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Home > Documents > THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991 THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991. Détente 1963-79 Détente 1963-79.

THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991 THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991. Détente 1963-79 Détente 1963-79.

Date post: 25-Dec-2015
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THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991
  • Slide 1
  • THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991 THE COLD WAR 1945- 1991
  • Slide 2
  • Dtente 1963-79 Dtente 1963-79
  • Slide 3
  • DEFINITION Dtente: The relaxation of strained relations or tension, esp. between countries. (Merriam- Webster) DEFINITION Dtente: The relaxation of strained relations or tension, esp. between countries. (Merriam- Webster) Many people believe that the period of dtente was initiated in 1968, but the seeds of dtente arguably began in the early 60s. 1962 End of the Cuban Missile Crisis 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1966 Willy Brandts Ostpolitik
  • Slide 4
  • Brinksmanship and Mutually Assured Destruction The Cuban Missile Crisis was the first actual example of brinksmanship that the superpowers had seen and the theory crumbled under the possibility of MAD that it revealed. A red telephone (i.e. hotline to the Kremlin) was installed in the Oval Office on June 20, 1963 Superpowers were also alarmed at the rapidity at which weapons technologies were progressing. Multiple Independent Re-entry Vehicles (MIRVs) Anti-ballistic Missile Systems (ABMs)
  • Slide 5
  • Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963 By 1963 close to 500 nuclear weapons had been tested, giving rise to concern over its impact to the environment. The NTBT banned all testing of nuclear weapons, except underground (Why not underground?) It was signed by the USA, USSR & Great Britain
  • Slide 6
  • Willy Brandt & Ostpolitik In 1955, Konrad Adenauer espoused the Hallstein Doctrine that stated that the FDR would have no diplomatic relations with any country recognizing the DDR. The FRG broke off relations with Yugoslavia (1957) and Cuba (1963) in adherence to the Hallstein Doctrine In Dec. of 66, Brandt becomes foreign minister for liberal coalition party. At a NATO foreign ministers mtg., he outlined his proposal for reducing East-West tensions. The reasons for Brandts Ostpolitik were: 1. FRG was the nucleus of East-West tensions 2. Flexible Response called for development of short range, tactical, small nuclear weapons (likely usage Germany) 3. To avoid being used as a sacrificial lamb by the Western powers 4. Increased trade would help both sides.
  • Slide 7
  • Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty 1967-8 Like the NTBT, the USA, USSR & Great Britain all negotiated and signed the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons Treaty in 1968. (NPT or NNPT) All 5 nuclear states signed the agreement, as well as 59 other non-nuclear states signing the treaty. A few states, which were actively seeking nuclear weaponry, refused to sign: Israel Argentina Brazil India Pakistan Since going into effect in 1970, only Israel, India & Pakistan remain as non-signatory, with North Korea having withdrawn itself as a signatory
  • Slide 8
  • Vietnam War: 1965-1973
  • Slide 9
  • 1968 marked a pivotal year in global politics. For the USA, the anti-war movement was gaining strength, as LBJ refused to seek re-election. His Great Society was undermined by the rising costs of the war. Moreover, by 1968, 300 US soldiers were killed every week with no prospect for victory. What else happened? Richard M. Nixon was elected in 1968 and adopted a policy of Vietnamisation. The gradual transition from US forces to S. Vietnamese forces. As part of the 1969 Nixon Doctrine, Nixon and his Sec. of State Henry Kissinger espoused peace with honor. In a classic example of Realpolitik, Nixon-Kissinger believed that our withdrawal from Vietnam would require Soviet and Chinese support. In return for helping the US out of Vietnam, the USA would: 1. Recognize the USSRs parity 2. Allow the Soviets access to western technology 3. Avoid interfering in the Soviet empire This linkage brought and end to the idea of roll back
  • Slide 10
  • Prague Spring (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubek Communism with a human face!
  • Slide 11
  • Prague Spring Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havelfuture president of a free Czech Republic]. Soviet response comes to be known as the Brezhnev Doctrine.
  • Slide 12
  • Sino-Soviet Dispute of 1969 Sino-Soviet Dispute of 1969 RELATIONS HAD SOURED Chinese condemn Kruschev as revisionist in his attack on Stalins cult of personality Soviets condemn Mao as a deviationist Chinese criticize USSR in its capitulation in the Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviets refuse to support Chinese in 1962 Sino-Indian War Countries break diplomatic ties, though try to restore them in 1964, after Brezhnev deposed Kruschev. In March 1969, Soviet and Chinese forces clash along the border at the Ussuri River. Chinese recognize that they cant suppress internal dissent, confront the USA in Vietnam & fight the Soviets in the North. They determine that the Soviets are the greatest threat. The Soviets are concerned about improving relations between the US & China (i.e. Sino-American Rapprochement)
  • Slide 13
  • SALT I 1972 1. ABM Treaty limited signees to only 2 sites with no more than 100 missiles @ each site. 2. Interim Treaty limited ICBMs and SLBMs 3. Basic Principles Agreement committed signees to enter into serious discussions in the event that nuclear war appears immanent. How effective do these agreements seem to you? The most significant of the post-Cuban Missile Crisis arms control agreements. It covered three areas:
  • Slide 14
  • Helsinki Agreement 1973 As a result of the 1972 Moscow Summit, President Nixon agreed to participate in a European Security Conference in Helsinki the following year. As a result, a final agreement (called The Final Act) was produced in August of 1975. The tenets were called baskets. 1. The Security Basket strongly influenced by Brandts Ostpolitik, it recognized the Europes current borders and stated that they could not be altered by force. 2. The Cooperation Basket called for greater cooperation and sharing of economic, scientific and cultural achievements. 3. The Human Rights Basket called for respect for individual human rights such as, freedom of thought, conscience/religion, and freedom of travel. Which of these baskets would likely be the most controversial?
  • Slide 15
  • SALT II 1979 1. Limited the numbers of strategic nuclear delivery vehicles (e.g. ICBMs, SLBMs, heavy bombers, etc.) SALT II discussions began in 1974 and covered the following: 2. Banned the testing and deployme nts of NEW ICBMs and rapid deployme nt systems Carter & Brezhnev signing SALT II
  • Slide 16
  • The Arms Race First in RaceSecond in Race USA1945Atom bomb1949USSR USA1952Hydrogen bomb1953USSR 1957ICBM1958USA USSR1957First satellite1958USA USSR1958Early warning radar1960USA 1960SLBM1968USSR 1968ABM1972USA 1970MIRV1975USSR 1971Sea Cruise missile launched1982USA
  • Slide 17
  • The Arms Race The build-up of arms after 1945 Bombers195619601965197019751979 USA560550630405330316 USSR60175200190140 ICBMs196019641968197019741979 USA2958356301054 USSR75200800130015871398 SLBMs196219651968197219751979 USA145500656655656 USSR45125130497740989 Warheads19451955196519751985 USA63057312652667522941 USSR020061291944239197
  • Slide 18
  • The End of Dtente Why did Dtente come to an end?