strategy: Identify Cause and Effect Ensure that students understand what it means to identify

    cause-and-effect relationships. Say: When I read, I look for information that tells what happened and why it happened. The reason why something happens is the cause. What happens as a result is the effect. It isnt always easy to identify cause-and-effect relationships. I have to look carefully to determine what information is the cause and what information is the effect.

    Pass out the graphic organizer Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships (blackline master, page 14 of this guide).

    Explain that as students read, they will complete the first three rows together. The last two rows will be completed independently.

    Have students look at the book and follow along while you show them how to extract cause-and-effect relationships from chapter 1. Write the information on the graphic organizer as you find it. (You may want to make a chart-size copy of the graphic organizer or use a transparency.) Read page 3 aloud. Say: This page tells about the value of gold. It explains why gold is so valuable, stating that gold is highly valued because it is rare and hard to find. I know this is a cause-and-effect relationship because one of these events caused the other event. To determine the effect, I ask myself, What happened? Gold became very valuable. Ill write that in the Effect column. To determine the cause, I ask myself, How or why did it happen? Gold was very rare and hard to find. Ill write that in the Cause column.

    Informal Assessment Tips1. Watch students as they write

    about what they are reading in their journals or notebooks.

    2. In a folder or notebook, jot down what you see each student doing.

    3. Students should be writing about what they think as they read. Document students who are and are not using this metacognitive strategy.

    4. If students are not writing down what they think about as they read, remind them that noting their thoughts as they read will help them understand the text more fully.

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC GoldRush!5

    1 (page 3)

    (page 5)

    2 (page 11)

    3 (page 19)

    4 (page 23)

    5 (page 26)

    Chapter Cause Effect

    There isnt much gold and it is very hard to find.

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Gold is highly valued.

  • Chapter 1 (continued)

    6GoldRush! 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Read page 5. Say: I can also determine a cause-and-effect relationship from the text on page 5. If I ask myself what happened, I can learn that people left their jobs and families. They traveled to the places where gold was found. I can write this in the Effect column. If I ask myself why it happened, I can see that people hoped to strike it rich. I can write this in the Cause column.

    Say: Sometimes an effect has more than one cause. Sometimes a cause has more than one effect. What other effect did people wanting to strike it rich have? (They brought their families to new places and increased the population of unsettled areas.)

    Use Graphic Features to Interpret Information: Time Lines Have students turn to the time line on pages 67. Explain that

    time lines show what happened at certain times in history. The time line has a title that tells its topic. It also has dates in chronological order. Sometimes a time line explains why each event is historically important.

    Ask: What can you learn about the Klondike gold rushes in 1897 and 1899? (Possible answers: They were two years apart. The news heard in 1897 was gold in the Yukon while the news in 1899 was gold in Nome.)

    1 (page 3)

    (page 5)

    2 (page 11)

    3 (page 19)

    4 (page 23)

    5 (page 26)

    Chapter Cause Effect

    There isnt much gold and it is very hard to find.

    People hoped to strike it rich.

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Gold is highly valued.

    Some people left their jobs and fami-lies and traveled to places where gold was found. Others brought their fami-lies to new places, increasing the population of unsettled areas.

  • Chapters 23

    Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Write About It Have students look at their journals to review what they wrote

    on self-stick notes about yesterdays reading. Ask them to share their most interesting insight about the chapter. Discuss responses. Remind them that writing about what they read helps them connect with and better understand the text.

    Say: Today we are going to write more about what we read. Read page 8 aloud to students. Say: I can imagine everyone in a town rushing off to look for gold. I think the same thing could happen today. Ill write my observation on a self-stick note and place it beside the second paragraph on page 8.

    Have students read page 9 to themselves. Tell students to think of an observation to make about the information on page 9. Say: What thought did you come up with? I wondered if a president today would announce that gold had been found someplace. Ill write that question on a self-stick note and place it beside the last paragraph on page 9. Please do the same thing with your thought.

    Set a Purpose for Reading Have students finish reading chapters 2 and 3 to learn about the

    California and Colorado gold rushes. Remind them to jot down thoughts and questions on self-stick notes and place them beside the text that inspired the thoughts and questions.

    Discuss the Reading Ask students to share their thoughts about the text. Discuss

    what they wrote and how it helped them understand the reading more fully.

    Ask students if they were surprised to learn that there were gold rushes in Colorado as well as in California. Encourage them to write their reactions to the information on self-stick notes.

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC GoldRush!7

    Content InformationTell students that children who went west during the gold rush with their parents had a lot of chores to do during the trip such as:

    milking cows

    minding younger children

    fetching water and firewood

    helping with cooking and laundry

    fishing and hunting

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Tell students that many prospectors started off to California from Missouri. Have students figure out how many steps it took to go the 2,000 miles.

    2. Have students measure the length of one of their steps from the heel of their back foot to the heel of their front foot.

    3. Ask them to divide the number of inches in a mile63,360by the number of inches in one of their steps. That is the number of steps in a mile.

    4. Finally, ask them to multiply the number of steps in a mile by 2,000the number of miles from Missouri to California. That is how many steps it would take to walk the distance the prospectors walked.

  • Chapters 23 (continued)

    Informal Assessment Tips1. Watch students as they help

    complete the cause-and-effect chart.

    2. In your folder, jot down what you see the students doing as they complete the activity with you.

    3. Ask yourself: Are students having problems with this strategy? If so, what are the problems? Are students mastering this strategy? If so, how do I know?

    Guide Comprehension Strategy: Identify Cause and Effect Review cause and effect by reviewing the graphic organizer.

    Explain that as a group you are going to revisit chapters 2 and 3 to find cause-and-effect relationships.

    Ask students to skim the last paragraph on page 11 to locate a cause-and-effect relationship. Once the relationship is found, remind students that they must determine what is the cause and what is the effect. Ask: What happened? (The population of California rose from 14,000 to 250,000.) We can write that in the Effect column for chapter 2. Why did it happen? (The gold rush brought thousands of people to California.) Lets write that in the Cause column.

    Follow the same procedure for the last paragraph on page 19. Remind students that a cause can have more than one effect. Use the completed graphic organizer on this page for suggested answers.

    Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Definitions Have students find the word cholera on page 11. Point out that the

    author gives clue words to help the reader determine the meaning of the word. In this case, the clue word is disease. This word tells what cholera isit is a disease. This type of clue is a direct definition. The author also tells that cholera is a disease that can kill.

    Have students find the word outfitters on page 18. Say: The author uses the clue word called to help you figure out the meaning of outfitters. The author also tells what outfitters did: they sold packages to gold seekers. That tells me something about the meaning of outfitters. The sentence before tells me even more. The author writes, Some people struck it rich by taking advantage of gold seekers. By reading both sentences, I can learn the definition of outfitters. They were people who struck it rich by taking advantage of gold seekers when they sold them packages.

    8GoldRush! 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    1 (page 3)

    (page 5)

    2 (page 11)

    3 (page 19)

    4 (page 23)

    5 (page 26)

    Chapter Cause Effect

    There isnt much gold and it is very hard to find.

    People hoped to strike it rich.

    Gold was discovered in California.

    The rugged mountains made gold mining difficult in Colorado.

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Gold is highly valued.

    Some people left their jobs and fami-lies and traveled to places where gold was found. Others brought their fami-lies to new places, increasing the population of unsettled areas.

    The population of California grew from 14,000 to 250,000.

    Mining in Colorado required expensive equipment. Few miners struck it rich. Companies got rich instead.

  • 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC GoldRush!9

    Chapters 45

    Apply Metacognitive Strategy: Write About It Have students look at their self-stick notes to review the

    thoughts they jotted down about the text. Ask them to share thoughts they feel added to their understanding of the reading.

    Say: Today we are going to write down our thoughts about two more gold rushes.

    Read pages 2021 aloud to students. Say: As I read, I can compare this gold rush to the one in California and the one in Colorado. Ill write a note saying that the mining process was more difficult. Im amazed to learn that they actually found silver, not gold! Ill write that on another self-stick note. My notes will help me understand the differences between the various gold rushes. They will also help me remember that this gold rush was actually a silver rush. Remember that anything you think of that connects to the text is important.

    Ask students what they are going to do as they read the next chapters. (Write thoughts about the reading on self-stick notes.)

    Set a Purpose for Reading Have students read the rest of the book silently. Ask them to

    write their thoughts on self-stick notes and place them beside the text that inspired the thoughts. Point out that page 24 describes the hardships the Klondike prospectors faced. Ask them to write at least one thought about the description on a self-stick note.

    Discuss the Reading Ask students to share their thoughts about the reading.

    Discuss students thoughts and questions and how they aid in understanding the text.

    Ask: How did the various gold rushes change the history of the United States? (They brought people to undeveloped areas in large numbers, creating new towns, cities, and states.)

    Content InformationTell students that what is now the United States is not the only place where gold rushes occurred. Explain that gold rushes took place in these places:

    Russia, in 1737

    Canada, in 1862

    Australia, in 1845

    Minds-On/ Hands-On Activity

    1. Have students divide into pairs. One in each pair can be a prospector in the Klondike gold rush. The other can be a newspaper writer who will interview the prospector.

    2. The student who is the newspaper writer can prepare several questions to ask the prospector. During the interview, the writer should jot down notes about the prospectors answers.

    3. After the interview, newspaper writer and prospector can work together to write a short news article based on the interview.

    4. When news articles are finished, pairs can share them with the rest of the group.

  • Chapters 45 (continued)

    Informal Assessment Tips 1. Watch students as they

    identify cause and effect. Ask yourself: How have the students progressed with identifying cause and effect? What problems are they still having? What questions pop into my mind about what I see them doing?

    2. Watch students as they complete the graphic organizer independently. Ask yourself: Who is still struggling with this strategy? What are they doing or not doing that makes me think they are struggling? How can I help them?

    3. Jot down your thoughts in your folder or notebook.

    Apply Comprehension Strategy: Identify Cause and Effect Review the graphic organizer with students and explain that you

    want them to try to identify cause and effect relationships on pages 23 and 26 in chapters 4 and 5 independently.

    Ask if they have any questions about identifying cause-and-effect relationships before they begin.

    Monitor their work and intervene if they are having difficulty completing the graphic organizer.

    Discuss student responses together.

    For more practice, have students complete the blackline master Cause and Effect on page 18 of this guide.

    Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Definitions Remind students about the direct definition lesson from

    chapters 23.

    Have students find the term flutter wheels in the caption on page 22. Ask them how the caption helps them define the term. (It says the flutter wheel was a device prospectors used to mine gold and silver.) How does the picture help you define the term? (The picture shows a flutter wheel, illustrating that it is a kind of water wheel.)

    Repeat the exercise with the term Klondike Kings on page 29. Lead students to understand that the Klondike Kings were prospectors in the Klondike who struck it rich. Ask: How do you know the meaning of this term? (It is defined directly in the text.)

    For more practice on direct definitions, have students complete the blackline master Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Definitions on page 15 of this guide. Students can do this during small-group reading or at their desks.

    CauseBacon did not go bad quickly.

    Travelers did not know how hot and dry the plains and deserts were.

    Water was very scarce on the trail west.

    EffectPeople took a lot of bacon when they went west.

    Travelers often ran out of water.

    Water could cost up to $100 per glass.

    10GoldRush! 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    1 (page 3)

    (page 5)

    2 (page 11)

    3 (page 19)

    4 (page 23)

    5 (page 26)

    Chapter Cause Effect

    There isnt much gold and it is very hard to find.

    People hoped to strike it rich.

    Gold was discovered in California.

    The rugged mountains made gold mining difficult in Colorado.

    The Civil War raged during the Comstock strike.

    Many miners died journeying to the Yukon.

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships

    Gold is highly valued.

    Some people left their jobs and fami-lies and traveled to places where gold was found. Others brought their fami-lies to new places, increasing the population of unsettled areas.

    The population of California grew from 14,000 to 250,000.

    Mining in Colorado required expensive equipment. Few miners struck it rich. Companies got rich instead.

    President Lincoln needed money for the war. He took gold and silver from the mines. He also made Nevada a state so it would fight for the Union.

    Canada required prospectors to bring enough food and supplies for a year.

    1. odors _______________________________________________________________

    2. petticoats ____________________________________________________________

    3. rancid ______________________________________________________________

    smells

    heavy slips worn under dresses

    bad or unhealthy

  • After ReadingAdminister Posttest Have students take Ongoing Assessment #16 on page 68 in the

    Comprehension Strategy Assessment Handbook (Grade 4).

    Synthesize Information: Research and Draw Conclusions Have students research another gold mining location around the

    globe. Provide instructional materials on gold mining in such places as Brazil, South Africa, China, and Argentina.

    Ask students to work in small groups to answer the following questions:

    How much gold is found yearly in this country?

    What effect does gold mining have on the country and its environment?

    How large an industry is gold mining in the country?

    Have students work together to write a brief report on gold mining in the country they have chosen. Ask them to use information from their research to draw conclusions about the positive and negative effects of gold mining. Say: Although the texts may not give us the information directly, we can learn things about the topics that are not stated in the text. We call this drawing conclusions. Lets think about the effects of gold mining on the United States that we learned about in the book. Then we can think about the effects of gold mining in other countries.

    Ask: What effects did gold mining have on the United States? (It increased population in the West. It also resulted in the death of many people.) What conclusions can we draw about gold mining in other countries, based on what you have learned?

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC GoldRush!11

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Score assessments and determine if more instruction is needed for this strategy.

    2. Keep group assessments in a small-group reading folder.

    3. Look closely at students responses. Ask yourself: Why might this student have answered the question in this manner? For in-depth analysis, discuss responses with individual students.

    4. Use posttests to document growth over time, for parent/teacher conferences, or for your own records.

  • Model the Writing Process: Write a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph Using Signal Words and Phrases Remind students that throughout the book Gold Rush!, they

    read about cause-and-effect relationships.

    On chart paper or the board, create a diagram like the one below, showing the effects of gold mining on water systems.

    Use the writing model to show how the information from the diagram can be used to write a paragraph that describes cause-and-effect relationships. Remind students that certain signal words and phrases can help them describe cause-and-effect relationships in their writing. Those words and phrases include because, so, as a result, since, if, leading to, and thats why. You can write these words on chart paper or the board and leave them up as students write.

    Have students think about an aspect of mining to research, or have them use the information they gathered as part of the Synthesize Information activity. Encourage them to organize information they find in a chart similar to the one shown.

    Have students use their information to write a paragraph showing cause and effect. Remind them to use signal words as needed.

    Informal Assessment Tips

    1. Observe students as they participate in the group writing project. Identify those who might need additional assistance during the various stages of the writing process. Jot down notes in your journal.

    2. During conferences, keep notes on each students writing behaviors. Ask yourself: What evidence do I have to support the conclusion that this student is writing well or poorly? What can I do about it?

    3. For struggling students, practice writing sentences containing cause-and-effect relationships; then move to short paragraphs.

    12GoldRush! 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Writing Workshop

    Cause/Effect Chart

    Cause: Low water flows Effect: Loss of plant and downstream from mining animal life

    Cause: Large consumption Effect: Lack of water of water in mining for other uses

    Cause: Chemicals used to Effect: Pollution in water mine gold caused by release of chemicals

    Teaching Tips: Process Writing Steps

    1. Have students independently write a first draft using the cause-and-effect text structure.

    2. After students complete their paragraphs, have them revise and edit with the help of a classroom buddy.

    3. Conference with each student following the first revision and editing.

    4. Have students make any additional changes and create a final copy of their paragraphs.

    5. Finally, invite students to share their paragraphs with a group of other students.

  • 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Mining and WaterGold mining can have a very negative effect on

    water. Often, miners find gold at the bottom of

    streams or rivers. Miners dam up streams to make

    the search for gold easier. Because of this, there is

    less water flowing downstream. Lack of water can

    destroy plant and animal life downstream from

    mining activities. After stream-bottom mud is

    collected, miners use more water to wash it,

    hoping that gold will be left behind. If there are

    many miners in an area, the amount of water they

    use can be very great. As a result, there is less water

    for other uses, such as growing crops. Finally, in

    modern mining, chemicals are often used to extract

    the gold. These chemicals are left behind in the

    water, leading to pollution in streams and rivers.

    This makes the water dangerous for plant, animal,

    and human life.

    Writing Model

  • 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    1 (page 3)

    (page 5)

    2 (page 11)

    3 (page 19)

    4 (page 23)

    5 (page 26)

    Chapter Cause Effect

    Identify Cause-and-Effect Relationships

  • 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

    The Smelly Trail West

    In the days when people traveled west by covered wagon, there was no such thing as a bathroom. There was also no deodorant. People did not take baths very often. These conditions created a problem on the trail: terrible odors, or smells.

    Much of the trail west went through very hot places. People sweated a lot. They didnt wear shorts and T-shirts, either. Women wore long dresses and petticoats, heavy slips under their dresses. Men wore long pants and long-sleeved shirts. These clothes kept them from getting sunburned, but it also made them sweat more. They didnt change their clothes very often.

    In addition, the water the travelers had to drink was often bad, or rancid. This made them sick to their stomachs. They would have to dig holes to use as toilets. The holes were often not very deep.

    It was probably easy to find the trail to the west. All you had to do was follow your nose!

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    Use Context Clues to Determine Word Meaning: Definitions

    Directions: Read the passage. Highlight or underline any direct definitions. Complete the exercise at the bottom of the page.

    In the space below, write the definitions of the underlined words using the text.

    1. odors ___________________________________________________________

    2. petticoats ________________________________________________________

    3. rancid ___________________________________________________________

  • Skills Bank

    16 2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLCGoldRush!

    BuildComprehensionIdentIfySequenCeofeventS

    Explain Create an overhead transparency of the graphic organizer Gold Rush or draw it on the board. Say: Books sometimes tell about things that happened in the past. The events happened in order, or sequence. When you tell about the order in which things happened, you are identifying the sequence of events.

    Model Say: Lets figure out the sequence of events in Gold Rush. We will start at the beginning. Ask students to turn to page 8. Say: I see the date January 1848. On this date, gold was discovered on Johann Sutters land in California. In the first box on the graphic organizer, write 1848: gold discovered on Sutters land in California. Ask students to scan through page 11. Say: Now we will read on to see another significant event or situation in the Gold Rush. We see the date end of 1849. In just a year, some 90,000 people had flocked to California. In the second box on the graphic organizer, write 1849: nearly 90,000 people flocked to California.

    Guide Say: Lets look for the next important event in the Gold Rush years. On page 16, what new event is described? (Allow time for students to respond, assisting if needed.) Yes, in 1858, William Russell found gold north of Pikes Peak in Colorado. The discovery of gold in Colorado is the next event in the Gold Rush years. In the third box on the graphic organizer, write 1858: William Russell found gold north of Pikes Peak.

    Apply Ask students to work with a partner to find the remaining significant events in the Gold Rush years by scanning the remaining pages in the book for dates. After each partnership shares, agree on how to word the entries on the graphic organizer. Finally, ask a volunteer to read the completed graphic organizer aloud.

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    GoldRushIdentify Sequence of Events

    Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

  • Name ________________________________________ Date __________________

    Cause and EffectDirections: Identify the cause-and-effect relationships in the passage. Complete the graphic organizer using information from the passage.

    Supplies on the Trail West

    People going west to find gold had to bring all the supplies they would need for the long trip with them. They packed their wagons full of food. They tried to take food that would last a long time. Bacon was one such food. Because it was a cured meat, it took a long time to go bad.

    One thing the travelers often did not think about was water. They assumed they would find lots of water on the trip. They did not know how hot and dry the plains and deserts were. They often ran out of water. On the way, they would stop at every little town they passed. When they tried to get water, they would find that it was terribly expensive. Some people paid as much as one hundred dol-lars for a glass of water!

    Other supplies also became very expensive. This was because they were in short supply. Sugar cost a lot. So did coffee. However, bacon only cost about ten cents per pound.

    Cause Effect

    Bacon did not go bad quickly.

    Travelers often ran out of water.

    Water was very scarce on the trail west.

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

  • Notes

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

  • Notes

    2011 Benchmark Education Company, LLC

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