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The cold war 1950s

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  • The Cold War

  • IntroductionEurope was in ruins, Germany no longer existed, Italy was crushed, and Britain was now in obvious and serious decline.With the end of WWII, a bipolar world emerged.There no longer existed a group of 5 or 6 great powers; there were two new superpowers, the United States & the Soviet Union.This new power structure formed the basis of the Cold War.

  • The Cold War An ideological struggle (of ideas) between the US & USSR. Fought using propaganda, espionage, & econ and poli pressures. It was a fight for power and influence on a global scale. Characterized by the fear of a nuclear war, as both sides raced to build nuclear weapons.2 concepts in understanding the Cold War: containment & the domino theory.

  • International Concerns Containment American strategy was to contain communism, by preventing it from spreading In order to do so, US tried to win non-aligned countries over to their camp, while USSR tried to do the sameUSs Policy of containment (Truman Doctrine) provided econ aid and military support to people threatened by communism

  • Domino Theory fear that one country being pulled into communism, then all surrounding countries would follow USSR feared encirclement by capitalist countries would pose a threat of counter-revolution within USSR Stalin was able to quickly establish Soviet-style communist regimes in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia (satellite states) Western capitalists feared the part of communist ideology that was aimed at world revolution Churchill declared that an Iron Curtain had fallen across Europe

  • Canadian Concerns The Gouzenko Affair young soviet asked Canada for political asylum (protection from the USSR) in return for giving the Can govt documents that proved that the USSR was operating 2 spy rings in Canada. It hit home that there was potentially a communist threat in Canada.The Red Scare in response to fear, the RCMP carried out illegal and secret inquiries regarding potential commies in Can. Potential immigrants were denied entry and known communists were deported.

  • GermanyThe allies agreed to split Germany into 4 zones; each occupied by Britain, France, US, and USSR.3 agreed to join sections together West GermanyStalin (USSR) created the German Democratic Republic East GermanyWith war agreements, Berlin was also divided into 4 zones; Berlin is situated well within E. GermanyWestern nations were permitted to West Berlin through E. Germany on specific highways, railways, and air corridors.

  • Germany Today

  • WestGermany & East Germany

  • Berlin districts (1945-1990): West Berlin American SectorI KreuzbergII NeukllnIII TempelhofIV SchnebergV SteglitzVI Zehlendorf British SectorA TiergartenB CharlottenburgC WilmersdorfD Spandau

    French Sectora Reinickendorfb Wedding

    FrenchBritishAmericanRussian

  • Berlin Wall 1961

  • Berlin Wall 1974

    EastWest

  • Berlin November 10th, 1989Border crossing point at Bornholmer StrasseEvery single car from the East is welcomed after opening the border

  • The Arms RaceMain feature of the Cold War: nuclear arms raceracing to develop more atomic bombs, and to improve nuclear technology.With the launch of the first satellite by the Soviets in 1957, it became the space raceBoth powers tried to maintain a balance of power:

    1. nuclear parity equality of numbers if one attacked the other, they would be attacked in return2. MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction) knew that when used, they would annihilate entire areas causing both from going to war.Only works when both have same weapons - race

  • NATO & The Warsaw Pact North Atlantic Treaty Organization - born out of need of a stronger and permanent military presence to prevent Soviet expansion in Europe. Formed in 1949, each member state contributed to NATOs defence force, and members agreed that an attack on one member would be considered an attack on them all. Canadas Commitment? The Warsaw Pact was developed in response to NATO in 1955, as a defensive alliance of the USSR and its satellite states. NORAD

  • http://www.visionbox.com/our-work/mobile-development-example.aspx?id=NORAD-Tracks-Santa

  • Korean War During WWII Japan controlled Korea; After WWII Korea was divided (North communist, South democratic) 1950 North invaded South supported by USSR US demanded UN come to the defence 32 countries sent troops, led by Americans 26,500 Can served 1,000 wounded & 400 killed both sides agreed to an armistice and remained divided

  • Significant for Canada because it showed that Canada supported the UN and was willing to fight to support those goals. Also, demonstrated to the world that members of UN (unlike League of Nations) were willing to take action

  • The Suez Crisis (1956) P. 200

  • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) US & USSR stockpiled nuclear weapons in various countries around the world. In 1962, US spotted Soviet missiles in Cuba with aerial surveillance. A Soviet nuclear attack was now possible in a few minutes from 30 minutes. US set up naval blockade around Cuba to stop Soviet ships from bringing missiles into the country.

  • Concern that crisis would turn to nuclear war intensified as Soviet ships sailed towards Cuba protected by submarines, but ships ultimately turned back. Soviets promised to remove the missiles if the Americans would issue a promise not to invade Cuba. Nuclear war was averted.

  • LIFE IN CANADA DURING THE 1950s & 1960s

  • Economic Changes in Canada Soldiers returning from Europe faced a much different situation than did those who returned from WWI.

  • Due to the strong Cdn economy, the govt was able to provide financial services to Cdn veterans: information, counselling, and financial aid to help them adjust to life back in Cdn (Ex. Low interest rate program to purchase home sponsored by govt). (1948) govt gave $2 billion to Western Europe through Marshall Plan plan devised by US to send food, equipment, and raw materials to Europe to help with the process of rebuilding.

  • Dramatic growth in mining and oil industries. In 1947, Imperial Oil discovered the Leduc oil field near Edmonton. First major oil field developed in Alberta and because of this the Prov economy became the strongest in Canada over the next 5 decades. Major construction boom houses, schools, factories, and new technologies:CANDU nuclear reactor (1952)Alouette I (1962) First Cdn satelliteUrbanization by 1970s 2/3 of pop lived in towns or cities, but many people who worked in the cities still wanted to take advantage of a quieter lifestyle, so large housing developments sprung up on the outskirts of major cities (suburbs). Commuting became very popular and as a result, the new and used car market exploded and provided a huge boost to the petroleum industry.

  • Social Changes in Canada 1. Baby Boomers

    As soldiers returned home from WWII, many couples decided to have children. They no longer faced the uncertainty of service overseas, and were financially stable as a result of the booming econ (Baby Boom) Cdns pop soared from 12 million (1946) to 18 million (1961)

  • 2. Changing Immigration Policy

    Displaced Persons people forced from their homelands due to WWII or due to Soviet expansion arrived in Cdn Immigration Act of 1952 PM Louis St. Laurent set up the Dep of Citizenship and Immigration (1948). The Act gave extensive powers to the Minister of Immigration and it was decided that the practice of barring immigrants from entering Cdn based on ethnic origin would continue. Demand for immigrant labour in the 50s was high, and Cdns doors swung open to accept new immigrants

  • 3. Social Welfare Social Security Unemployment Insurance Act was passed in 1940 and family allowances or baby bonuses were introduced in 1945 Cdn govt had begun to accept social security as a govt responsibility The Colombo Plan 1950s, Cdn govt implemented a foreign aid initiative to build factories and infrastructure in Pakistan, India, and Sri Lanka (Commonwealth countries)Cdn joined La Francophonie (link between French colonies, facilitating social and cultural exchanges and trade) and gave development aid to West Africa. Also helped to develop the ACCT (the agency for cultural and technical co-operation, in which states and govts could co-ordinate their actions. Represents 600 million people, and includes countries in most continents

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