Home >Documents >The age of Enlightenment. Eighteenth Century France

The age of Enlightenment. Eighteenth Century France

Date post:24-Dec-2015
Category:
View:213 times
Download:1 times
Share this document with a friend
Transcript:
  • Slide 1
  • The age of Enlightenment. Eighteenth Century France
  • Slide 2
  • The objectives of this slide show are: In what ways was the enlightenment and outgrowth of the Scientific Revolution? What were some of the new fads of thought that also occurred during the enlightenment? Indentify the importance of the Encyclopedia. Assess the importance of Montesquieus ideas on the American Revolution. You will know the main targets of the criticisms of Voltaire and Rousseau. You will learn how the Calas case was a case for the freedom of all mankind against despotic government.
  • Slide 3
  • The Enlightenment was an extension of the Scientific Revolution
  • Slide 4
  • POP QUIZ??? While the makers of the scientific Revolution had used their intellectual powers to discover the natural laws that governed the operation of the physical universe, the thinkers of the Enlightenment sought through reasoning to discover the natural laws that governed the affairs of human begins and human society.
  • Slide 5
  • It took place against the backdrop of the various European Wars, including: The War of Spanish Succession The War of Austrian Succession The Seven Years War
  • Slide 6
  • The Philosophes While The Enlightenment was an international movement, most of the leading thinkers were French. Philosophe=French word meaning philosopher Developed new ideas about government, economics and religion Ideas which would improve the human condition and reform society
  • Slide 7
  • Their audience was the informed public from all classes. They had a lot to say about the flaws of society.
  • Slide 8
  • This was different than the prior belief that the times of the Ancients, Greece, Rome, and Biblical times had never and would never be surpassed
  • Slide 9
  • Science had helped to end Witchcraft and superstition
  • Slide 10
  • Perhaps God was not so personal. Perhaps he was an intelligent human being who wound up the watch and let events unfold.
  • Slide 11
  • Perhaps God was not so personal. Perhaps he wound up the watch and let events unfold. God as a Watchmakerwho wound the watch up and let it runthis was called deism.
  • Slide 12
  • ..leaving human beings the freedom to govern themselves.
  • Slide 13
  • That God was governed by the natural laws that Newton laid down.
  • Slide 14
  • Two cultures collided with this beliefthe popular and the elite.
  • Slide 15
  • During this exciting time, some tried a greater commitment to religion. In England, Handel wrote his great Messiah
  • Slide 16
  • and John Wesley founded the Methodists. He preached in America. This religious agitation was part of the Great Awakening.
  • Slide 17
  • The elite in society were not part of these upsetsthey aligned themselves with the official churches: Anglican, Lutheran or Catholic.
  • Slide 18
  • At the same time, strange ideas also arosethese ideas were fads or areas of mystery.
  • Slide 19
  • The ideas of Freemasonry took form in England and Colonial America.
  • Slide 20
  • The masons met secretly, had rituals, and, some said, had secret knowledge about ancient rites.
  • Slide 21
  • The Masons were very popular among all walks of life. Even though they were a secret society, they met to discuss many enlightenment concepts.
  • Slide 22
  • A German offset of the Masons were the Illuminati.
  • Slide 23
  • And women provided the meeting places in their elegant salons.
  • Slide 24
  • The salons were legendaryintelligent women provided a setting for the philosophes to meet and discuss the challenges of the day.
  • Slide 25
  • In the salons, talent and creativity counted more than noble lineage.
  • Slide 26
  • Many revolutionary ideas would find their roots in these discussions.
  • Slide 27
  • Condorcet and Progress Marquis de Condorcet- Progress of the Human Mind Traced development of human history through nine eras, contending that in the 10 th era peace, virtue and justice would prevail
  • Slide 28
  • John Locke (1632-1704) Knowledge from experience Provided a vigorous defense of Englands Glorious Revolution of 1688 Essays Concerning Human Understanding Tabula Rasa
  • Slide 29
  • John Locke (1632-1704) Social Contract and Natural Rights Second Treatise of Government SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY Mutual Consent Life, Liberty and Property Right to Rebel Constitutional Government
  • Slide 30
  • Social Contract Thomas HobbesJohn Locke Humans are naturally cruel, greedy and selfish. To escape this brutish life people entered into a social contract. Only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society. Believed only an absolute monarchy could keep a society completely orderly. Humans are naturally reasonable, moral and good Humans have natural rights: life liberty and property People form governments to protect natural rights Best government was one with limited power If a government violates peoples natural rights, people have the right to overthrow government
  • Slide 31
  • The most famous achievement of the Enlightenment was the Encyclopedia.
  • Slide 32
  • The Encyclopedia came to be a set of 17 very large volumes published between 1751 and 1772.
  • Slide 33
  • The publisher was a Denis Diderot.
  • Slide 34
  • People paid to have a volume of the Encyclopedia.
  • Slide 35
  • The Encyclopedia had articles on everything from philosophy to bone- setting to making gears!
  • Slide 36
  • Slide 37
  • Slide 38
  • The goal of the Encyclopedia was to make available all the current up-to- date technological, cultural, and philosophical knowledge of the day.
  • Slide 39
  • It was unique because it was purchased by people from all over Europe. Even small towns had at least one copy.
  • Slide 40
  • Slide 41
  • The information was shared, improved upon, and widely discussed: People were enlightened by its knowledge.
  • Slide 42
  • Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau.
  • Slide 43
  • Voltaire (1694-1778) One of the greatest minds of all time
  • Slide 44
  • Voltaire lived a long time, traveled a lot, wrote a lot, and was very influential.
  • Slide 45
  • Voltaire was the great champion of freedom of thought.
  • Slide 46
  • As a young man he spent time in the Bastille for his criticism of Louis XVs regent, the Duke of Orleans.
  • Slide 47
  • Voltaire and Politics Letters on the English (1733)
  • Slide 48
  • He was a courtier of Madame de Pompadour, Louis XV and spent two years in Frederick the Greats court.
  • Slide 49
  • He believed in religious toleration.
  • Slide 50
  • One of his most famous quotes about religion was Ecrasez linfame! which translated means crush the infamous thing. He was referring to the Catholic church.
  • Slide 51
  • He took on the defense of many who were victims of despotic power.
  • Slide 52
  • His most famous case was the Calas case. Calas was a Protestant who was accused of killing his mentally ill son, who was converting to be a Catholic. In reality, the son had committed suicide.The local authorities (the local parlement) ordered that Calas be executed.
  • Slide 53
  • The elder Calas was broken at the wheel in a brutal, public execution.
  • Slide 54
  • Slide 55
  • Voltaire was excited about the case, and saw it as a very public chance to exonerate, and publicize the injustices inherent in France. Treatise on Tolerance (1763)
  • Slide 56
  • The Calas family was fully vindicated. This was a victory for liberty and a blow against injustice. This victory was the talk of Europe, and Voltaire was on the lips of all who loved freedom.
  • Slide 57
  • Slide 58
  • In this Satire he attacked religion persecution.
  • Slide 59
  • As an aristocrat, Voltaire was a believer in libertyfor his kindthat is the enlightened classes.
  • Slide 60
  • Slide 61
  • He didnt think that the common folk..those of lower class origin, were the ones that should be ruling France.
  • Slide 62
  • Montesquieu (1689-1755) He developed important ideas that have a direct bearing on our American Society:
  • Slide 63
  • His revolutionary idea was the separation and balance of powers. Power should be divided between the King and the People. He admired the English constitution.
  • Slide 64
  • This would have a strong influence on the Americans when they debated and wrote their constitution.
  • Slide 65
Popular Tags: