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Teaching Strategies in Rizal

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Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Background of the Study The teaching of history has been one of the many important areas in the curriculum not only in the secondary level but in the tertiary level as well. In the postwar period, Philippine history at the university level was taught as a solid subject. However, the decline in the teaching of history began especially that education nowadays purports the importance of other subjects like Chemistry and English than history. This poses a threat not only on a local point of view but it creates a gap where nationalism and economic growth is concerned. To quote the economist Emmanuel Q. Yap (2005), “Philippine history is a potential tool to instill the spirit of nationalism and patriotism, especially at a time of political disunity and sluggish economic growth.” According to him, what we need to know is the historical truth about what really happened to our country and how we have been exploited, divided and ruled
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Page 1: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM

Background of the Study

The teaching of history has been one of the many important areas in the

curriculum not only in the secondary level but in the tertiary level as well. In the

postwar period, Philippine history at the university level was taught as a solid

subject. However, the decline in the teaching of history began especially that

education nowadays purports the importance of other subjects like Chemistry

and English than history. This poses a threat not only on a local point of view but

it creates a gap where nationalism and economic growth is concerned. To quote

the economist Emmanuel Q. Yap (2005), “Philippine history is a potential tool to

instill the spirit of nationalism and patriotism, especially at a time of political

disunity and sluggish economic growth.” According to him, what we need to know

is the historical truth about what really happened to our country and how we have

been exploited, divided and ruled and turned one against each other to the point

of hating and killing each other for many generations. This view also was being

supported by Rizal in his early observation of the Philippines, thus, “As a people

we cannot develop or advance unless we have a clear image of ourselves, an

honest understanding of our past and a collective will to resist foreign dictation

and to rely on our capacity and resources to bring about social justice, peace and

prosperity in our land.”

A recollection of the above statements provokes an issue of the teaching

of history in the curriculum. Although, history subjects has never been replaced

Page 2: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

or dismissed in the present educational system, the support and teaching

contributes a major problem in its natural state. This study is even a new scale in

the understanding of the present situation of teaching history especially in the

teaching of Rizal along with the strategies involved to ensure maximum benefit

for the students’ welfare and learning.

Several decades of pedagogical research have now clearly shown that

what teachers do in the classroom is undoubtedly the key educational

determinant in student learning and achievement. It goes without saying that not

all teaching practices are equal in this respect. It is therefore important to identify

and promote the most effective practices, that is to say, practices which help

students to achieve desired learning outcomes in the most effective way. In the

same way developing teaching strategies is an equal important in determining

the quality of learning the students receives.

With respect to quality learning and students benefits from learning in the

educational system. The term strategy provides a question that each of the

teachers must bear in mind as a challenge. Shang (2003) mentioned in his article

based on his book, “Towards Quality Learning” that Identifying effective teaching

practices along with the strategies they implement necessarily implies that

teachers have the power to influence student learning. Teacher is the most

influential factor in student learning, ahead of the family.

The study of Rizal underscores one of the many thrusts of the Philippine

education created when Claro M. Recto and Jose P. Laurel sponsored and

fought for the passage of Republic Act 1425, better known as the Rizal Law. This

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is part of the curriculum taught especially in the tertiary level. It is the least

learned subjects in the school and accordingly one of the least interesting

subjects under the curriculum, thus, many challenges and efforts were an

everyday part of the teachers teaching this subject. Although, measures and

means were implemented to ensure that the students will learn and follows its

principles, only few teachers have the ability to do so.

This study maybe posed to be “least” explored areas of the many studies

that can served as a research material. This even encouraged the researcher to

find an interest in conducting a study in the teaching strategies of teachers in

teaching Rizal subject. The abovementioned articles about history and the

curriculum towards quality education even pointed out the necessity of

determining the realm of teaching Rizal and the teachers’ strategy to assess and

find their difficulties and cope with it to make them efficient and provide a quality

time with students. Likewise, being one of the history instructor and have given

an opportunity to teach Rizal subject in college, this study proves to be of

importance.

Statement of the Problem

This study will be conducted to evaluate the teaching strategy of teachers

teaching Rizal’s Life and Works in Ateneo de Naga University.

Specifically, the following sub-problems will be subjected for particular

inquiry:

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1. What is the profile of the professors teaching course in Rizal in terms

of:

1.1. age;

1.2. sex;

1.3. educational attainment;

1.4. length of service?

2. What teaching strategy do these professors utilize in their teaching of

Rizal subject?

3. What are the problems the respondents encounter in teaching Rizal

subject, along:

3.1. personal;

3.2. students attitude towards the subject; and

3.3. professional difficulties?

4. What teaching strategies could be proposed to improve the teaching of

Rizal’s course?

Scope and Limitations of the Study

This study will focus on determining the extent of observance of the

teaching strategies of teachers who are teaching Rizal subject in Ateneo de

Naga University, Naga City. The locale is considered due to possibility of

gathering the data and because it happened to be one of the leading schools in

teaching the Rizal subjects’ course.

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The respondents who will be solicited for answers regarding the goals and

objectives of the study will be those who are in service for a year in the said

school. Likewise, they are those that are teaching Rizal subject in any areas of

study irrespective of year level and course handled.

Using interview, the findings of this study will draw strength from the

information and opinion from vintage point of view of selected respondents. The

respondents are primary movers of this study, their performance will never be the

coverage of the study but the teaching strategies involved in teaching. Likewise,

their personal experience and the effective delivery of subject taught will be of

prime scope of the present study.

This study is limited to the said scope and will not advocate any measures

to find fault or failure from the teachers in teaching the subject.

Significance of the Study

The study may have significance to the following groups or agencies:

Students. The students will be the primary beneficiaries of this study. The

findings will help improve the teaching strategies of teachers and thus, in return

will give them satisfaction and learning in the course.

Parents. Findings of this study will benefit the parents who are hoping

quality education for their children. The findings will help their children learn more

in school and thus, their sacrifices will be properly justified.

Teachers. The findings of this study will serve as a guide and input to

teachers especially those who are teaching history or sociology specifically Rizal

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subject. This will give them an idea on how to deliver the subject with efficiency

and effectivity utilizing the strategies and incorporating it in their teaching.

School administrators. The findings of this study may help the school

administrators in re-engineering new platforms and policies regarding the

teaching of the subject Rizal. This may also serve as a feedback on the

difficulties of teachers teaching history and may find ways to improve their

current situation.

Researcher, himself. This study will help the researcher in his career as a

teacher especially in handling Rizal subject in the day to day teaching. The

findings and the result of the study will provide substantial data needed in the

improvement of his skills as well as it may create a ground to make better

decisions and steps that can be utilized to help the students and the school in

general.

Future researchers. The reason why there is research is the need for

problems to be solved and the need requires data and information that could

bridge their study to well-known and tested facts. The same way, this research

will serve the purpose.

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NOTES

The 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (Manila, 1996).

M.S. Tabunda and M.M. Galang, A Guide to the Teaching of Rizal. (1992).

Aniano A. Disierto, ”Corruption Laws in the Philippines” (IBP Law Journal and Magazine, 4th Qtr. 1997 & 1st Qtr. 1998).

Page 8: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Chapter 2

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

This chapter is a review of literature and studies concerning issues on

teaching Rizal subject particularly on the teaching strategies of teachers in

handling the subject. It will also reflect various areas of Rizal since the present

study is new and it is the first time that a research on the teaching strategies of

teachers in teaching Rizal subject will be deliberated under this study, there are

only very few studies that are of little significance to the present study, will be

provided.

Related Literature

José Rizal is one of the most revered figures in Philippine history. He was

a multifaceted intellectual and a political activist, best known for his political

writings that inspired the Philippine revolution and ultimately led to his execution

by the Spanish colonizers. Rizal was also a physician who trained in

ophthalmology under 2 prominent European ophthalmologists, Louis de Wecker

and Otto Becker.

Born 40 miles south of Manila at Calamba, into a prominent Filipino family,

José was the seventh of 11 children. Taught first by his cultured mother, and

later by private tutors, the young Rizal grew up in an intellectually stimulating

atmosphere. His brother and sisters were all well-educated and his family's

private library, of more than 1000 volumes, was quite possibly the largest in the

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Philippines at that time. Rizal was an extremely gifted student, especially in the

humanities. He won literary competitions from a young age. He had an

extraordinary capacity for language; ultimately, he spoke 22 languages and

dialects. His professor of Greek in Spain said that he never encountered a

student who excelled Rizal. Additionally, he studied drawing, painting, and

sculpture, throughout his life; he even exhibited a bust at the Salon de Paris in

1889.

It has been half a century since Claro M. Recto and Jose P. Laurel

sponsored and fought for the passage of Republic Act 1425, better known as the

Rizal Law. This is the law that made the study of the life, works and writings of

Jose Rizal compulsory in all schools in the Philippines.

In the past half-century, other compulsory courses have been revisited,

reviewed and, as in the case of Spanish, dropped or made an elective or course

of the student’s choice. In the collegiate level, therefore, only the following

courses remain required and compulsory by law: Land Reform and Taxation,

National Service (formerly the ROTC), and the Rizal course.

The last time the government took notice was in 1994 when then

President Fidel V. Ramos ordered the Department of Education, Culture and

Sports (DECS) and the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) “to

immediately and fully implement the letter, intent and spirit of Republic Act No.

1425 and to impose, should it be necessary, appropriate disciplinary action

against the governing body and/or head of any public or private school, college

or university found not complying with said law.”

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Memorandum Order 247 was issued by Ramos following reports that

some schools were not complying with the law mandating the teaching of the life

and works of Rizal. It was even rumored that some schools did not teach Rizal or

his works, so it was deemed appropriate that the teaching of Rizal be renewed

and strengthened in preparation for the centennial of his death in 1996 and, of

course, the centennial of the Declaration of Philippine Independence in 1998.

In order to appreciate the importance of RA 1425, we must remember that

it originally had two versions, one from Congress, the other from the Senate and

thus, one has to go through the thick volumes of the Congressional Record and

the Record of the Senate for the transcriptions of the heated debates that went

into the crafting of the law as we have it today. There is also a lot of materials

related to the law in the newspapers of the period that record the opposition of

the Catholic Church to the bill, which equals its current opposition to artificial

methods of birth control.

Going through the preamble of RA 1425 we see the reason for such

legislation:

“Whereas, today, more than other period of our history, there is a need for

a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes

lived and died.

“Whereas, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero

and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their

lives and works that have shaped the national character.”

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Nobody will argue over nationalism, although in a discipline such as

history that is both informative and formative, the issue of nationalism requires a

second look. When Teodoro Agoncillo declared, in the 1960s, that “there is no

Philippine history before 1872,” he changed the way a whole generation looked

at history. He argued that primary sources before that turning point, the execution

of Gomburza, was written largely by Spaniards, for Spaniards. Thus, what we

had before 1872 was not Philippine history but the history of Spain in the

Philippines.

Following Agoncillo’s rewriting of Philippine history from a Filipino

viewpoint came the classic nationalist works of Renato Constantino that also

captured the imagination of the generation of the First Quarter Storm.

RA 1425 was meant to honor Rizal and other heroes. As a matter of fact,

Ramos in preparation for the Philippine Centennial called for a consultative

meeting of historians in order to draft a law that would officially declare National

Heroes. Contrary to popular belief, there is no law making Rizal our national

hero. He is such by tradition and acclamation. At best, Rizal was made “official”

when the Department of Education in the 1950s made a list of distinct icons of

national nature: the national tree is Narra, the national flower is Sampaguita, the

national animal is the Carabao, the national hero is Jose Rizal, etc.

Perhaps as a reaction to all this, Constantino wrote the landmark essay

“Veneration without Understanding” which he delivered as the second in the

Annual Jose Rizal memorial lectures. In this essay, Constantino suggested,

among other things, that Rizal was an American-sponsored hero. It is this essay

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that always crops up whenever people debate on who should be the “national”

hero, Rizal or Andres Bonifacio. This is not a historiographical issue but an

ideological or political trap that leads to debate without end.

Republic Act No. 1425 (House Bill No. 5561 and Senate Bill No. 438)

An Act to Include in the Curricula of All Public and Private Schools,

Colleges and Universities courses on the Life Works and Writings of JOSE

RIZAL, particularly his novels NOLI ME TANGERE and EL FILIBUSTERISMO,

Authorizing the Printing and Distribution Thereof, and for Other Purposes.

Whereas, today, more than other period of our history, there is a need for

a re-dedication to the ideals of freedom and nationalism for which our heroes

lived and died.

Whereas, it is meet that in honoring them, particularly the national hero

and patriot, Jose Rizal, we remember with special fondness and devotion their

lives and works that have shaped the national character;

Whereas, the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal particularly his novels

Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, are a constant and inspiring source of

patriotism with which the minds of the youth, especially during their formative and

decisive years in school, should be suffused.

Whereas, all educational institutions are under the supervision of, and

subject to regulation by the State, and all schools are enjoined to develop moral

character, personal discipline, civic conscience, and to teach the duties of

citizenship; Now therefore,

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Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the

Philippines in Congress assembled

SEC.1

Courses on the life, works and writings of Jose Rizal, particularly his

novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, shall be included in the curricula

of all schools, colleges and universities, public or private; Provided, That in the

collegiate courses, the original or unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere

and El Filibusterismo or their English translations shall be used as basic texts.

The Board of National Education is hereby authorized and directed to

adopt forthwith measures to implement and carry out the provisions of this

Section, including the writing and printing of appropriate primers, readers and

textbooks. The Board shall, within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act

promulgate rules and regulations, including those of a disciplinary nature, to carry

out and enforce the regulations of this Act. The Board shall promulgate rules and

regulations providing for the exemption of students for reason of religious belief

stated in a sworn written statement, from the requirement of the provision

contained in the second part of the first paragraph of this section; but not from

taking the course provided for in the first part of said paragraph. Said rules and

regulations shall take effect thirty (30) days after their publication in the Official

Gazette.

SEC.2

It shall be obligatory on all schools, colleges and universities to keep in

their libraries an adequate number of copies of the original and expurgated

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editions of the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as Rizal’s other

works and biography. The said unexpurgated editions of the Noli Me Tangere

and El Filibusterismo or their translations in English as well as other writings of

Rizal shall be included in the list of approved books for required reading in all

public or private schools, colleges and universities.

The Board of National Education shall determine the adequacy of the

number of books, depending upon the enrollment of the school, college or

university.

SEC.3

The Board of National education shall cause the translation of the Noli Me

Tangere and El Filibusterismo, as well as other writings of Jose Rizal into

English, Tagalog and the principal Philippine dialects; cause them to be printed in

cheap, popular editions; and cause them to be distributed, free of charge, to

persons desiring to read them, through the Purok organizations and the Barrio

Councils throughout the country.

SEC.4

Nothing in this Act shall be construed as amending or repealing section

nine hundred twenty-seven of the Administrative Code, prohibiting the discussion

of religious doctrines by public school teachers and other persons engaged in

any public school.

SEC.5

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The sum of three hundred thousand pesos is hereby authorized to be

appropriated out of any fund not otherwise appropriated in the National Treasury

to carry out the purposes of this Act.

SEC.6

This Act shall take effect upon its approval.

Teaching Rizal

According to Dr. Quiazon, (2006), as in all former colonies in Asia, the

history about the Filipino was written by the Spaniards and then by the

Americans, resulting in the tragic alteration of the Filipino character and soul. To

paraphrase Dr. Jose Rizal, the Filipino was reduced to a groveling, clinging and

fawning creature without a sense of community.

For centuries our people have grievously suffered from racial slurs that our

students must know about. The Spaniards called our people “Indios” and the

friars often referred to them as chongos, or monkeys. Only through the correct

teaching of Philippine history can we rectify these demeaning racial stereotypes.

With the advent of the Norte Americanos, the English writer Rudyard

Kipling in his “White Man’s Burden” warned the new masters to be cautious in

dealing with their new wards because “they are half-devil and half-child.” Up to

the 1980s, James Fallows wrote that the Filipino people were victims of a

“damaged culture.” What have our educators and historians done to redress

these indictments of contemporary Filipinos?

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In the postwar period, Philippine history at the university level was taught

as a solid subject, but the textbooks remained written from the colonizers’ point

of view. Only Teodoro Agoncillo became a staunch proponent of rewriting

Philippine history from the Filipino viewpoint. He came out with a nationalist-

oriented textbook entitled The History of the Filipino People. Renato Constantino

followed with The Past Revisited. On the high-school level, commercialized

Philippine history books were prescribed by the Bureau of Education.

The sad plight of the study and teaching of history continued up to the

seventies and eighties when teachers recruited to teach history in high schools

included physical education and home economics teachers. In today’s world, our

educational planners have come out with a strange concoction in the form of a

collected set of subjects called Makabayan, which is a misnorner.

Lamentably, Makabayan is the antithesis of patriotism, nationalism and

one’s sense of national identity. Although the package is well intentioned,

Makabayan presents Filipino culture and history in a hodgepodge fashion, void of

the vital element of continuity in the study of our past.

ln the more highly industrialized countries in the West, such as Great

Britain and the United States, the teaching of English history covers four years of

the student’s life in college while in the US, irrespective of the student’s major or

field, he or she is required to take four semesters of American history.

In the Philippines history merits one semester’s work. Just recently the

University of the Philippines reduced Philippine history to an optional subject,

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among other social-science subjects. What a disservice to the young generation

and to our students!

Philippine history is a potential tool to instill the spirit of nationalism and

patriotism, especially at a time of political disunity and sluggish economic growth.

What we need, to quote the economist Emmanuel Q. Yap, is “know the historical

truth about what really happened to our country in how we have been exploited,

divided and ruled and turned one against each other to the point of hating and

killing each other for many generations.”

This echoes Rizal’s earlier observation: “In order to read the destiny of the

people, it is necessary to open the book of their past.” But what sort of books

shall our students open in the Makabayan class if these are bristling with half-

truths and downright lies?

As a people we cannot develop or advance unless we have a clear image

of ourselves, an honest understanding of our past and a collective will to resist

foreign dictation and to rely on our capacity and resources to bring about social

justice, peace and prosperity in our land.

Related Studies

Most sociological studies on education conducted from the past onwards,

including the well-known report by Coleman et al. (2006), confirm that pupils from

disadvantaged backgrounds are at greater risk of experiencing difficulties at

school than pupils from wealthier backgrounds. The convergence and

significance of the conclusions of these studies have contributed to fuelling the

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belief that school and teaching staff have only very little impact on academic

achievement among pupils from disadvantaged backgrounds. Nevertheless,

while observing the strong link between disadvantaged backgrounds and low

school performance, Coleman et al. also noted in their report that this situation

was not irreversible and that school itself could counterbalance the weight of

pupils’ socio-economic background. In that connection, they illustrated that the

teacher variable has a more pronounced effect on school achievement among

pupils from modest backgrounds and ethnic minorities. Coleman et al. also

underline that, regardless of the pupil’s ethnic group, good teachers exert a

greater influence on the achievement of pupils from poor socio-economic

backgrounds (Crahay, 2000).

Identifying effective teaching practices necessarily implies that teachers

have the power to influence student learning. The works by Wang, Haertel and

Walberg (2003) provide an answer to this question. Indeed, these American

researchers performed an important meta-analysis which enabled them to

identify the factors most likely to help pupils to learn. In the framework of this

study, they analyzed 179 reviews and book chapters, compiled 91 research

syntheses, and surveyed 61 education researchers in order to set up a database

of 11,000 statistical results. They identified 28 factors influencing learning and

then classified them in order of priority. The two most prominent factors are

directly related to the teacher. Teachers are thus the most influential factor in

student learning, ahead of the family, which only ranks fourth. As Coleman et al.

pointed out in their 2006 report, although it has an important influence on

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achievement, the pupil’s background does not constitute an insurmountable

barrier. In fact, a synthesis of 134 meta-analyses published in 2002 by Swanson

demonstrates that the overall effect-size on school performance of factors related

to the family and social environment is 0.38 whereas it reaches 0.53 for factors

related to teachers and school2. It should be noted that a result is considered

significant for an overall effect-size equal to or greater than 0.25 (Adams et

Engelmann, 2006). Other research syntheses (Brophy and Good, 2006;

Rosenshine and Stephen, 2006; O’Neill, 1998; Gauthier, 1997) also confirmed

that teachers, through class management and management of teaching, have a

direct impact on student learning.

In a report to the Society for Advancing Educational Research (S.A.E.R.)

of Canada, Freedman wrote in 2003: “There is no large-scale empirical research

which shows that child-centered, activity-based learning is superior to direct

instruction in the teaching of basic skills… all the large-scale studies show direct

instruction is superior”. This observation remains valid, although several studies

carried out in developing countries appear to contradict this (Little, 2004).

The Follow Through project is the largest-scale experiment ever

conducted in the West in the field of education (Slavin, 2002). This research was

aimed at comparing and analyzing the effectiveness of some twenty teaching

approaches used with pupils from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds.

The experiment was performed with children in nursery school and in the first

three years of primary school5. It is a longitudinal study which was carried out

over a period of some ten years, involving 70,000 pupils from 180 schools. Data

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concerning about 10,000 pupils were collected annually and analyzed for the

purpose of the study.

The nine most popular teaching approaches or models used for the final

analysis in the framework of the Follow Through project were divided into two

main categories: structured approaches and pupil-centered approaches.

Structured teaching approaches came under the Basic skills model, because

they were particularly geared towards systematic teaching of basic learning skills

such as reading, writing and mathematics. With regard to pupil-centered teaching

approaches, they were grouped under the cognitive skills model or the affective

skills model.

Synthesis of the State-of-the-Art

It may further be noted that most literature and studies cited in this chapter

dealt mainly with Rizal, understanding his work and life and related views

regarding his nature. This also cited some of the important laws noted as the

main reason why Rizal subject was taught and a pre-requisite in the college

courses. None of these reviewed literature and studies had particularly dealt with

the teaching strategies of teaching the subject Rizal. This area is rarely studied,

hence, the researcher find it more interesting and relevant.

The present study deals with the teaching strategy used by teachers in

Ateneo de Naga University, this will look into the idea of effective educational

management and understanding the role of teachers in delivering quality

education. Moreover, this will also identify problems of teachers teaching history

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specifically those involved in the teaching of Rizal. The studies of Coleman

(2006), Crahay (2000), Wang, Haertel, and Walberg (2003) all constitutes a

primary idea of what a teaching practice should be but do not deal with the

strategies of teachers to be utilized in a classroom program.

Meanwhile, the study influenced by Slavin (2002) although involved in

studying the follow through project which is one of the teaching strategy that can

promote educational quality, seems to be lacking since the present study

conforms to all of the strategies involved in teaching. Likewise, the present study

hopes that the identified teaching strategies will serve as an eye opener on the

effective and useful method of teaching necessary in the achievement of quality

education in the study of history.

Gaps bridged by the Study

The literature and studies cited were somewhat relevant to the present

study, however, most have little impact on the study as a whole. The present

study in particular is focused primarily on determining the teaching strategies

imposed by teachers in Ateneo de Naga University and the problems they

encountered in teaching Rizal subject. There has no available research on this

particular topic yet and the present study was the least explored area in the

educational research. Thus, this is the gap that the researcher would like to

bridge.

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Theoretical Framework

The Webb and Norton (2000) Theory strongly suggests that the quality of

an education program lies on the total nature, rationality and utilization of the

quality of human resources and its development in the school system, states

that, “Quality of education programs in large part depends, upon the quality of

human resources within the system; the extent to which productive human

relationships are realized; the development, motivation and utilization of existing

human qualities.

Improvement of the existing condition of the school needs the cooperation

and full support of the community in which the organization is involved. This

comprises the resolving concern.

Ramirez’s theory on staff training and development also has a bearing on

this study. The theory states that “Management has the responsibility of

determining the training needs of its employees and then conducts training to

meet these training needs.” However, in this study, it will utilize the said theory on

the basis that school has the responsibility of knowing and forming the needs of

the stakeholders and conduct training program to meet the identified needs of

history instructors.

The connectionist theory formulated by Thorndike was premised on this

study to anchor the idea that bonds or connects situations and responses.

Thondike stipulates that man’s learning is fundamentally the action of the laws of

readiness, exercises and effect.

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The law of readiness states that when the learner is prepared for

something, the task is satisfying, if not; the activity is annoying or frustrating. In

this study, the development of teachers would prompt them to be prepared for

the changes that may or will arise for future development.

The law of exercise states that the acquired responses lead to habit

formation. The law of effect emphasizes that if the responses are rewarded the

connection is strengthened. During the development of the research, the

researchers will encounter problems when it comes to data gathering and the

actual nature of the problem of its history. The persons involved in the research

are the actual process and the result would be the expected output of this

research. The problems to identify largely depends on the attainment of the

objectives and the level of implementation of the teaching strategies which will be

solicited for answer from the persons involved or the respondents of the study

which were the teachers.

With constant planning of the school administration and the effect of its

implementation, it will then be helpful to the teachers in developing practical

strategies that they can use and utilize in teaching Rizal subject properly, with

emphasis and effectivity. To ensure this, a well developed system is necessary

and constant support from the administration is highly required. The teachers

may benefit the most in relieving them from the difficulties and from the strain

that teaching history subject is boring.

Page 24: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Figure 1. Theoretical Paradigm of the Study

Conceptual Framework

WEBB AND NORTON THEORY

RAMIREZ THEORY

CONNECTIONIST THEORY

PLANNING

IMPLEMENTATION

WELL DEVELOPED TEACHING STRATEGIES

WELL DEVELOPED TEACHING STRATEGIES

Page 25: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

There are components that the researcher will analyze in this research

namely: profile of the respondents, teaching strategies involved, common

problems confronted by the respondents in teaching the subject Rizal, and the

present condition the persons involved in its development and reactions as well

as opinions of the sectors concerned. As Kast and Rosenweigh (2002)

mentioned in an organization, they said that an organization requires an input,

converts their input to output and monitor the environment as to the output

obtained. It requires feedbacks to further improve the organization by adjusting

the objectives, processes and outputs.

Figure 2 shows the conceptual paradigm of the study. The first box

represents all the input that will enter the system such as the respondents profile,

teaching strategies, common difficulties in teaching the subject and the post

interview analysis. This will be processed utilizing the scheduled procedures

such as gathering data, interpretation and analysis which will be expected to gain

the output based on the belief that this will reveal the real status and teaching

strategy implemented by teachers handling Rizal subjects.

The outcome of the assessment and evaluation will from time to time rely

on the feedback mechanism of the system. This is important to clarify and

strengthen the detail of the issues identified by the study.

Page 26: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Figure 1. Conceptual Paradigm of the Study

Definition of Terms

Profile of the respondentsTeaching strategies of the instructors in teaching RizalCommon problems confronted by the respondentsPost-assessment interviews

Profile of the respondentsTeaching strategies of the instructors in teaching RizalCommon problems confronted by the respondentsPost-assessment interviews

REVEALED STATUS OF THE

TEACHERS TEACHING RIZAL

SUBJECT

Interview/ Administration of Questionnaires/ Careful Analysis and Interpretation of data

FEEDBACKFEEDBACK

Assessment & Interpretation of

respondents

Page 27: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

For a clearer understanding of this study, the following terms will be

defined conceptually and operationally.

Teaching strategies. This refers to the methods and procedures of

teaching conducted by teachers especially those that teach Rizal subjects. The

strategies may be in a form of lecture-discussion method utilizing inquiry

approach or other teaching strategies based on the standards of teaching.

Employee. The Administrative Code of 1987 defines this term as when

used with reference to a person in the public service, includes any person in the

service of the government or any of its agencies, subdivisions, divisions or

instrumentalities (Art. 2 (15), Administrative Code). In this study, this term refers

to all permanent employees of Ateneo de Naga University that handles Rizal

subjects..

Leadership Style. This term refers to leadership behavior in local

government unit such as existence of sound office policy, promotion and growth,

task oriented, respecting the rights of others and tactful discipline.

Republic Act No. 1425. This refers to an act that include in the curricula of

all public and private schools, colleges and universities courses on the Life:

Works and Writings of Jose Rizal particularly his novels Noli Me Tangere and El

Filibusterismo authorizing also the printing and distribution.

NOTES

Page 28: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. (Manila, 1996).

The Rizal Law, Republic Act 1425, Constitution of the Philippines.(Manila, 2004.

Anderson, Benedict. "Hard to Imagine: A Puzzle in the History of Philippine Nationalism." Cultures and Texts: Representations of Philippine Society. Ed. Raul Pertierra and Eduardo F. Ugarte. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1994. 80-118.

Ileto, Reynaldo. "Rizal and the Underside of Philippine History." Moral Order and the Question of Change : Essays on Southeast Asian Thought. Ed. Alexander Woodside and David K. Wyatt. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1982. 274-337.

Schumacher, John, S. J. "The 'Propagandists' Reconstruction of the Philippine Past." Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia. Ed. Anthony Reid and David Marr. Canberra: Asian Studies Association of Australia, 1979. 264-280.

Ibid.

AVALOS B. Teaching Training in Developing Countries : Lessons from Research. In Teachers in Developing Countries. Improving Effectiveness and Managing Costs. Washington D.C. The World Bank., 2002.

BECKER, W., & CARNINE, D. Direct Instruction : A behavior theory model for comprehensive educational intervention with the disadvantaged. In S. Bijon (Ed.) Contributions of behavior modification in education. Hillsdale, NJ, p.1-106..BEREITER, C. & M. KURLAND. (A Constructive Look at Follow Through Results, Interchange, vol. 12, p. 1-22., 2001.

BORMAN, HEWES, OVERMAN & BROWN. COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL REFORM AND STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT A Meta-Analysis. Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk (CRESPAR), Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore MD., 2002.

E. Webb and F. Norton, Theories of Quality Education: Educational Psychology, Danes Publishing, Washington D.C., 2000.

Coleman, J.S., Campbell, E.Q., Hobson, C. J., MCPartland, J, Mood, A.M., Weinfield, F.D., & York, R. L, Equality of Educational Opportunity. Washington, DC: Us Office of Education, 2006.

Crahay, M., L’école peut-elle être juste et efficace ? De l’égalité des chances à l’égalité des acquis. Belgique, De Boeck Université, 2000.

Page 29: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

WANG, Margaret, H., Geneva et WALBERG, H., Qu’est-ce qui aide l’élève à apprendre ? Vie pédagogique, no 90, sept-oct., p. 45-49, 2003.

SWANSON, H. Lee., A Meta-Analysis of Single-Subject-Design. Intervention Researchfor Students with LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Volume 33, March-April, pages 114-136, 2002.

ENGELMANN, S., & CARNINE, D.W., Theory of Instruction: principles and applications (2nd Ed.). Eugene, OR: ADI Press, 2006.

ROSENSHINE, B.V. & al., Teaching Functions In M.C. Wittrock (dir). Handbook of Research on Teaching (3e éd.) p. 376-391, New York : Macmillan , 2006.

ROSENSHINE, B.V., Synthesis of Research on Explicit Teaching. Educational Leadership, 43 (7), p. 60-69, 2006.

STEPHEN, E.A., Improving Schools Through Teacher Developpement : Case Studies of the Aga Khan Foundation Projects in East Africa.Lisse, Abingdon, Exton (Pa), Tokyo : Swets & Zeitlinger, 2006.

O ’NEILL, G. P., Teaching Effectiveness : A Review of the Research, Canadian Journal of Education, 13 (1), 162-185, 1998.

GAUTHIER, Clermont et al., Pour une théorie de la pédagogie, Sainte-Foy, Presses de l’Université Laval, 1997.

F. Slavin & Schiefelbein, E., The Determinants of school achievement utilizing Follow Through: a review of the research of developing countries. Ottawa International Development Research Center, 2002.

Chapter 3

Page 30: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the research design, population of the study,

research instrument, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.

Research Design

The descriptive survey method of research utilizing a questionnaire-

checklist supplemented by informal interview and observation will be used in the

interpretation of the data.

Population of the Study

In determining the teaching strategies of teachers teaching the Rizal

subject, twenty-three (23) permanent teachers who are at least have a one year

tenure in Ateneo de Naga University, will serve as respondents in the study.

These one twenty-three employees are presumed to be the ones with direct

knowledge and proper position to evaluate and appraise their strategies based

on their performance and experiences encountered.

Instruments Used

The main data gathering instrument used in this study will be a

questionnaire-checklist based on the objectives and specific research problems

on the teaching strategies and difficulties experienced by teachers in teaching

Rizal subject.

Informal interview will also be conducted during the dry-run to improve the

instrument as well as to provide inputs on the validity of the questionnaire.

Page 31: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

The questionnaires will be distributed personally and will be retrieved as

soon as the respondents accomplished them to gain a high percent of retrieval

rate.

Data Gathering Procedures

In order to eliminate problems of time, the researcher made proper

scheduling and planning of activities to be done consisting of preparation of the

draft of the questionnaire, validation of the questionnaire, and dry-run. After these

stages, the data gathered would then be consolidated, tabulated and analyzed.

Preparation of the draft of the questionnaire. To have wider ideas on what

to place and how to organize the questionnaire, the researcher will conduct

informal interviews with the prospective respondents who are teachers of history

and Rizal in Ateneo de Naga University. For purposes of courtesy and

permission to for researcher to conduct this study, he will secure a transmittal

letter requesting permission from the school managers, the dean and other

concerned offices and agencies concerned with respect to soliciting views and

answers from the respondents. Upon approval, the researcher will formulate

questionnaire based on the gathered data from the sources described above.

Likewise, library research will be conducted to enable the researcher to

see how a research questionnaire is organized.

Validation of the questionnaire. The questionnaire will undergo the

necessary validation procedure to ascertain that the data intended to be gathered

will be useful for the study. For this reason, the draft will be referred to persons

Page 32: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

with experience in thesis writing to comment on the format and other aspects of

the questionnaire. Likewise, the questionnaire will undergo critiques from the

researcher’s adviser thus, validating the questionnaire. On this score, the

researcher will adopt a suggestion that a self-administered questionnaire be

drafted so that the respondent will be able to answer without a proctor.

The first revision of the questionnaire will be based on the format where

an open-ended question will be utilized. In this type, the respondents will have to

write their answers if none of the choices was indicated. However, if their choice

was included in the list, they simply have to indicate a check mark before the

number which corresponds to what they prefer in the list of choices.

The revised draft will be shown to the adviser for his comments and

suggestions. If practically all the comments will be favorable, it will then be tested

for dry-run to be able to find out matters that needs to be polished.

Dry-run. A dry-run will be conducted to find out if there were irrelevant

matters that were asked in the questionnaire. The adequacy of the time for the

respondents to answer and the readability of the questionnaire will also be

considered.

Serving of Questionnaire. The questionnaire will be handed personally

during vacant hours or depending on the availability of the respondents as not to

interfere with their normal work schedule. To ensure that proper instruction will

be carried, the researcher will guide the respondents in answering the

questionnaire so that reliable and valid information will be revealed.

Page 33: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

After questionnaires have been accomplished and gathered they will be

properly consolidated, tabulated and analyzed.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following will be the statistical treatment for the data being gathered:

1. Frequency count will be used to determine the number of responses in

each item.

2. Percentage will be used to compare the frequency of responses and

the total number of respondents; likewise in determining the teaching strategies

of teachers in teaching Rizal subject.

3. Weighted mean will be used to measure the perceived difficulties of

teachers in teaching the subject.

Chapter 4

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

Page 34: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

This chapter contains the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data

pertinent on: 1. Profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational

attainment, and length of service; 2. The teaching strategies of teachers teaching

Rizal subject; and 3. The problems encountered by the respondents in teaching

Rizal whether it be personal, students attitudes towards the subject or because of

professional difficulties.

Profile of the Respondents

Table 1 presented the personal profile of the respondents as to age, sex,

educational attainment and length of service. The first part of which revealed that

there were 21 respondents or 64% who did not indicate their age; and there were

4 or 12% under the age bracket of 46-50, the lowest was 1 or 3% under the age

brackets of 56-60, 51-55, 26-30 and 21-25, respectively. The female respondents

were 91% having a number of 30. As for educational attainment, Table 1 showed

that 21 or 64% were college graduates; while only 11 or 33% obtained post-

graduate studies. As to length of service, the bracket of 11 to 15 years obtained

the highest number of 14 or 42.4%; while the lowest was 16 to 20 years, with a 2

or 6.1%.

Table 1

Respondents Profile

Page 35: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

ProfileNo. %

1. Age: 61-65 56-60 1 3 51-55 1 3 48-50 4 12 41-45 2 6 36-40 2 6 31-35 1 3 26-30 1 3 21-25

Not Indicated 21 64

Total 33 1002. Sex: Male 3 9

Female 30 91

Total 33 1003. Educational Attainment: Post-graduate 11 33 College 21 64 High School ElementaryNot Indicated 1 3

Total 33 1004. Length of Service 21 years above 16 to 20 years 2 6.1 11 to 15 years 14 42.4 5 to 10 years 1 to 5 years

125

36.415.1

Total 33 100

LEGEND: No - Number

% - Percent

Teaching Strategies in Teaching Rizal

Page 36: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

The teachers teaching the subject Rizal have different strategies

employed in dealing with the subject. Hence, the table below shows the

frequency of responses gained from the respondents, stated in Table 2.

It will be noted that majority of the respondents uses traditional inquiry

method of question and answer in dealing with Rizal subject this garnered a total

of 9 or 27.27% of the total responses, this was followed by those who preferred

lecture discussion type of strategy with 6 or 18.18%, the least among the

strategies used by teachers were those who utilized reasoning and analogy,

activity and brainstorming, and scientific method approach with only 1 or 3.03%

of the responses.

Analyzing the result, it is becoming evident that traditional teaching of the

subject Rizal was being implemented by the schools bearing in mind that the

subject is boring in addition with the extent of their teaching, the subject becomes

even more undesirable for the students. Thus, it might be important that proper

scrutiny of the teaching utilized may be identified for the teachers to be given an

uplift towards their way of teaching.

Inasmuch, it is worthy to mention that there are teachers who use

spontaneous reading and reciting which clearly indicate that the teaching of Rizal

is far more less than a mastery learning strategy. This was indicated by 5

respondents with a percentage of 15.15%.

Table 2

Page 37: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Teaching Strategies of Teachers

Strategies Number Percent Rank

Utilized discovery approach in teaching the subject

3 9.09 4.5

Preferred the traditional inquiry method of question and answer type of teaching in Rizal

9 27.27 1

Utilized spontaneous reading and reciting 5 15.15 3

Liked to use follow through in identifying and collecting knowledge based on Rizal’s life and works

2 6.06 6.5

Preferred utilizing reasoning and analogy in discussing the subject

1 3.03 9

Used the process method 2 6.06 6.5

Utilized activity and brainstorming strategies 1 3.03 9

Read comprehension type to be able students learned the subject by heart

3 9.09 4.5

The best strategy is a scientific method approach of learning the subject

1 3.03 9

Preferred lecture-discussion 6 18.18 2

Total 33 100 -

Problems in Teaching Rizal

Page 38: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

The problems of teaching Rizal can be identified into three (3) different

units such were: personal problems, problems about the students attitudes about

the subject, and problems about their professional difficulties. The mentioned

problems were the basis on actually finding out how the teachers react and what

are their perceptions when it comes to professional competence in teaching the

subject as well as it will show the pressures they are having when teaching the

subject Rizal.

Personal Problems. Table 3 shows the problems of teachers in teaching

Rizal when it comes to personal problems which is one of the factor why they find

it difficult to teach the subject. The highest among the rank was those teachers

who felt bored when teaching the subject. This constitutes about 3.85 in terms of

the weighted mean which interprets as very serious. This was followed by those

second in rank who feels they need to study first the subject before they can

teach effectively with 3.70 or perceived to be a very serious problem. The least

among the problems in terms of personal is the problem on financial with a WM

of 1.08 or not a problem in nature.

On the whole, the personal problem experienced by the respondents

constitutes 2.63 or interpreted as serious in nature, thus relative to this, the

school administrators should properly see this problem and find ways to alleviate

this particular incidence.

Table 3

Page 39: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Problems in Teaching Rizal

Personal ProblemsWeighted

MeanRank

Doubt the teaching style 2.40 7

Felt the lack of knowledge about Rizal 1.67 8

Felt incompetent 1.25 9

Did not like teaching Rizal 2.67 6

Have family problems 2.90 5

Have financial problems and affected the way he teach 1.08 10

Felt stubborn when teaching the subject 3.23 3

Have other areas of interest 3.12 4

Think they need to study first the subject before they can teach effectively 3.70 2

Felt bored in teaching the subject 3.85 1

Average 2.63 -

Page 40: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Students attitudes towards the subject. It will be noted in Table 4 that even

students find problems related to the subject Rizal, this was the perception of

teachers teaching the subject. Thus, it will be observed in the table that most of

the students do not find the subject interesting with 3.82 or this is a very serious

problem. Other students cannot memorize properly some of the passage in the

study with 3.54 or very serious in nature. The least among the responses was

when it comes to their assignments with 1.85 or interpreted as alarming only in

nature.

It only means that in general, the students find the subject undesirable

because it is boring to them, although they are doing their assignments and other

school responsibilities when it comes to the subject, they always find it a problem

to even like the subject. When interviewed students commented that their

boredom was due to the nature of the study of Rizal, they further stressed of too

many memorizations, thus adding much to their frustration of avoiding the

subject. Moreover, most of the lesson relied too much on the textbooks and what

was written on it, in fact, they do a lot of memorization and reading which

Filipinos are known for having a weakness. Many teachers believe that one of

the factors in the student’s attitude is their lack of interest with the subject and the

way their professors handle the discussions. It then became one of the important

concern of this study to re-identify these weaknesses to be able to provide an

important means of re-engineering their teaching and adapting teaching

strategies that will help students appreciate the subject.

Page 41: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Table 4

Problems in Teaching Rizal

Students Attitudes Towards the SubjectWeighted

MeanRank

The students are bored about the subject Rizal 2.36 7

The students do not make assignments regularly 1.85 10

Many times there are students who are absent or are not around during Rizal class

2.90 6

There are instances when students skip/cut class schedule during Rizal

2.18 8

The result of the student’s performance is low 2.33 3

The participation of the students is very low 3.20 4

The students cannot memorize properly some of the passage in the study

3.54 2

The students do not find the subject interesting 3.82 1

Students cannot recall events and important issues in Rizal subject

3.11 5

The students neglect their responsibilities in the subject such as assignments and projects

2.01 9

Average 2.73 -

Page 42: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Professional Difficulties. Often teachers greatly relied on their ideal of

professional competence to control teaching to the level of learning. However,

when they find themselves lacking along this area, teaching and learning suffers

thus, the quality of learning the students receives will be affected.

In Table 5, it shows the professional difficulties the respondents are

having. It will be noted that most of the respondents have problems in dealing

with pressures in the workplace, such that there are 3.23 or a serious problem

about it. Others have a different perspective in teaching and find it a problem to

innovate with 3.12 or it means serious problem. The least among the problems

regarding professional life in relation to teaching the subject Rizal was having low

salary and feeling embarrassed about the study of Rizal with 1.00 or not a

problem at all.

To sum it up, the professional difficulties of the teachers always run along

pressures, innovations and interests. Whether they cannot indicate it properly,

the findings showed that most of them feel pressured with the hectic activities

they are having and the many affairs they are attending at school, this was also

one of the reasons why they even forgot to study the subject or the next lesson

first before delving on the topic making the approach more subtle and lesser in

interaction, rather it becomes dull because of so many usual activities like

reading, reciting and answering questions.

On the whole, professional problem is alarming with 2.25 WM out of the

33 responses.

Page 43: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Table 5

Problems in Teaching Rizal

Professional DifficultiesWeighted

MeanRank

Did not feel the mastery towards teaching the subject 1.22 8

It conflicts with what they are teaching right now 2.33 5

Co-teachers do not find them good at teaching the subject 2.11 7

Have low salary 1.00 9.5

There are conflicts between the faculties 2.21 6

Felt pressured with schedules 3.23 1

Teaching Rizal subject did not match their ability 2.89 4

Don’t find Rizal interesting 3.18 3

Felt embarrassed in teaching Rizal 1.00 9.5

Teachers have a different perspective in teaching the subject and want to innovate

3.12 2

Average 2.23 -

Page 44: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Chapter 5

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This study sought to determine the compliance to quality standards and

work performance of meat inspection officers in Camarines Norte for the

calendar year 2008. More specifically, it sought to answer the following

questions:

Problem No. 1

What is the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, educational

attainment, and length of service?

Findings

1. There are 64% who did not indicate their age and a total of 27% who

belongs to age bracket of 41-45, the rest are 26-30 respectively.

2. Female dominates the male to a 3:1 ratio with 91% in Ateneo de Naga

University.

3. Majority of the respondents have graduated from college with 21 or

64%, there were 33% that have finished their masters and doctoral

degrees for the educational attainment.

4. Majority of the respondents belongs to the 11 to 15 years of service

bracket with 42.4%. There were no indicated responses of those who

served 21 years and above.

Page 45: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Conclusions

1. The average age entry of employees ranges from 26 to 40 years old

which were identified as the number of common respondents in the

actual survey.

2. The female dominates the workforce in the Ateneo de Naga University.

Moreover, this signifies that majority of those who are teaching Rizal

subjects are female.

3. The educational attainment is an indicator of their position relative to

their condition and status in the school. However, it does not

necessarily subject itself to influence their teaching of Rizal.

4. The length of service shows that majority of the population have

served well for the past 20 years and are still teaching in the said

school.

Recommendations

1. The school should provide young teachers who are going to teach the

Rizal subject to maximize the quality of teaching in Rizal, this does not

give an impression that old teachers are boring but the suggestion of

having the youthful attitude of young teachers will influence the

intensity of teaching the subject.

2. The teachers should make a step up against their academic status as

college graduates, they should at least master their field taking post-

graduate studies to improve and maximize their knowledge and

Page 46: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

experiences in the field. Likewise, their masters degree should be in

the field of history, sociology or relevant to the teaching of Rizal

subject.

3. Policies towards mobilization of performance evaluation along the

personal attributes of individual teachers should be observed as to

determine and oversee potentials and liabilities to achieve quality work

performance.

Problem No. 2

What teaching strategies do professors utilize in teaching Rizal subject?

Findings

1. Majority of the respondents uses traditional inquiry method of question

and answer in dealing with Rizal subject with 9 or 27.27%.

2. The second in rank were those who preferred lecture-discussion type

of strategy with 6 or 18.18%.

3. The least among the strategies used were those who utilized

reasoning and analogy, activity and brainstorming, and scientific

method approach with only 1 or 3.03%.

4. There are also those who use spontaneous reading and reciting with 5

or 15.15%.

5. Most of the strategies were traditional by nature.

Page 47: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Conclusions

1. Traditional teaching of the subject Rizal was the most obvious form of

teaching followed by most of the instructors.

2. The approach being given to the students are not scientific and

innovative in nature.

3. The professors teaching the subjects are becoming more particular

with reading and question and answer than using other approaches

like follow through or even activity type teaching.

4. Most of the professors find their strategies convenient and easy to use.

5. Conflict with students interest were brought about by using traditional

type of teaching the subject.

Recommendations

1. The professors handling the subject Rizal should innovate activity

conscious strategies and come up with a lively one.

2. Innovations and scientific implementation of daily lessons should be

followed as to improve the diversity of knowledge of Rizal.

3. The use and integration of other learning areas as well as personal

experiences may prove to stimulate students interest and should

therefore be integrated in teaching the subject Rizal.

4. The professors handling Rizal subject should update themselves with

new strategies and ways of teaching, focusing on capturing and

maintaining the interests of the students.

Page 48: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

5. Identify weak strategies and find new programs and innovations to

improve the teaching of Rizal subject.

Problem No. 3

What are the problems encountered by the professors in teaching the

subject Rizal?

Findings

1. The professors who teach Rizal subject experience problems and

difficulties along personal, attitudes of the students, and professional

problems.

2. Under personal problem, majority of the professors felt bored when

teaching the subject with WM of 3.85. This was noted as a very serious

problem.

3. In the student’s attitude, the highest is that the students do not find the

subject interesting with 3.82 known as very serious problem.

4. Most of the respondents find themselves having problems in terms of

dealing with pressures in the workplace with 3.23 or serious in nature.

5. To sum up the problems of the professors, they find the subject boring

which leads to the students’ lack of interest for the subject and they

find it hard to find time making necessary innovations because of the

work schedule they have to finish.

Page 49: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

Conclusions

1. It is very common for the professors to find the teaching of Rizal

subject difficult to them due to the problems they encounter.

2. Their problem on being bored is contributed by lack of interest on the

learning material they are teaching, this in addition to lack of mastery

for the subject sums up their feeling of being bored.

3. The students find the subject undesirable and they find lack of interest

in the subject Rizal. This was brought partly by having a repetition,

memorization and serious reading provided by the professor.

4. Serious problem to the professors is the problem of time and the hectic

schedule only brought unplanned and unstructured lesson, thus

contributing to a reading-reciting method of teaching.

5. The professors all agree that teaching Rizal is a challenging one

especially to new teachers who will handle the subject because it

requires expertise and a high sense of knowledge about the Life,

Works and Writings of Rizal.

Recommendations

1. The school administrator should give some focus on the development

of teachers teaching Rizal due to their problems which may affect the

general welfare of the students for learning.

2. The professors should encourage themselves to at least find a

common interest in teaching the subject through innovation and

Page 50: Teaching Strategies in Rizal

integration of personal experiences so that the students may find the

subject interesting.

3. New strategies, methods, approaches and innovations should be given

a particular time of the professors before teaching the subject Rizal.

4. The professors who teach the subject should attend seminars and

trainings especially along social studies and history to update, upgrade

and cope up with the challenges of teaching the subject.

5. Professors in Ateneo are all qualified and respected in their field even

with regards to teaching the subject Rixal, however, it might be better if

they attend specialized training or courses for teaching Rizal and

further advocates new ideas like projecting theatrical arts while

integrating the subject Rizal to add and strengthen the students

knowledge and learning.


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