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The amniotic fluid

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The Amniotic Fluid

The Amniotic FluidAhmed Ragheb HasanT.S.M.U.Dr. Maka

develoment Amniotic fluid, also known as Camerons fluid is present from the formation of the gestational sac and by the amniotic cells. Amniotic fluid is present in the amniotic sac. It is generated from maternal plasma, and passes through the fetal membranes by osmotic and hydrostatic forces.

When fetal kidneys begin to function in about week 16, fetal urine also contributes to the fluid.The fluid is absorbed through the fetal tissue and skin. After the 20th-25th week of pregnancy when the keratinization of an embryo's skin occurs, the fluid is primarily absorbed by the fetal gut.


ContentsAt first, amniotic fluid is mainly water with electrolytes, but by about the 12-14th week the liquid also contains proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and phospholipids, and urea, all of which aid in the growth of the fetusVolumeThe volume of amniotic fluid increases with the growth of fetus. From the 10th to the 20th week it increases from 25ml to 400ml approximately.

Approximately in the 10th week the breathing and swallowing of the fetus slightly decrease the amount of fluid, but neither urination nor swallowing contributes significantly to fluid quantity changes, until the 25th week, when keratinization of skin is complete. Then the relationship between fluid and fetal growth stops. It reaches 800ml by the 28 week gestational age. The amount of fluid declines to roughly 400 ml at 42 weeks. There is about 1L of amniotic fluid at birth.

PolyhydramniosPolyhydramnios is caused by increased secretion of amniotic fluid because of a large placenta or by a fetal malformation which prevents the fetus swallowing the fluid, or prevents its absorption through the fetal intestinal villi.

Oligohydramnios occurs if the liquor-secreting cells are defective or, in late pregnancy, is caused by renal tract malformations which prevent fetal urination; it also occurs in postdatism. If oligohydramnios occurs early in pregnancy abortion is usual.

importance of the amniotic fluidAnalysis baby's genetic health as well as the age and viability of the fetus.Stem cell research Recent studies show that amniotic fluid contains a considerable quantity of stem cells. These amniotic stem cellsare pluripotent and able to differentiate into various tissues, which may be useful for future human application.Some researchers have found that amniotic fluid is also a plentiful source of non-embryonic stem cells.

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The Amniotic Fluid Ahmed Ragheb Hasan T.S.M.U. Dr. Maka
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