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The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars. Some first general notices

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The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars. Some first general notices. E. Danezis University of Athens, Faculty of Physics, Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics. In collaboration with A. Antoniou (University of Athens) E. Lyratzi (University of Athens) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars. Some first general notices E. Danezis University of Athens, Faculty of Physics, Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics In collaboration with A. Antoniou (University of Athens) E. Lyratzi (University of Athens) L. Č. Popović (Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade) M. S. Dimitrijević (Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade)
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Page 1: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The DACs and SACs effectsfrom stars to Quasars.

Some first general notices

E. DanezisUniversity of Athens, Faculty of Physics,

Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics

In collaboration with A. Antoniou (University of Athens)E. Lyratzi (University of Athens)L. Č. Popović (Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade)M. S. Dimitrijević (Astronomical Observatory of Belgrade)

Page 2: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The spectral lines in astrophysical objectsIt is well known that the

absorption spectral lines that we can detect in the spectra of normal stars or normal galaxies, are an important factor to study many physical parameters of plasma surrounding these objects.

In these figures we can see two groups of classical stellar spectra of different spectral subtypes that present normal spectral absorption lines.

Page 3: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Two typical spectra of normal Galaxies

that present only absorption spectral lines.

Page 4: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

However Hot Emission Stars (Oe and Be stars) present peculiar line profiles

Here we can see the comparison of Mg II resonance lines between the spectrum of a normal B star and the spectra of two active Be stars that present complex and peculiar spectral lines. In the first figure we observe a combination of an emission and some absorption components (P Cygni).

Page 5: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

HD 37022, SWP07481

C IV λλ 1548.155, 1550.774 Ǻ

Si IV λλ 1393.755, 1402.770 Ǻ

HD 57061, SWP18949

In this figures we can see the complex structure of the C IV and Si IV UV resonance lines in the spectra of two Oe stars

Page 6: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Here we present the peculiar profile of C IV doublet in the UV spectrum of AGN PG 0946+301.

The two observed features do not present the two resonance lines

Some times we can detect peculiar spectral lines in AGNs spectra

Page 7: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figure we present typical spectra of many types of AGNs in the UV spectral range (Reichard et al. 2003, AJ, 126, 2594). The combination of emission and, in some cases, absorption components produce peculiar profiles (P Cygni profiles).

Peculiarity in AGN spectra

Page 8: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In order to explain the peculiarity of the line profiles in the spectra of hot emission stars, our team proposes and uses the DACs (Bates & Halliwell, 1986) and SACs (Danezis et al. 2005) theory.

Page 9: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The DACs phenomenon

In a stellar atmosphere, or disc, that we can detect around hot emission stars, an absorption line can be produced in several density regions that present the same temperature. From each one of these regions an absorption line arises.

The line profile distribution of each one of these absorption components is a function of a group of physical parameters, as the radial, the rotational, the random velocities and the optical depth of the region that produces the specific components of the spectral line.

Page 10: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

These spectral lines are named Discrete Absorption Components (DACs) when they are discrete (Bates, B. & Halliwell, D. R.: 1986, MNRAS, 223, 673).

DACs are discrete but not unknown absorption spectral lines. They are spectral lines of the same ion and the same wavelength as a main spectral line, shifted at different Δλ, as they are created in different density regions which rotate and move radially with different velocities (Danezis et al. 2003).

DACs are lines, easily observed, in the spectra of some Be stars, because the regions that give rise to such lines, rotate with low velocities and move radially with high velocities (Danezis et al. 2005).

Page 11: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In these figures we can see the Mg II spectral lines of two Be stars that present DACs, in comparison with the Mg II lines of a classical B star. In these line profiles we can see the main spectral lines and at the left of each one of them a group of DACs.

Page 12: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

It is very important to point out that we can detect the same phenomenon in the spectra of some AGNs

Page 13: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figure we can see the C IV UV doublet of an AGN (PG 0946+301).

From the values of radial displacements and the ratio of the line intensities we can detect that the two observed C IV shapes indicate the presence of a DACs phenomenon similar with the DACs phenomenon that we can detect in the spectra of hot emission stars.

Page 14: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The DACs arise from spherical density regions around the star, or from density regions far away from the star that present spherical (or apparent spherical) symmetry around their own center.

What is the origin of DACs phenomenon In the stellar atmospheres

or disc

Page 15: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In the case of AGNs, accretion, wind (jets, ejection of matter etc.), BLR (Broad Line Regions) and NLR (Narrow Line Regions) are, perhaps, the density regions that construct peculiar profiles of the spectral lines.

In the case of AGNs Spectra

Page 16: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Around a Wolf-Rayet star (WR 104) we can detect density regions of matter quite away from the stellar object, able to produce peculiar profiles.(This figure is taken by Tuthill, Monnier & Danchi (1999) with Keck Telescope.)

Similar phenomena can be detected as an effect of the ejected plasma around peculiar stars.

Page 17: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The SACs phenomenon If the regions that give rise to the DACs,

rotate with large velocities and move radially with small velocities, the produced lines have large widths and small shifts.

As a result they are blended among themselves as well as with the main spectral line and thus they are not discrete. In such a case the name Discrete Absorption Components is inappropriate and we use only the name Satellite Absorption Components (SACs) (Danezis et al. 2005).

Page 18: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figure it is clear that the Mg II line profiles of the star AX Mon (HD 45910), which presents DACs and the star HD 41335, which presents SACs are produced in the same way. The only difference between them is that the components of HD 41335 are much less shifted and thus they are blended among themselves. The black line presents the observed spectral line's profile and the red one the model's fit. We also present all the components which contribute to the observed features, separately.

Page 19: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In these figures we can see the SACs phenomenon in the spectra

of three Oe stars

Page 20: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figures we can see the SACs phenomenon in the spectrum

of an AGN

Page 21: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The proposed model

In the case of DACs or SACs phenomenon we need to calculate the line function of the complex line profile.Recently, our group proposed a model in order to explain the complex structure of the density regions of hot emission stars and some AGNs, where the spectral lines that present SACs or DACs are created (Danezis et al. 2003, 2005). The main hypothesis of this model is that the stellar envelope is composed of a number of successive independent absorbing density layers of matter and a number of emission regions.

Page 22: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

ggi j

ejejejiifinal LLSLFF

expexp1exp)( 0

The line function

where:Ιλ0: is the initial radiation intensity,Li, Lej, Lg: are the distribution functions of the absorption coefficients kλi, kλej, kλg,ξ: is the optical depth in the centre of the spectral line,Sλej: is the source function, that is constant during the specific observation.

absorption emission General absorption

Page 23: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

2

2

0000

0

coscos22

cos222

d

zerf

zerf

zL final

radlab 0

Vradial

Vrotation

Danezis, E., Lyratzi, E., Nikolaidis, D., Antoniou, A., Popović, L. Č. & Dimitrijević, M. S., 2007 PASJ (accepted) and SPIG 2006, Kopaonik, Serbia.

c

Vz rot

0

2ln2

c

Vrandom Gaussian standard deviation

Page 24: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The calculation of the parameters

Directly from the model The apparent radial velocities (Vrad) of the absorbing or emitting density regionsThe Gaussian standard deviation (σ) of the random motions distributionThe apparent rotational velocities (Vrad) of the absorbing or emitting density region.The optical depth (ξ) in the center of the spectral lineFrom the above parameters we can calculate 1. The percentage contribution (G%) of the random velocities to the broadening of the spectral line2. The FWHM 3. The random velocities of the ions (Vrandom) that produce the spectral lines4. The absorbed or emitted energy (Εa, Ee)5. The column density (CD)

Page 25: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

We point out that with the proposed model we can study and reproduce specific spectral lines. This means that we can study specific density regions in the plasma surrounding the studied object.

Page 26: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Some first general results

As we know, in order to find the mechanism that is responsible for the structure of DACs or SACs density regions we need to calculate the values of a group of parameters, such as the rotational, the random and the radial velocities, the FWHM, the optical depth, the absorbed or emitted Energy, the Column Density, and the Gaussian Standard Deviation, as well as the relation among them.Another interesting point is to study the time scale variation of all the above parameters.This is the reason why we present the following applications.

Page 27: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A statistical study of C IV, N IV and N V regions in the spectra of 20 Oe stars

In this application we study the C IV, N IV and N V regions in the spectra of 20 Oe stars and we calculate the values of the above parameters of these regions. We also study the relation among them. At the end of this session Dr Lyratzi will present some general conclusions about the structure of Si IV, Mg II and Ha density regions in Be stars

Page 28: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Stars Spectral types

HD24534 O9.5 III

HD24912 O7.5 III ((f))

HD34656 O7 II (f)

HD36486 O9.5 II

HD37022 O6 Vp

HD47129 O7.5 III

HD47839 O7 III

HD48099 O6.5 V

HD49798 O6p

HD57060 O8.5If

Stars Spectral types

HD57061 O9.0I

HD60848 O8.0Vpe

HD91824 O7V((f))

HD93521 O9.5II

HD112244 O8.5Iab

HD149757 O9V(e)

HD164794 O4V((f))

HD203064 O8V

HD209975 O9.5I

HD210839 O6.0I

The studied Stars

In this table we present the studied stars. As we know it is not possible to find stars between O0 and O3 spectral subtypes.

Page 29: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

.

With our model we calculated the random velocities of the layers that produce the C IV, NIV and NV satellite components in the spectra of 20 Oe stars, with different photospheric rotational velocities.

The ionization potential of each studied ion, for all the studied stars, is the same, so the respective random velocities will be the same.

As the values of the random velocities do not depend on the inclination of the rotational axis, we expect similar average values of the random velocities for each component for all the studied stars.

Page 30: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In the following figures we present the relation between the random velocities of the ions that create the C IV, N IV and N V lines in the spectra of 20 stars as a function of the photospheric rotational velocities of the studied stars

Page 31: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions Random Velocities for the 4th component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

C IV regions Random Velocities for the 3rd component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)C IV regions

Random Velocities for the 2nd component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

C IV regions Random Velocities for the 1st component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)The C IV region of 20 Oe stars

mean Vrandom = 160 km/s

mean Vrandom = 115 km/smean Vrandom = 160 km/s

mean Vrandom = 80 km/s mean Vrandom = 90 km/s

In this figures we present the random velocities (Vrand) of the ions in the C IV regions that produce the satellite components as a function of the apparent photospheric rotational velocities (Vphot). We detect similar average values of the random velocities for each component for all the studied stars

Page 32: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regions (Gaussian way) Random Velocities for the 2nd component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

N IV regions (Gaussian way) Random Velocities for the 1st component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

In this figures we present the random velocities (Vrandom) of the N IV regions that produce the satellite components as a function of the apparent photospheric rotational velocities (Vphot). We detect similar average values of the random velocities for each component for all the studied stars

The N IV regions of 20 Oe stars

mean Vrandom = 267 km/s mean Vrandom = 133 km/s

Page 33: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V regions (Rotational way) Random Velocities for the 3rd component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

N V regions (Rotational way) Random Velocities for the 2nd component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

N V regions (Rotational way) Random Velocities for the 1st component

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)The N V region of 20 Oe stars

mean Vrandom = 160 km/smean Vrandom = 190 km/s

mean Vrandom = 108 km/s

In this figures we present the random velocities (Vrand) of the N V regions that produce the satellite components as a function of the apparent photospheric rotational velocities (Vphot). We detect similar average values of the random velocities for each component for all the studied stars

Page 34: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

As we see, we detect similar average values of the random velocities for each component, for the C IV, N IV and N V regions, for all the studied stars. The above results, taken with our model agree with the theory.This agreement between theory and calculations is a favourable test for our model.

Important remark

Page 35: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

2. In the following figures we present the ratio Vrot/Vphot of the C IV, N IV and N V components as a function of the photospheric rotational velocity (Vphot).This ratio indicates how much the rotational velocity of the specific layer that construct the specific component is higher than the apparent rotational velocity of the star

Studding the Rotational Velocities of the density layers of matter

Vrot=Rotational Velocity of the studied density regionVphot=Apparent Photospheric Rotational Velocity

Page 36: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 3rd component

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

otC IV regions

Vrot/Vphot for the 2nd component

0,00

5,00

10,00

15,00

20,00

25,00

30,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

C IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 1st component

0,005,00

10,00

15,0020,0025,0030,00

35,0040,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

The C IV region of 20 Oe stars

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 40

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 6

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 25

In these figures we present the ratio Vrot/Vphot of the four detected components of C IV as a function of the photospheric rotational velocity (Vphot).

C IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 4th component

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 6

Page 37: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 2nd component

0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

N IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 1st component

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

70 120 170 220 270 320 370 420

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

otThe N IV region of 20 Oe stars

Vrot/Vphot = f(Vphot)

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 6 max (Vrot/Vphot) = 2.5

The ratio Vrot/Vphot indicates how much the rotational velocity of the specific N IV layer is higher than the apparent rotational velocity of the star

Page 38: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 3rd component

0,00

5,00

10,00

15,00

20,00

25,00

30,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

N IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 2nd component

0,005,00

10,0015,0020,00

25,0030,00

35,0040,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

ot

N IV regions Vrot/Vphot for the 1st component

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

0 100 200 300 400 500

Vphot (km/s)

Vro

t/V

ph

otThe N V region of 20 Oe stars

Vrot/Vphot = f(Vphot)

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 45 max (Vrot/Vphot) = 40

max (Vrot/Vphot) = 25

The ratio Vrot/Vphot indicates how much the rotational velocity of the specific N V layer is higher than the apparent rotational velocity of the star

Page 39: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A statistical study of the parameters of the C IV, N IV and N V regions

In this application we present (in the following figures) the values of some parameters that we can calculate studding the C IV, N IV and N V density regions of 20 Oe stars and the relations among them.

Also in three poster papers you can see the relation between all the studded parameters of C IV, N IV and N V regions and the spectral subtypes.

Page 40: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions σ=f(Vrad)

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1

1,2

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

σ

Relation between radial velocities and Gaussian Standard Deviation

Relation between radial and random velocities

C IV regions Vrand=f(Vrad)

0

50

100

150

200

250

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

C IV region

Page 41: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial velocities and FWHM

Relation between radial velocities and Optical Depth

C IV regionC IV regions

FWHM=f(Vrad)

0,02,04,06,08,0

10,012,014,016,0

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

FW

HM

C IV regions (λ 1548.155 Α) Optical depth ξ=f(Vrad)

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

ξ

Page 42: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial and rotational velocities

Relation between radial velocities and Column Densities

C IV regionC IV regions

Vrot=f(Vrad)

0

200400

600800

1000

12001400

1600

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

C IV regions (λ 1550.774 Α) Column Density (10^10 cm^-2) CD=f(Vrad)

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

-3500-3000-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

CD

Page 43: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A statistical study of the parameters of the N IV regions

Page 44: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial velocities and Column Densities

Relation between radial velocities and FWHM

N IV regions Column Density (10^10 cm^-2) CD=f(Vrad)

1,5

2

2,5

3

3,5

4

4,5

-350-300-250-200-150-100-500

Vrad (km/s)

CD

N IV region

Περιοχή N IV regionsFWHM=f(Vrad)

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

-350-300-250-200-150-100-500

Vrad (km/s)

FW

HM

Page 45: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial velocities and Gaussian Standard Deviation

Relation between radial and random velocities

N IV regionN IV regions

σ=f(Vrad)

0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

-350-300-250-200-150-100-500

Vrad (km/s)

σ

N IV regionsVrand=f(Vrad)

0

100

200

300

400

-350-300-250-200-150-100-500

Vrad (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Page 46: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A statistical study of the parameters of the N V regions

Page 47: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial and random velocities

Relation between radial velocities and FWHM

N V regionN V regions

Vrand=(Vrad)

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

-2600-2100-1600-1100-600-100

Vrad (km/s)

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

N V regionsFWHM=(Vrad)

0,0

5,0

10,0

15,0

20,0

-2600-2100-1600-1100-600-100

Vrad (km/s)

FW

HM

Page 48: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between radial velocities and Gaussian Standard Deviation

Relation between radial velocities and Column Densities

N V regionN V regions

σ=(Vrad)

0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

-2600-2100-1600-1100-600-100

Vrad (km/s)

σ

N V regions (λ 1238.821 Α) Column Density (10^10 cm^-2) CD=f(Vrad)

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

-2600-2100-1600-1100-600-100

Vrad (km/s)

CD

Page 49: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Relation between the radial velocities and the Rotational Velocities

N V region

N V regionsVrot=(Vrad)

0

500

1000

1500

2000

-2500-2000-1500-1000-5000

Vrad (km/s)

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

Page 50: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

As Franco et al. (1982) and Kapper et al. (1996) indicate, the radial velocities increase from the high to the low ionization potential. Our results verify this proposition.

-2500

-2000

-1500

-1000

-500

0

Vra

d (k

m/s

)

47,448 47,887 77,472

I.P. (eV)

Radial Velocities - Ionization PotentialVrad=f(I.P)

Page 51: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Time scale variations of the C IV, Si IV, N IV and N V density regions in the HD 93521 stellar

atmosphere

Antoniou, A., Danezis, E., Lyratzi, E., Nikolaidis, D., Popović, L. Č., Dimitrijević, M. S., & Theodosiou, E., XXVIth IAU General Assembly, Prague, August, 2006.

In this application we present the time scale variations of the C IV, N IV, Si IV and N V regions parameters.

This is an important study to examine in a future work the mechanism that is able to construct the DACs or SACs Phenomenon

Page 52: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A study of the density regions that construct the C IV resonance lines λλ 1548.155, 1550.774

Åin the HD 93521 (Oe) UV spectrum

The Oe star HD 93521

Page 53: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figure we can see the complex structure of C IV UV resonance lines. Each one of them consists in five components

The Oe star HD 93521. The C IV region

Page 54: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions - 5th componentRotational Velocities

0

200

400

600

800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

C IV regions - 4th componentRotational Velocities

0

200

400

600

800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)C IV regions - 3rd component

Rotational Velocities

0

200

400

600

800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

C IV regions - 2nd componentRotational Velocities

0100200300400500600700800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)C IV regions - 1st component

Rotational Velocities

0100200300400500600700800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

Time scale variation of Rotational Velocities (Vrot) for the five components

Vrot1 = 600 km/s, s=100 km/s

Vrot2 = 140 km/s, s=44 km/s

Vrot3 = 136 km/s, s=36 km/s

Vrot4 = 97 km/s, s=31Km/s

Vrot5 = 85 km/s, s=19 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The C IV region

Page 55: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions - 5th componentRadial Velocities

-800-700-600-500-400-300-200-100

0

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

C IV regions - 4th componentRadial Velocities

0100200300400500600700800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

C IV regions - 3rd componentRadial Velocities

-800-700-600-500-400-300-200-100

0

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

C IV regions - 2nd componentRadial Velocities

0100200300400500600700800

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

C IV regions - 1st componentRadial Velocities

-800-700-600-500

-400-300-200-100

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Vrad1 =-735 km/s, s=15 km/s

Vrad2 = 112 km/s, s=22 km/s

Vrad3 = -736 km/s, s=10 km/s

Vrad4 = 269 km/s, s=7km/s

Vrad5 = -176 km/s, s=45 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The C IV region

Time scale variation of

Radial Velocities (Vrad) for

the five components

Here and in all the following figures, s (standard deviation) does non depend only on the statistical error but, mainly, it indicates the time scale variation of the studied values.

Page 56: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions - 5th componentRandom Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

C IV regions - 4th componentRandom Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

C IV regions - 3rd componentRandom Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

C IV regions - 2nd componentRandom Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)C IV regions - 1st component

Random Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Time scale variations of Random velocities (Vrand) for the five components

Vrand1 =237 km/s, s=72 km/s

Vrand2 = 156 km/s, s=34 km/s

Vrand3 = 192 km/s, s=22 km/s

Vrand4 = 154 km/s, s=28 km/s

Vrand5 = 142 km/s, s=53 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The C IV region

Page 57: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

C IV regions - 3rd componentColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

C IV regions - 2nd componentColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

7,00

8,00

9,00

10,00

11,00

12,00

13,00

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

C IV regions - 1st componentColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

Time scale variation of Column Density for the five components (1010 cm-2)

The Oe star HD 93521. The C IV region

C IV regions - 4th componentColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

4,00

5,00

6,00

7,00

8,00

9,00

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

C IV regions - 5th componentColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0,500,700,901,101,301,501,701,902,10

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

Page 58: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

A study of the density regions that construct the N IV spectral line λ 1718.8 Å

in the HD 93521 (Oe) UV spectrum

The Oe star HD 93521. The N IV region

Page 59: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The N IV line is a simple spectral line that we can feet with a Gaussian

The Oe star HD 93521. The N IV region

Page 60: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regionsRadial velocities

-800-700-600-500-400-300-200-100

0

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s) Vrad = -97 km/s s=22 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N IV region

Time scale variation of Radial Velocities (Vrad, km/s)

Page 61: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regions Random velocities

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Vrand = 160 km/s s=19 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N IV region

Time scale variation of random velocities (Vrand, km/s)

Page 62: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N IV regionsColumn Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1

1,2

1,4

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

Time scale variation of the Column Density (1010 cm-2)

The Oe star HD 93521. The N IV region

Page 63: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The density regions that construct the N V resonance lines λλ 1238.821, 1242.804 Å in

the HD 93521 (Oe) UV spectrum

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 64: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

The N V resonance lines consist in an absorption and an emission component. We can feet each one of them with a Gaussian

Page 65: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V regions (absorption)Radial velocities

-800

-600

-400

-200

0

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Time scale variation of the absorption component radial velocities (Vrad, km/s)

Vrad = -209 km/s s=34 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 66: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V regions (absorption)Random velocities

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Time scale variation of the absorption component random velocities (Vrand, km/s)

Vrand = 238 km/s s=34 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 67: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V regions (absorption λ 1238.821 Α) Column Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0

0,5

1

1,5

2

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

Time scale variation of the absorption component Column Density (1010 cm-2)

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 68: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V regions (emission) Radial velocities

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Vrad = 1095 km/s s=68 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Time scale variation of the emission component radial velocities (Vrad, km/s)

Page 69: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V region (emission) Random velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Time scale variation of the emission component random velocities (Vrand, km/s)

Vrand = 302 km/s s=50 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 70: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

N V region (emission λ 1238.821 Α) Column Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0

0,5

1

1,5

2

1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

Year

CD

Time scale variation of the emission component Column density (1010 cm-2)

The Oe star HD 93521. The N V region

Page 71: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The density regions that construct the UV Si IV resonance lines λλ 1393.755, 1402.770 Å

in the HD 93521 (Oe) UV spectrum

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV region

Page 72: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV region

In this figure we can see the complex structure of UV Si IV resonance lines. Each one of them consists in three components

Page 73: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Si IV regions (2nd component)Rotational Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

Si IV regions (1st component)Rotational Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

Si IV regions (3rd component)Rotational Velocities

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vro

t (k

m/s

)

Time scale variations of Rotational Velocities (Vrot) for the three components

Vrot1=410 km/s, s=120 km/s

Vrot3=205 km/s, s=40 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV region

Vrot2=230 km/s, s=103 km/s

Page 74: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Si IV regions (3rd component)Radial Velocities

-350

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Si IV regions (2nd component)Radial Velocities

-350

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Si IV regions (1st component)Radial Velocities

-350

-300

-250

-200

-150

-100

-50

0

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

d (

km

/s)

Time scale variations of Radial Velocities (Vrad) forthe three components

Vrad1=-262 km/s, s=21 km/s Vrad2=-222 km/s, s=27 km/s

Vrad3=-217 km/s, s=50 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV region

Page 75: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Si IV regions (2nd component)Random Velocities

050

100150200

250300

350400

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Si IV regions (1st component)Random Velocities

050

100150

200250

300350

400

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Si IV regions (3rd component)Random Velocities

0

50100

150200

250

300350

400

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

Vra

nd

(k

m/s

)

Time scale variations of Randon velocities (Vrand) for the three components

Vrand1=195 km/s, s=72 km/s Vrand2=109 km/s, s=50 km/s

Vrand3=82 km/s, s=13 km/s

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV region

Page 76: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Time scale variations of Column Density for the five components (1010 cm-2)

The Oe star HD 93521. The Si IV regionSi IV regions (1st component)

Column Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

CD

Si IV regions (2nd component)Column Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0,00

1,00

2,00

3,00

4,00

5,00

6,00

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

CD

Si IV regions (3rd component)Column Density (10^10 cm^-2)

0,00

0,50

1,00

1,50

2,00

2,50

3,00

3,50

1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000

Year

CD

Page 77: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Fitting some AGNs spectral lines

The present work of our scientific group is to study the complex structure of some AGNs spectral lines with the proposed model in order to understand the origin of DACs and SACs phenomena.Some days before, Dr Chatzichristou presented some first ideas about this problemIn the following figures we present fits of some AGNs complex spectral lines.

Page 78: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

3C351 CIV λ1548.187

λ 1550.772

The fit of C IV resonance lines (λλ 1548.187, 1550. 772 Å) with the proposed model. The green line indicates the difference between the observed and the

theoretical line profile.

Page 79: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In this figure we can see the fitting of the C IV UV doublet of an AGN (PG 0946+301) that presents DACs, with the proposed model.

Page 80: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In these figures we can see the fitting of some AGN spectral lines that present SACs, with the proposed model.

Page 81: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

In these figures we can see the fitting of some AGN spectral lines that present SACs, with

the proposed model.

Page 82: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Conclusions1. Using the proposed model, we can calculate the values of some parameters such as the rotational, the random and the radial velocities, the FWHM, the optical depth, the absorbed or emitted Energy, the Column Density and the Gaussian Standard Deviation, as well as the relation among them. This means that now we can try to understand the mechanism that is responsible for the DACs or SACs phenomenon.2. The acceptance of SACs and DACs phenomena as the reason of the spectral lines complex structure lead us to accept smaller broadening, FWHM, optical depths, column densities and different rotation, radial and random velocities, because now the idea is that the complex line shape does non present a single spectral line, but a group of satellite components (DACs or SACs). From these new ideas we have taken different values of the parameters that, (perhaps) lead us to a different mechanism for the construction of the density regions that produce the DACs or SACs regions.

Page 83: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

3. The detected time scale variation of the parameters values in the C IV, N IV, N V and Si IV density regions in the UV spectrum of the Oe star HD 93521 indicates that the radial, rotational and random velocities, the column densities, and the optical depths present only small variations.This fact lead us to accept that matter which creates DACs or SACs remains practically stable during the studied period of 18 years.An other explanation of this phenomenon is that in the area where we can detect high density regions, matter flows, and only the physical properties (conditions) which lead to high density, remain stable (for example magnetic fields or shocks from a companion in the case of a binary system).

Page 84: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

But the main questions remain………

1.What is the origin and the mechanism that permit the periodic ejection of mass from the equator of rapidly rotating Hot Emission Stars?

2.What is the origin and the mechanism responsible for the construction and the long time stability of density regions that produce DACs and SACs phenomena and lie in the ejected matter?

These great questions and many others that arise from the study of hot emission stars and AGNs with the proposed model, wait for future answers.

Page 85: The DACs and SACs effects from stars to Quasars.  Some first general notices

Thank you very much for your attention


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