The age of Enlightenment. Eighteenth Century France
The objectives of this slide show are: In what ways was the enlightenment and outgrowth of the Scientific Revolution? What were some of the new fads of thought that also occurred during the enlightenment? Indentify the importance of the Encyclopedia. Assess the importance of Montesquieus ideas on the American Revolution. You will know the main targets of the criticisms of Voltaire and Rousseau. You will learn how the Calas case was a case for the freedom of all mankind against despotic government.
The Enlightenment was an extension of the Scientific Revolution
POP QUIZ??? While the makers of the scientific Revolution had used their intellectual powers to discover the natural laws that governed the operation of the physical universe, the thinkers of the Enlightenment sought through reasoning to discover the natural laws that governed the affairs of human begins and human society.
It took place against the backdrop of the various European Wars, including: The War of Spanish Succession The War of Austrian Succession The Seven Years War
The Philosophes While The Enlightenment was an international movement, most of the leading thinkers were French. Philosophe=French word meaning philosopher Developed new ideas about government, economics and religion Ideas which would improve the human condition and reform society
Their audience was the informed public from all classes. They had a lot to say about the flaws of society.
This was different than the prior belief that the times of the Ancients, Greece, Rome, and Biblical times had never and would never be surpassed
Science had helped to end Witchcraft and superstition
Perhaps God was not so personal. Perhaps he was an intelligent human being who wound up the watch and let events unfold.
Perhaps God was not so personal. Perhaps he wound up the watch and let events unfold. God as a Watchmakerwho wound the watch up and let it runthis was called deism.
..leaving human beings the freedom to govern themselves.
That God was governed by the natural laws that Newton laid down.
Two cultures collided with this beliefthe popular and the elite.
During this exciting time, some tried a greater commitment to religion. In England, Handel wrote his great Messiah
and John Wesley founded the Methodists. He preached in America. This religious agitation was part of the Great Awakening.
The elite in society were not part of these upsetsthey aligned themselves with the official churches: Anglican, Lutheran or Catholic.
At the same time, strange ideas also arosethese ideas were fads or areas of mystery.
The ideas of Freemasonry took form in England and Colonial America.
The masons met secretly, had rituals, and, some said, had secret knowledge about ancient rites.
The Masons were very popular among all walks of life. Even though they were a secret society, they met to discuss many enlightenment concepts.
A German offset of the Masons were the Illuminati.
And women provided the meeting places in their elegant salons.
The salons were legendaryintelligent women provided a setting for the philosophes to meet and discuss the challenges of the day.
In the salons, talent and creativity counted more than noble lineage.
Many revolutionary ideas would find their roots in these discussions.
Condorcet and Progress Marquis de Condorcet- Progress of the Human Mind Traced development of human history through nine eras, contending that in the 10 th era peace, virtue and justice would prevail
John Locke (1632-1704) Knowledge from experience Provided a vigorous defense of Englands Glorious Revolution of 1688 Essays Concerning Human Understanding Tabula Rasa
John Locke (1632-1704) Social Contract and Natural Rights Second Treatise of Government SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY Mutual Consent Life, Liberty and Property Right to Rebel Constitutional Government
Social Contract Thomas HobbesJohn Locke Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. To escape this brutish life people entered into a social contract. Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly. Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property People form governments to protect natural rights Best government was one with limited power If a government violates peoples natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government
The most famous achievement of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia.
The Encyclopedia came to be a set of 17 very large volumes published between 1751 and 1772.
The publisher was a Denis Diderot.
People paid to have a volume of the Encyclopedia.
The Encyclopedia had articles on everything from philosophy to bone- setting to making gears!
The goal of the Encyclopedia was to make available all the current up-to- date technological, cultural, and philosophical knowledge of the day.
It was unique because it was purchased by people from all over Europe. Even small towns had at least one copy.
The information was shared, improved upon, and widely discussed: People were enlightened by its knowledge.
Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau.
Voltaire (1694-1778) One of the greatest minds of all time
Voltaire lived a long time, traveled a lot, wrote a lot, and was very influential.
Voltaire was the great champion of freedom of thought.
As a young man he spent time in the Bastille for his criticism of Louis XVs regent, the Duke of Orleans.
Voltaire and Politics Letters on the English (1733)
He was a courtier of Madame de Pompadour, Louis XV and spent two years in Frederick the Greats court.
He believed in religious toleration.
One of his most famous quotes about religion was Ecrasez linfame! which translated means crush the infamous thing. He was referring to the Catholic church.
He took on the defense of many who were victims of despotic power.
His most famous case was the Calas case. Calas was a Protestant who was accused of killing his mentally ill son, who was converting to be a Catholic. In reality, the son had committed suicide.The local authorities (the local parlement) ordered that Calas be executed.
The elder Calas was broken at the wheel in a brutal, public execution.
Voltaire was excited about the case, and saw it as a very public chance to exonerate, and publicize the injustices inherent in France. Treatise on Tolerance (1763)
The Calas family was fully vindicated. This was a victory for liberty and a blow against injustice. This victory was the talk of Europe, and Voltaire was on the lips of all who loved freedom.
In this Satire he attacked religion persecution.
As an aristocrat, Voltaire was a believer in libertyfor his kindthat is the enlightened classes.
He didnt think that the common folk..those of lower class origin, were the ones that should be ruling France.
Montesquieu (1689-1755) He developed important ideas that have a direct bearing on our American Society:
His revolutionary idea was the separation and balance of powers. Power should be divided between the King and the People. He admired the English constitution.
This would have a strong influence on the Americans when they debated and wrote their constitution.