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Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

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Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology Pre-stressed Concrete Sessional CE 416 Course Teacher: Munshi Galib Muktadir Lecturer Department of Civil Engineering
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Page 1: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Ahsanullah University of Science & Technology

Pre-stressed Concrete SessionalCE 416

Course Teacher:

Munshi Galib Muktadir

Lecturer

Department of Civil Engineering

Page 2: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Presentation on

Page 3: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Presented by:

Mohammed Shakib Rahman

Roll No. : 10.01.03.072

Page 4: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Introduction:

Influence of a different nature cause

concrete, even when free of any

external loading, to undergo

deformations and volume changes. The

most important of these are shrinkage

and the effects of temperature

variations.

Page 5: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Effect of Shrinkage

We know that workable concrete mix

contains more water than is needed for

hydration. If the concrete is exposed to

air, the large part of this free water

evaporates in time. As the concrete

dries, it shrinks in volume, probably due

to the capillarity tension that develops in

the water remaining in the concrete.

Page 6: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Effects:

Shrinkage, which continues at a decreasing rate for several months, depending on the configuration of the member, is a detrimental property of concrete in several respects.

When not adequately controlled, it will cause unsightly and often deleterious cracks, as in slabs, walls, etc.

In structures that are statically indeterminate, it can cause large and harmful stress.

In pre-stressed concrete it leads to partial loss of initial pre-stress.

Page 7: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072
Page 8: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Figure : Crack due to shrinkage.

Page 9: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Determination of the amount of final shrinkage:

A key factor in determining the amount of final

shrinkage is the unit water content of the fresh

concrete. This is illustrated in figure 1:

Figure 1

Page 10: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

This figure shows that the amount of

shrinkage for varying amounts of mixing

water.

The same aggregates were used for all

tests, but in addition to and independently

of the water content, the amount of

cement was also varied from 376 to 1034

lb/yd3 of concrete. This very large variation

of cement content causes a 20 to 30

percent variation in shrinkage strain for

water content between 250 to 350 lb/yd3,

the range used for most structural

concretes.

Page 11: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Again an increase in aggregate can significantly

decrease shrinkage. This is shown in figure 2:

Figure

2

This figure

compares the

shrinkage of

concretes with

various aggregate

contents with the

shrinkage obtained

for neat cement

paste (cement and

water alone).

Page 12: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Value of final shrinkage for ordinary cements

are generally on the order of 400*10-6 to

800*10-6, depending on the initial water

content, ambient temperature and humidity

conditions, and the nature of aggregate.

Highly absorptive aggregates, such as some

sandstones and slates, result in shrinkage

values 2 and more times those obtained with

less absorptive materials, such as granites

and some lime-stones. Some light weight

aggregates, in view of their great porosity,

easily result in much large shrinkage values

than ordinary concrete.

Page 13: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Long term studies shows that, for moist-cured

concrete at any time t after the initial 7 days,

shrinkage can be predicted satisfactorily by the

equation :

Where is the unit shrinkage strain at time t in

days and is the ultimate value after a long

period of time. Equation pertains to “standard”

conditions that is for humidity not in excess of 40

percent and for an average thickness of member

of 6 in, and is apply for both normal-weight and

lightweight concretes. Modification factor are to

be applied for nonstandard conditions, and

separate equations are given for steam –cured

members.

Page 14: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Control of shrinkage:

It is evident that an effective means of reducing

shrinkage involves both a reduction in water

content and an increase in aggregate content. In

addition, prolonged and careful curing is

beneficial for shrinkage control.

For structures in which a reduction in cracking is

of particular importance, such as bridge decks,

pavement slabs, and liquid storage tanks, the

use of expansive cement concrete is

appropriate. Of the three types of expansive

cements produced, only type K is commercially

available in the United States, it is about 20

percent more expensive than ordinary Portland

cement.

Page 15: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Effect of temperature change

Like most other materials, concrete expands

with increasing temperature and contracts

with decreasing temperature. The effects of

such volume changes are similar to those

caused by shrinkage that is temperature

contraction can lead to objectionable

cracking, particularly when superimposed on

shrinkage. In indeterminate structures,

deformation due to temperature changes can

cause large and occasionally harmful

stresses.

Page 16: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

The coefficient of thermal expansion

and contraction varies somewhat,

depending upon the type of aggregate

and richness of the mix. It is generally

within the range of 4*10-6 to 7*10-6 per oF. A value of 5.5*10-6 is generally

accepted as satisfactory for calculating

stresses and deformations caused by

temperature changes.

Page 17: Temperature and shrinkage effect on structural analysis - 10.01.03.072

Figure : Crack due to temperature change.


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