The Boer War10/1899-5/1902
BACKGROUND:Culmination of a century of conflict between Dutch settlers and British settlers/crown/empire Dutch forced north by Brits 1834 (Great Trek) First Boer War 1880-81 (Boer victory!) More gold & diamond mines found in region Increasing # of Brits in Transvaal & Orange Free StateBrits wanted more control of region; Afrikaners resented
(Pssst! Boer= Dutch word for farmer; Afrikaner = Boer)
Paul Kruger, President of Transvaal Affectionetly known as Uncle Paul (oom Paul, in Afrikinee)
If you want a fight, you will have it. This time to the FINISHExplain this cartoon. It works on MANY levels. A double ultimatum:
Brits demand full voting rights (the outnumbered the Boers at this point);
Boers countered with a demand that all British military leave immediately. The British didnt, and Boers declared war!
A small Paul Kruger, President of the South African Republic, as David about to be bludgeoned by a British general as Goliath. Gold mines in the background. French postcard500,000 GB & colonial troops vs. 85,000 Boer soldiersExplain this French postcard.
Whats happening in the German cartoon? What does it tell you about the view of the Boer War?
Phase 1: Boer Offensive This is a German political cartoon from the earliest stage of the Boer war. What does it show? Why would the Germans take such pleasure in this scene?
Boer soldiers Boer General Peter De Wet
Phase 2: British Offensive
President Kruger is received in Paris by the French President.
What message does this sort of diplomatic move send?Use of irregular tactics
Drains British manpower, money, and patienceBrits use unseemly methods
British population loosing enthusiasm for war
Phase 3: Guerrilla Warfare
What does this cartoon tell you about British attitudes towards the war? What are the competing ideologies?
One British response to the guerrilla war was a 'scorched earth' policy. Here, Boer civilians watch their house as it is burned
Exposed & brought to global attention by British journalist Emily Hobhouse
What does this French depiction of a concentration camp tell you?
After the war, the British formally annexed the two Boer Republics; this is a German cartoon depicting that event. What was the German attitude and why? Results: Transvaal & Orange Free State formally annexed with promise of independence Granted in 1906, creation of South African Republic
Demonstrated the excess of imperialism; first major war of Christian v. Christian since the Crimean War- attitudes about war & empire had changed
GB isolated internationally- need friends!
Germans see as weakness- Brits couldnt control own colony, couldnt win an easy victory with overwhelming numbers
Significant military lessons ***see below***
Parliament noticed how unhealthy its population was 80% of men deemed unfit for duty! ***see below***
Liberals ousted in 1906, Conservatives take control
New journalism ***see below***Results:
Significant military lessons *tech and modern combat played a significant role in the war* smokeless powder- unseen death from a distance* rifles with new magazines * no longer used volley & line formation* KEY- importance of defense with new weapons* stopped wearing bright colors- khaki
Parliament noticed how unhealthy its population was 80% of men deemed unfit for duty! * Increased call for health reform; govt responded w/ new laws
New journalism *Formed public opinion as well as reporting news* Critical backlash against glorifying war & Empire
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