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Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

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Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration. Jay Angerer Texas AgriLife Research Blackland Research and Extension Center September 3, 2010. Outline. Introduction Global Carbon Cycle Plant processes Terrestrial Sequestration Forests Cropland Rangeland Disturbed or denuded land. Outline (cont.). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Terrestrial Carbon Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Sequestration Jay Angerer Jay Angerer Texas AgriLife Research Texas AgriLife Research Blackland Research and Extension Center Blackland Research and Extension Center September 3, 2010 September 3, 2010
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Page 1: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Terrestrial Carbon SequestrationTerrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Jay AngererJay AngererTexas AgriLife ResearchTexas AgriLife Research

Blackland Research and Extension CenterBlackland Research and Extension CenterSeptember 3, 2010September 3, 2010

Page 2: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

OutlineOutline

IntroductionIntroduction Global Carbon CycleGlobal Carbon Cycle Plant processesPlant processes Terrestrial SequestrationTerrestrial Sequestration

ForestsForests CroplandCropland RangelandRangeland Disturbed or denuded landDisturbed or denuded land

Page 3: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Outline (cont.)Outline (cont.)

Other BenefitsOther Benefits Potential PitfallsPotential Pitfalls Monitoring and MeasurementMonitoring and Measurement Decision Support ToolsDecision Support Tools

Page 4: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Where Does Terrestrial Sequestration Fit?Where Does Terrestrial Sequestration Fit?

From: http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon_seq/overview/ways_to_store.html

Page 5: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Terrestrial Carbon SequestrationTerrestrial Carbon SequestrationDefinedDefined

From Lal et al. (2004):From Lal et al. (2004):““Carbon sequestration implies transferringCarbon sequestration implies transferring

atmospheric CO2 into long-lived pools andatmospheric CO2 into long-lived pools and

storing it securely so it is not immediatelystoring it securely so it is not immediately

reemitted. Thus, soil C sequestration meansreemitted. Thus, soil C sequestration means

increasing Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and Soil increasing Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) and Soil Inorganic Carbon (SIC) stocks through judicious Inorganic Carbon (SIC) stocks through judicious land use and recommended management land use and recommended management practices (RMPs).”practices (RMPs).”

Page 6: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Global Carbon CycleGlobal Carbon Cycle

From: http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/carbon_seq/overview/what_is_CO2.html

Page 7: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Plants as “Injectors”Plants as “Injectors”

From: http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/local_scale.html

Page 8: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Local Carbon CycleLocal Carbon Cycle

From: http://www.fao.org/es/esa/pesal/role2.html

Photosynthesis

Page 9: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Photosynthetic Pathway Photosynthetic Pathway DifferencesDifferences

CC3 3 PathwayPathway – better able – better able to acquire COto acquire CO2 2 with with increasing COincreasing CO2 2 (fertilizer (fertilizer effect)effect) Rice, barley, wheat, most Rice, barley, wheat, most

treestrees CC44 Pathway Pathway – CO – CO2 2 is is

“pumped” into inner leaf “pumped” into inner leaf cells to reduce water loss. cells to reduce water loss. Does not respond as much Does not respond as much

to increasing COto increasing CO22

May be beneficial to C May be beneficial to C sequestration in hot, dry sequestration in hot, dry environmentsenvironments

Corn, tropical grasses Corn, tropical grasses From: http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/geos462/14rockvarnish.html

Page 10: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Pathways of Terrestrial CarbonPathways of Terrestrial Carbon

From Lal et al. 2004. Science 304, 1623

Page 11: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Sequestration: ForestsCarbon Sequestration: Forests

Reforestation – replanting areas where trees have been removed

Afforestation – planting trees in cropland Increasing tree growth – increase

biomass of tree species Increasing permanence of forest products

– reduce “throw-away” tendencies Decreasing the loss of current forested

areas

Page 12: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Sequestration Rates and Carbon Sequestration Rates and Saturation Periods: Forests Saturation Periods: Forests

From: http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/rates.html

Page 13: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Forest Carbon Sequestration Forest Carbon Sequestration ProgramsPrograms

Reforestation of degraded lands with fast Reforestation of degraded lands with fast growing tree speciesgrowing tree species

Urban tree plantingUrban tree planting Fire management of forests and Fire management of forests and

surrounding areassurrounding areas Change other management practices (e.g. Change other management practices (e.g.

logging procedures)logging procedures)

Page 14: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Cropland Carbon SequestrationCropland Carbon Sequestration

Changes in crop managementChanges in crop management No-tillNo-till Minimum-tillMinimum-till Conversion to grasslandConversion to grassland Manure managementManure management FertilizersFertilizers IrrigationIrrigation Increased use of legumesIncreased use of legumes

Page 15: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Sequestration Rates and Carbon Sequestration Rates and Saturation Periods: Ag LandsSaturation Periods: Ag Lands

From: http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/rates.html

Page 16: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Soil Carbon Dynamics In Soil Carbon Dynamics In Response To TillageResponse To Tillage

SOIL CARBON (% OF ORIGINIAL) IN RESPONSE TO CULTIVATION

1 50

S

OIL

CA

RB

ON

0

100

Plowing

Perennial Vegetation

years

Conservation Tillage

50

Page 17: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Factors Affecting SequestrationFactors Affecting Sequestration

Soil texture (sand, silt, clay percentages) Soil profile characteristics (depth, rocks) Climate (temperature, humidity, rainfall) Rates can range from:

0 to 150 kg C/ha per year in dry and warm regions

100 to 1000 kg C/ha per year in humid and cool climates

From: Lal et al. 2004. Science 304, 1623

Page 18: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Potential LossesPotential Losses Soil ErosionSoil Erosion

Removal of residues and mulch can increase erosionRemoval of residues and mulch can increase erosion Deposition in channels or in aquatic systemsDeposition in channels or in aquatic systems

Deposition is 0.4 to 0.6 Gt C/year 0.8 to 1.2 Gt C/year is lost to exposure to atmosphere

Must assess carbon used for crop management Plowing Fertilizer application Chemical Use These must be accounted for to get the proper offset

From: Lal et al. 2004. Science 304, 1623

Page 19: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Biochar for Improving Ag Soils Biochar for Improving Ag Soils

Fine grained, highly Fine grained, highly porous charcoalporous charcoal

Used as a soil Used as a soil amendment which amendment which improves soil physical improves soil physical and chemical and chemical propertiesproperties

Can increase site Can increase site productivityproductivity

First used by First used by Amazonian natives Amazonian natives

Page 20: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Rangeland Carbon SequestrationRangeland Carbon Sequestration

Rangelands are generally characterized as Rangelands are generally characterized as grasslands or shrublands that are not suitable grasslands or shrublands that are not suitable for consistent crop productionfor consistent crop production

Occupy almost 50% of worldwide land areaOccupy almost 50% of worldwide land area

Carbon sequestration would require changes in Carbon sequestration would require changes in grazing managementgrazing management Reduced stocking rate or livestock removalReduced stocking rate or livestock removal Grazing systemsGrazing systems

Page 21: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Rangeland Carbon SequestrationRangeland Carbon Sequestration

Improved resource Improved resource management management Reduce wildfires Reduce wildfires Reduce water and wind Reduce water and wind

erosionerosion Restore overgrazed and Restore overgrazed and

denuded areasdenuded areas

Conversion of cropland to Conversion of cropland to grazinglandgrazingland

Introduce/promote Introduce/promote nitrogen fixing legumesnitrogen fixing legumes

Page 22: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Sequestration Rates and Carbon Sequestration Rates and Saturation Periods: RangelandsSaturation Periods: Rangelands

From: http://www.epa.gov/sequestration/rates.html

Page 23: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Issues with Rangeland Carbon Issues with Rangeland Carbon SequestrationSequestration

Large land area, but relatively low carbon storageLarge land area, but relatively low carbon storage

In US, most rangelands are privately owned or are public In US, most rangelands are privately owned or are public lands (e.g. BLM land)lands (e.g. BLM land)

High degree of uncertainty in sequestration estimates for High degree of uncertainty in sequestration estimates for most regionsmost regions

Need large land areas to be attractive to potential buyer Need large land areas to be attractive to potential buyer or as an offsetor as an offset

May require development of government programs for May require development of government programs for assisting farmers/ranchers in joining carbon assisting farmers/ranchers in joining carbon sequestration programssequestration programs

Page 24: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Assessing Carbon Sequestration Assessing Carbon Sequestration Potential for ProgramsPotential for Programs

PrecipitationClassification

Land Tenure Status

Wind Erosion/Calcium Carbonate

Classification

Major Land Resource Area Designation

Soil Organic Carbon Classification

Carbon Sequestration Potential

Classification

Land Cover Assessment within

Carbon Sequestration

Potential Classes

Define USDA Program Available for

Sequestration(e.g. CRP)

Target Areas for Programs/

InterventionsDefined

Conduct COMET VR Simulations for Base and

Program Scenarios

Assess Potential for Carbon

Sequestration under Regional

Program

GIS PhaseCOMET VR

Phase

Page 25: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Sequestration Potential for Sequestration Potential for Southwest RegionSouthwest Region

Page 26: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Uncertainty AnalysisUncertainty Analysis Uncertainty in prediction of carbon Uncertainty in prediction of carbon

sequestration on agricultural lands can be high, sequestration on agricultural lands can be high, especially on rangelandsespecially on rangelands

Lack of quantitative information on carbon Lack of quantitative information on carbon sequestration for various practices and localessequestration for various practices and locales

Models need to be calibrated to these conditionsModels need to be calibrated to these conditions

An uncertainty analysis was conducted using An uncertainty analysis was conducted using carbon modeling results for southwest regioncarbon modeling results for southwest region

Page 27: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Assessing Uncertainty for Assessing Uncertainty for Southwest RegionSouthwest Region

The estimated amount of carbon The estimated amount of carbon sequestered and its associated uncertainty sequestered and its associated uncertainty were mapped were mapped

A weighted averaging procedure was used A weighted averaging procedure was used based on soil texture, soil map unit, major land based on soil texture, soil map unit, major land resource area, and county. resource area, and county.

Spatially explicit maps of the carbon Spatially explicit maps of the carbon sequestered and uncertainty were producedsequestered and uncertainty were produced

Page 28: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration
Page 29: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration
Page 30: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration
Page 31: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Sequestration on Disturbed Sequestration on Disturbed LandsLands

Issues affecting Issues affecting carboncarbon Exposure of soil Exposure of soil Water ErosionWater Erosion Wind ErosionWind Erosion Carbon depleted to Carbon depleted to

point where soil point where soil amendments may be amendments may be requiredrequired

Page 32: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Sequestration on Disturbed Sequestration on Disturbed LandsLands

Degraded or denuded land offers Degraded or denuded land offers opportunity to replace/sequester carbonopportunity to replace/sequester carbon Fast growing tree speciesFast growing tree species Grasses or grass/legume mixGrasses or grass/legume mix Biochar?Biochar?

Page 33: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Potential Sequestration RatesPotential Sequestration Rates

From: Lal et al. 2004. Science 304, 1623

Page 34: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Other Benefits of Terrestrial Other Benefits of Terrestrial SequestrationSequestration

Improved Ecosystem ServicesImproved Ecosystem Services Cleaner waterCleaner water Cleaner airCleaner air Improved soil fertilityImproved soil fertility Improved biodiversityImproved biodiversity

Potential for monetary benefitsPotential for monetary benefits Carbon trading/offsetsCarbon trading/offsets

Page 35: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

PitfallsPitfalls

Interactions with biofuel productionInteractions with biofuel production Land areas may be used for biofuel production Land areas may be used for biofuel production

rather than C sequestrationrather than C sequestration

Implications for food security/livelihoodsImplications for food security/livelihoods In the case of livestock producers, may reduce In the case of livestock producers, may reduce

land available for grazingland available for grazing Increasing population may drive land use Increasing population may drive land use

change to meet food security needs and negate change to meet food security needs and negate carbon gainscarbon gains

Page 36: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

PitfallsPitfalls Leakage Leakage

The IPCC Special Report (2000) defines The IPCC Special Report (2000) defines leakage as "the unanticipated decrease or leakage as "the unanticipated decrease or increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits increase in greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits outside of the project's accounting boundary as outside of the project's accounting boundary as a result of project activities." a result of project activities."

Example: For a forest under a C sequestration Example: For a forest under a C sequestration program, logging may be displaced to an area program, logging may be displaced to an area outside the Project area. The COoutside the Project area. The CO22 emissions emissions that result from the displaced logging could that result from the displaced logging could partially or completely negate the benefits of partially or completely negate the benefits of avoiding COavoiding CO22 emissions in the protected forest. emissions in the protected forest.

Page 37: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Monitoring and VerificationMonitoring and Verification

MonitoringMonitoring Are (or where) the contracted practices being Are (or where) the contracted practices being

applied?applied? VerificationVerification

Are the contracted practices sequestering Are the contracted practices sequestering carboncarbon

EvaluationEvaluation Is their leakage? Is there proper accounting?Is their leakage? Is there proper accounting?

ReportingReporting Is the project meeting contract goals?Is the project meeting contract goals?

Page 38: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Monitoring and VerificationMonitoring and Verification

Generally need to sample large area in Generally need to sample large area in multiple places to get a reasonable multiple places to get a reasonable representation of carbon amountsrepresentation of carbon amounts Rangelands with non-uniform vegetation and Rangelands with non-uniform vegetation and

terrain require more samplingterrain require more sampling Samples using conventional lab analyses are Samples using conventional lab analyses are

expensive to processexpensive to process Terrestrial sequestration verification would be Terrestrial sequestration verification would be

too expensive to do with conventional too expensive to do with conventional methods.methods.

Page 39: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

MeasurementsMeasurements of Soil Carbon of Soil Carbon

Develop improved technologies and Develop improved technologies and systems for direct measurements of soil systems for direct measurements of soil carbon carbon Two MethodsTwo Methods

Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Allow rapid scans of samples in the fieldAllow rapid scans of samples in the field

Examine correlation of results with other Examine correlation of results with other technologiestechnologies

Principles for cost effective samplingPrinciples for cost effective sampling

Page 40: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

LIBS SystemLIBS System

Page 41: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Portable NIRS SystemPortable NIRS System

Page 42: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Simulation Models and Decision Simulation Models and Decision Support ToolsSupport Tools

Models can be used to assess carbon Models can be used to assess carbon sequestration potential for a given areasequestration potential for a given area

Provide the ability to examine different Provide the ability to examine different management alternatives for carbon gainmanagement alternatives for carbon gain

Allow examination of other outputs such Allow examination of other outputs such as erosion and water quality under the as erosion and water quality under the selected practiceselected practice

Page 43: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Simulation ModelsSimulation Models CENTURY ModelCENTURY Model

Model and DocumentationModel and Documentationhttp://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/century5/http://www.nrel.colostate.edu/projects/century5/

Online tool:Online tool:http://www.cometvr.colostate.edu/http://www.cometvr.colostate.edu/

APEX and EPIC ModelAPEX and EPIC Model http://epicapex.brc.tamus.edu/http://epicapex.brc.tamus.edu/

COLE (Carbon OnLine Estimator): Web-based COLE (Carbon OnLine Estimator): Web-based Tool for Forest Carbon Analysis Tool for Forest Carbon Analysis   http://www.ncasi2.org/COLE/http://www.ncasi2.org/COLE/  

Page 44: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Carbon Decision Support ToolCarbon Decision Support ToolMap Driven User Interface

Carbon Practice Selection (State and Transition [S&T] interface)

ClimateData

Soils Data

RemoteSensing

Data

Decision SupportEngine (Comet-VR,

Carbon Potential Assessment, Spatial

Queries, etc.

Map OutputReport Output

S&TData

Other AgData

Web SoilSurvey

CarbonSampling

Map Driven User Interface

Carbon Practice Selection (State and Transition [S&T] interface)

ClimateData

Soils Data

RemoteSensing

Data

Decision SupportEngine (Comet-VR,

Carbon Potential Assessment, Spatial

Queries, etc.

Map OutputReport Output

S&TData

Other AgData

Web SoilSurvey

CarbonSampling

Page 45: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

HomeworkHomework

Read two journal articles:Read two journal articles: Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on

Global Climate Change and Food Security Global Climate Change and Food Security R. Lal (11 June 2004) R. Lal (11 June 2004) ScienceScience 304304 (5677), 1623. (5677), 1623.

Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change and advance food security.

R. Lal, et al. Soil Sci 172 no12 D 2007

Page 46: Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration

Questions?Questions?


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