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The Gold Rushes of the 1860s

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1. The Gold Rushes of the 1860s. How significant was the impact of the gold rushes on New Zealand, as a growing nation?. 2. Introduction: The Situation. 3. Introduction: Revision Activity Breaks. Please look to the Resource Sheet in front of you…. 4. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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PowerPoint Presentation

The Gold Rushes of the 1860s

How significant was the impact of the gold rushes on New Zealand, as a growing nation?

1 In the 1860s, New Zealand experienced a series of gold rushes. The search for gold lured many men to our country, and eventually led to more permanent settlement. By the end of this PowerPoint, I hope everyone will better be able to grasp the significant impact the gold rushes had on New Zealand, as a growing nation. Before we get into the teaching however, I want to present to you all a situation, and explain how you will play an active part in this lesson. 1Introduction: The Situation

2 The situation I present to you all is this: It is 1860, and you are a young man living in Britain. We will call you William. Ever since dropping out of school, you have struggled to earn a living. So when you hear of an abundance of gold just waiting to be found in some place they call New Zealand, you eagerly embark half way around the world. The voyage is long and dreadful, but you arrive intact. The very next day you make your first purchase of a pick, shovel, sluice-box and cradle, and begin your search for gold. [Hand everyone a Resource Sheet each]. On the Resource Sheet in front of you, you will see a sack. It is in your sack that you will store any gold nuggets you extract - or rather, earn during the activities. It should be your aim during this lesson to collect as many gold nuggets as you can. Now that you know the situation, listen up, because I will explain just how you can earn this gold.

2Introduction:Revision Activity BreaksPlease look to the Resource Sheet in front of you

3 Please look to the Resource Sheet in front of you for a summary of what I am about to explain. 1) Every couple of slides we will take a break. Here is your opportunity to get up from your desks because its time for William to start mining for gold! I ask that you all pick and move to one of four areas set up around the classroom. You have a choice from Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, and Otago [point to each corresponding sign around the classroom as I say them]. These represent four popular mining areas in New Zealand during the 1860s. There are no restrictions on where you choose to mine you may want to return to the same area each time, or try mining some place new. 2) Your main aim during each break is to try and extract as many gold nuggets as possible. On my desk I have a pile of yellow stickers [hold them up for class for them to see], each representing one gold nugget. So how does William get his hands on this gold? Well, during each break I will provide you all with an activity that reviews the previous few slides a reason for you to pay attention during the PowerPoint! Complete the revision activity as best you can, following the instructions on the sheet. After time is up we will mark for answers. One tick earns you one gold nugget. Line up at my desk to collect your earnings, and store them safely within you sack. 3) Once you have collected and stored your earnings, return to the same mining area being worked on before. It is time for the class Gold Rush. To somewhat recreate the luck of being a gold miner in the right area at the right time, from this hat [hold it up for the class to see] I will draw out one of the four mining areas. Those of you lucky enough to be in the right area will each receive from me an additional gold nugget. 4) Finally, return to your desks for a continuation of the PowerPoint. Keep paying attention - you want to earn as many gold nuggets as you can during the next revision activity!

3Introduction: At the end of the LessonPrize winner: most successful William

Historical ideas New Zealands economy comprised of sustainable and unsustainable industriesThe demography of New Zealand underwent dramatic change during the gold rushes The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologies The race to find gold in New Zealand attracted various races of people

4 At the end of the lesson, I will ask you all to total up your gold nuggets out of a possible maximum of 40. The most successful William, who has collected the most gold nuggets, will be able to trade them in with me for a prize. So now you all understand what's at stake, lets get into the learning. In this PowerPoint I will present a range of historical ideas, with these being as follows: - New Zealands economy comprised of sustainable and unsustainable industries The demography of New Zealand underwent dramatic change during the gold rushes The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologies - The race to find gold in New Zealand attracted various races of people These main historical ideas will be italicized in silver at the top of every slide, for your clarity. 4New Zealands economy comprised of sustainable and unsustainable industriesEarly New Zealand

Potatoes and pigs were popular items traded by Maori.A scene from North Cape. Whales were prized for their oil, baleen and ambergris.

5 From the arrival of the first Pakeha in New Zealand in the late 1700s there was a lively spirit of trade with Maori. Up to 1820, this was in the form of direct barter. Economic activity quickly progressed to exploiting resources that would be more profitable. In the early 1800s this was evident in a booming whaling and sealing industry. These avenues for profit soon declined however, due to the unsustainable nature of the resources. As a result, Pakeha attention quickly spread to other places.

5New Zealands economy comprised of sustainable and unsustainable industriesTypes of Industries

Sustainable: those industries which make use of a resource, without depleting or damaging it, for long term use.

Unsustainable: those industries which make use of a resource, but in a way that depletes or damages so to comprise its use for the long term.

So where does gold fit in?

6 With the raw necessities (such as capital investment, labour, and equipment) major industries soon became established in New Zealand. These were a combination of the sustainable and unsustainable. As you can see on the slide, a sustainable industry is one which make use of a resource, without depleting or damaging it, for long term use. To complement this definition, as defined by the World Commission on Economic Development, to be sustainable is to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. An unsustainable industry, on the other hand, is one which makes use of a resource, but in a way that depletes or damages, so to comprise its use for the long term. Early on in New Zealand, the exploitation of a number of renewable resources was so extensive, that eventually these industries proved unsustainable in the same area. Once the resource was used it was gone, but not necessarily throughout the country, or forever. Industries based on non-renewable resources were known as extractive industries. So where do you think gold fits in? Remember, gold is a non-renewable resource. Lets do the first activity and find out.

6Activity One:Sustainable vs. UnsustainableDo nowGet up from your desks! Move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago.

Instructions for the activityAre on the activity sheet.

7 Could everyone please get up from theirs desks. Pick and move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago. [Hand out Activity One Sustainable vs. Unsustainable sheet to each student]. I will now give you until the end of the song (roughly two and a half minutes) to individually complete the activity sheet as best you can. Instructions are on the sheet. [Give the class time, until the song finishes, to complete the activity]. We will mark now for answers. Your score will be out of 8. Please give yourself a tick for every one you get correct. [Refer to Answers to Activity One Sustainable vs. Unsustainable]. Remember, one tick earns you one gold nugget. Line up at my desk to collect the appropriate number of gold nuggets earned from this round. [Hand out appropriate number of stickers to each student, to be placed in the sack on their Resource Sheet]. Please return to the same mining area being worked on before, because it is Gold Rush time. [Pick an area out of the hat]. Those in the area of have each earned themselves an extra gold nugget! Could everyone please return to their desks. We will now continue with the PowerPoint.

7The demography of New Zealand underwent dramatic change during the gold rushes Resources and Settlement

8 Early on, economic development was focused on at a local or regional level. Settlement often led to the use of resources, but in some cases this was the other way round. As was with the situation of gold, the discovery of a resource led to settlement. From the onset of Pakeha settlement, the majority were in rural areas. In 1858 over 66% of Pakehas lived rural, and this climbed to its peak in 1871 at over 75%. A major factor in this increase was gold. Gold rushes brought masses of people to rural areas.

8The demography of New Zealand underwent dramatic change during the gold rushes NumbersYearMaoriPakeha184070,000 - 90,0002,000185860,00060,000187137,520254,928

9 The makeup of New Zealands population underwent dramatic change from about 1840 onwards. In 1840, the Maori population was estimated to be around 70,000-90,000, while Pakeha was estimated to be 2,000. 1858 was a significant year, for this was when Pakeha and Maori numbers drew equal, at around 60,000 each. From this table, can anyone identify the trend from 1840 to 1871, in Maori population numbers? [Turn to class, and choose someone with their hand up. Answer: decreasing trend]. Yes, there was a noticeable decline in the Maori population. This decrease was due to a number of reasons which included:A lack of immunity to European diseasesPoor living conditions as well as a lack of hygiene and sanitationThe loss of land and low productivity subsistence agriculture, which led many Maori to have a poor diet A decline in fertility rates, linked to disease and poor nutritionTo some extent, warfare. Conditions during war made it more difficult to raise children and naturally grow the Maori population. In addition, casualties were mainly young men of an age when they would otherwise be having children From this table, can anyone identify the trend from 1840 to 1871, in Pakeha population numbers? [Turn to class, and choose someone with their hand up. Answer: increasing trend]. Yes, Pakeha numbers noticeably grew. This was due to migration gain, through such things as the Wakefield scheme, and from natural increase. The search for gold was another significant factor in Pakeha population growth the main cause of the 65% increase during the 1860s. The huge 116,000 influx of Pakeha during the decade of the 1860s saw mainly young, unmarried, male migrants come into our country. With such a large gender imbalance, can anyone here suggest some of the social issues that may have arisen? [Turn to class, and choose someone with their hand up. Answers include but not limited to: disorderly behaviour, drinking culture, gambling, immortality, prostitution, violence]. Yes, some very valid points. Now, ponder on this. Excluding Maori, in 1861 there were only 622 females for every 1,000 males so back then, there was a high demand for women. By 1871, Maori numbers had dropped to 37,520. In comparison, at 254,928, Pakeha numbers were on the rise. 9The demography of New Zealand underwent dramatic change during the gold rushes North Island vs. South IslandMost Maori lived in the North Island. Two-thirds of Maori lived north of Lake Taupo.

57% of Pakeha lived in the North Island in 1858.

63% of Pakeha lived in the South Island in 1867.

51% of Pakeha lived in the North Island in 1896.North Island regained its dominance, and it has remained this way since.

10 Between 1840 and 1900, the balance of Pakeha between the North Island and South Island changed twice. Throughout the 19th century, most Maori lived in the North Island, with about two-thirds living north of Lake Taupo. Tribal wars lead to large scale Maori migration during the 1820s and 1830s. Wars with Pakeha (over land and sovereignty) led to further migration in the 1860s. For the rest of the century, Maori settlements were mainly rural, and the number of fortified pa dwindled. Between 1840 and 1861, more Pakeha lived in the North Island than the South Island. This could be seen in 1858, with 57% of Pakeha living in the North Island. This balance, however, shifted in 1861 in favour of the South Island. In 1867, 63% of Pakeha lived in the South Island. From 1896, dominance again shifted back to the North Island. 51% of Pakeha lived in the North Island in 1896. So what were the reasons for these changes in New Zealands demography? Lets do the next activity and find out.

10Activity Two:Population DistributionDo nowGet up from your desks! Move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago.

Instructions for the activityAre on the activity sheet.

11 Could everyone please get up from theirs desks. Pick and move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago. [Hand out Activity Two Population Distribution sheet to each student]. I will now give you until the end of the song (roughly two and a half minutes) to individually complete the activity sheet as best you can. Instructions are on the sheet. [Give the class time, until the song finishes, to complete the activity]. We will mark now for answers. Your score will be out of 12. Please give yourself a tick for every one you get correct. [Refer to Answers to Activity Two Population Distribution]. Remember, one tick earns you one gold nugget. Line up at my desk to collect the appropriate number of gold nuggets earned from this round. [Hand out appropriate number of stickers to each student, to be placed in the sack on their Resource Sheet]. Please return to the same mining area being worked on before, because it is Gold Rush time. [Pick an area out of the hat]. Those in the area of have each earned themselves an extra gold nugget! Could everyone please return to their desks. We will now continue with the PowerPoint.

11The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologiesMajor Gold Rushes

1) 1852: Charles Ring makes first discovery of payable gold.

2) 1861: Gabriels gully almost instantly becomes a canvas town the first gold rush.

3) 1862: 40kg deposit of gold made by Irish Christopher Reilly and American Horatio Hartley. Major rush to Dunstan . Thames1867-68

Marlborough1864

West Coast1864-67

123Otago 1861-64

12 The search for gold was a worldwide happening. Many of New Zealands gold miners had previously mined in California, Victoria, and New South Wales. Of those miners that left New Zealand after the gold rushes, some would continue searching in Queensland, Western Australia, or South Africa. Although rumours of gold surfaced as early as 1820, it is widely accepted that the first discovery of payable gold was made by Charles Ring in 1852, near the Coromandel. This was just of the first of many, but it was the 1861 discovery by Gabriel Read in Otago that set off the first major gold rush in our country. Almost instantly, Gabriels gully became a canvas town. This was soon followed by a 40kg deposit of gold on the Treasury desk in Dunedin, in 1862, made by Irish Christopher Reilly and American Horatio Hartley. This caused a major rush to Dunstan. The main period of gold extraction occurred in Otago, between 1861 and 1864. Other areas that maintained significant extraction include Thames, Marlborough, and the West Coast of the South Island.

12The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologiesTypes of Gold Mining Alluvial - v for rivers (Small scale)PicksShovelsCradlesSluice-boxesLittle capital

CradleSluice-box

13 Now, searching for gold is not as easy of putting your pan in a river and hoping for the best. Ones of the two types of gold mining is alluvial. A clue to remembering this: the v of alluvial relates to gold sourced from rivers. Along with a spade, the method I mentioned just before is called panning. Although it worked where alluvial gold was rich, panning was mainly used for prospecting - which is the act of searching for new gold deposits. Small-scale alluvial extraction made use of simple machines known as cradles. These were rocked back and forth, the result of which saw the heavier gold collect on the bottom. These cradles were often made from wooden liquor boxes who knew they could be so handy! Other equipment used for small-scale alluvial gold extraction included picks, shovels, and sluice-boxes. Sluice-boxes, also known as Long Toms, were the main methods for recovering gold. Each step of these wooden boxes featured a lip which let lighter materials wash away, while trapping the heavier gold. The result of this process saw the heavy gold, along with some gravel, wash up in a pan. As you may have realized, alluvial gold extraction would have been impossible without water as it does relate to rivers! This is why at each of New Zealands goldfields, small dams and water channels were typically evident. For extraction on a small scale, little capital was required, and those involved would share the return. 13The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologiesTypes of Gold Mining Alluvial - v for rivers (Large scale)DamsHydraulic power (flumming)Companies raised capital and used wage labour

14 For larger scale alluvial mining, resources were pooled. This allowed for the creation of dams, which enlarged the scale of sluicing. In the background of the photograph, you may just be able to make out fluming - a constructed water channel used to recover alluvial gold. High pressure water would run down the elevated fluming and wash away gravel and silt from the hillside, so that the gold could be extracted. Companies were often behind these large scale alluvial extractions. Capital and the ability to wage labour allowed for the construction of dredges, to reach the underwater depths of rivers and lagoons. This occurred in Otago and the West Coast. 14The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologiesTypes of Gold Mining Quartz r for rocks(Large scale)Machinery and technology needed to drive mines and break up rockBegan in Thames in 1867-1868. Used in Reefton in 1873Partnerships and companies set up, with the ability to pay workers. Quartz minings long-term nature meant it typically led to more permanent settlement

15 The other type of gold mining is quartz. A clue to remembering this: the r of quartz relates to gold sourced from rocks. This type of mining was usually on a large scale. Machinery and more extensive technology was needed to drive mines and break up rock, in order to extract the gold. Quartz mining began in the Thames area of the Coromandel in 1867 to 1868. This gave Auckland a nice economic boost. It was also used in 1873 near Reefton, and there were other quartz mines elsewhere, though these were less important. The capital required for this type of gold mining was large and thus partnerships, and later companies, were set up. Quartz mining goldfields were certainly no place for the individual miner. Instead, individuals were hired by companies that had the ability to employ wage labour. In addition, due to its long-term nature, quartz mining typically led to more permanent settlement compared to the alluvial method. 15The gold rushes were part of a world-wide phenomenon, and saw the use of a range of technologiesAlluvial or Quartz?Dillmanstown, West Coast

16 Here is a picture of a gold mining site at Dillmanstown, on the West Coast. Can anyone tell me whether this is an example of alluvial or quartz mining? If you can back this up with a reason for your answer, you will receive a gold nugget for your sack. [Turn to class, and choose someone with their hand up. Answer: alluvial mining. Reason: evidence of fluming]. Now, I hope you were all paying attention, because we are about to do another activity to test your newly learnt knowledge. 16Activity Three:Alluvial vs. Quartz Mining Do nowGet up from your desks! Move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago.

Instructions for the activityAre on the activity sheet.

17 Could everyone please get up from theirs desks. Pick and move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago. [Hand out Activity Three Types of Gold Mining sheet to each student]. I will now give you until the end of the song (roughly two and a half minutes) to individually complete the activity sheet as best you can. Instructions are on the sheet. [Give the class time, until the song finishes, to complete the activity]. We will mark now for answers. Your score will be out of 10. Please give yourself a tick for every one you get correct. [Refer to Answers to Activity Three Types of Gold Mining]. Remember, one tick earns you one gold nugget. Line up at my desk to collect the appropriate number of gold nuggets earned from this round. [Hand out appropriate number of stickers to each student, to be placed in the sack on their Resource Sheet]. Please return to the same mining area being worked on before, because it is Gold Rush time. [Pick an area out of the hat]. Those in the area of have each earned themselves an extra gold nugget! Could everyone please return to their desks. We will now continue with the PowerPoint.

17The race to find gold in New Zealand attracted various races of people European Miners

18 The gold rushes very much altered the course of New Zealands development, as an influx of young, unmarried but eager men flooded into hotspots. What was created was a huge imbalance in the age-sex structure of the South Island. This disproportion was to the extent that women working as prostitutes in these areas, as well the others of the huge support industry, in a sense struck gold with the rushes. Financially, they benefited more than the actual miners! These male miners were very much diverse in their makeup, though the British were dominant. The Victorian goldfields had attracted many in the 1850s. Many of the British miners there moved onto New Zealand in the 1860s. They simply went where they thought they could get rich quick. As you can see from the chart to the left, on the goldfields of Otago there comprised roughly of an equal proportion of Scottish, Irish and English. This was a different story on the West Coast. As shown on the chart to the right, the majority of miners there were Irish. They made up between a third and a half of all miners in the region. In reality, only a few of these men became rich from gold. The mother lode which many believed to exist in Otago was never found. A number of miners perished in harsh snowstorms or winter floods, and a diet made up solely of tea and flour (the typical British), meant a poor diet and the development of scurvy in others. 18The race to find gold in New Zealand attracted various races of peopleMaori MinersHori Watene described gold as a curse, because it raised Pakeha interest in their lands.

19 Traditionally, Maori held little value for gold. Instead they prized pounamu (greenstone). On trips to collect pounamu they became familiar with the South Island mountain passes and rivers, and is why Maori were often employed as guides by early gold prospectors. Once Maori realised the worth of gold to Pakeha, some joined the rushes. The promise of the West Coast was revealed by a group of Maori prospectors. After showing and being questioned by a Collingwood shopkeeper, on their find of coarse and unique gold, they led him to the Arahura river. By 1858, around 600 Maori men were working the Collingwood fields along with 1,300 Pakeha. On the Otago goldfields, however, Maori were less common. In the 1860s, Maori in the Coromandel strongly opposed opening up their lands to gold extraction. There was, however, little that could be done to keep Pakeha away from gold. In 1835, Hori Watene of the Ngati Tamatera tribe described gold as a curse. He said this because Pakeha interest in their lands was heightened, as they sought to fulfil their hunger for gold.

19The race to find gold in New Zealand attracted various races of peopleChinese MinersMr Punchs Welcome, Otago 1865

20 Above is a cartoon which depicts the coming of Chinese to Otago. The man on the right is clearly welcoming them. Why do you think the Dunedin Chamber of Commerce invited the Chinese? A) Chinese paid to stake a mining claim in the area. Or B) the Dunedin Chamber of Commerce was concerned with the loss of miners from goldfields in Otago, to the newest rush on the West Coast. [Turn to class, and choose someone with their hand up. Answer: B]. Yes, B is correct. The Dunedin Chamber of Commerce was very concerned with the loss of miners to the West Coast and so, determined to keep the economy going, they invited Chinese to come and replace those Pakeha who had left. These Chinese were mainly from the Guangdong province. They came with the intention of earning money for their families back home, and eventually return there themselves. Having faced prejudice and trouble during previous gold rushes elsewhere around the world, Chinese miners learned from their experiences. Many of the European miners in New Zealand disliked their presence, and so they kept separate and set up their own communities. These were largely self-sufficient. Their diet comprised mainly of rice, pork and imported Chinese food, and they relaxed by gambling or sometimes even opium, which they preferred over alcohol. The methods they used to mine were unique. They would work meticulously over an area and little gold was left behind. They chose to rework previously mined areas because the European miners before them were somewhat inefficient a significant amount of gold was lost in the washing up process of the Europeans. 20Activity Four: Impacts of Gold Do nowGet up from your desks! This is our last activity. Move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago.

Instructions for the activityAre on the activity sheet.

21 Could everyone please get up from theirs desks for our last activity. Pick and move to one of the four areas set up around the classroom. You can choose to mine in either Thames, Marlborough, the West Coast, or Otago. [Hand out Activity Four Impacts of Gold sheet to each student]. I will now give you until the end of the song (roughly two and a half minutes) to individually complete the activity sheet as best you can. Instructions are on the sheet. [Give the class time, until the song finishes, to complete the activity]. We will mark now for answers. Your score will be out of 10. Please give yourself a tick for every one you get correct. [Refer to Answers to Activity Four Impacts of Gold ]. Remember, one tick earns you one gold nugget. Line up at my desk to collect the appropriate number of gold nuggets earned from this round. [Hand out appropriate number of stickers to each student, to be placed in the sack on their Resource Sheet]. Please return to the same mining area being worked on before, because it is Gold Rush time. [Pick an area out of the hat]. Those in the area of have each earned themselves an extra gold nugget! Could everyone please return to their desks. 21Prize Winner: Most Successful WilliamDo nowTotal up the amount of gold nuggets you collected out of 40.

And the most successful William was

Thank you for your concentration for this lesson!

22 Now it is time to find out who was the most successful William for this lesson. Could everyone please total up the amount of gold nuggets collected, out of a possible maximum of 40. [Find out who received the highest number of gold nuggets in the class, and award them the prize]. Thank you all for your concentration this lesson. I hope you are now better able to grasp the significant impact the gold rushes had on New Zealand as a growing nation. 22BibliographySlide 4, left image: Maori bargaining with a pakeha - Economy - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (n.d.). Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/economy/9/2Slide 4, right image: Trade - TREATY 2 U. (n.d.). TREATY 2U. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.treaty2u.govt.nz/maori-and-the-british/trade/index.htmSlide 5, image: Central Otago Gold | discover New Zealand's goldmining history. (n.d.). Our Story | Central Otago, New Zealand | Explore New Zealand's most beautiful landscape. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.aworldofdifference.co.nz/central-otago-new-zealand/central-otago-gold_idl=2_idt=279_id=1344_.htmlSlide 5, quote: Gold mining and sustainability: A critical reflection. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Gold_mining_and_sustainability:_A_critical_reflection

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23Slide 4, left image: Maori bargaining with a pakeha - Economy - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (n.d.). Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/economy/9/2Slide 4, right image: Trade - TREATY 2 U. (n.d.). TREATY 2U. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.treaty2u.govt.nz/maori-and-the-british/trade/index.htmSlide 5, image: Central Otago Gold | discover New Zealand's goldmining history. (n.d.). Our Story | Central Otago, New Zealand | Explore New Zealand's most beautiful landscape. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.aworldofdifference.co.nz/central-otago-new-zealand/central-otago-gold_idl=2_idt=279_id=1344_.htmlSlide 5, quote: Gold mining and sustainability: A critical reflection. (n.d.). Encyclopedia of Earth. Retrieved July 6, 2012, from http://www.eoearth.org/article/Gold_mining_and_sustainability:_A_critical_reflection

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Chinese mining legacy: New Zealand Historic Places Trust Pouhere Taonga. (n.d.). Home: New Zealand Historic Places Trust Pouhere Taonga. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.historic.org.nz/en/Publications/HeritageNZMagazine/HeritageNz2003/HNZ03-RichHistory.aspx

Ethnic Minorities Gold in New Zealand. (n.d.). Gold in New Zealand. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://goldminingonline.wordpress.com/ethnic-minorities/

Gardner, P. (n.d.). Gold Mining in 19th Century New Zealand. M GOLD, AGRICULTURE, PASTORALISM and TIMBER. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from http://mags13history.wikispaces.com/file/view/The+significance+of+Gold+Mining+in+New+Zealand+book.pdf

Langton, G., Taylor, B., & Hasler, J. B. (2000). Year 13 history, New Zealand in the 19th century: study guide. Auckland, N.Z.: ESA Publications.

Please note: Any image which is not referenced was obtained via the ClipArt tool from Microsoft PowerPoint

24Slide 14, image: Dillman Town, by James Ring, ca. 1870s. Alexander Turnbull Library. 1/2-044217-F | Services to Schools. (n.d.). Services to Schools | Supporting literacy and learning. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://schools.natlib.govt.nz/culture-identity-heritage/primary-sources/gallery/free-use-gallery/dillman-town-james-ring-ca-1870s-

Slide 16, image: OurSpace. (n.d.). OurSpace. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.ourspace.tepapa.com/media/6747

Slide 18, images: Walrond, C. (n.d.). Miners origins - Gold and gold mining - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/gold-and-gold-mining/9/2

Slide 19, image: Mere pounamu, Hauraki tribes - Pounamu jade or greenstone - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (n.d.). Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/pounamu-jade-or-greenstone/7/1

Slide 20, image: Mr Punchs welcome - Gold and gold mining - Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. (n.d.). Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/gold-and-gold-mining/10/3

Chinese mining legacy: New Zealand Historic Places Trust Pouhere Taonga. (n.d.). Home: New Zealand Historic Places Trust Pouhere Taonga. Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.historic.org.nz/en/Publications/HeritageNZMagazine/HeritageNz2003/HNZ03-RichHistory.aspx

Ethnic Minorities Gold in New Zealand. (n.d.). Gold in New Zealand. Retrieved July 11, 2012, from http://goldminingonline.wordpress.com/ethnic-minorities/

Gardner, P. (n.d.). Gold Mining in 19th Century New Zealand. M GOLD, AGRICULTURE, PASTORALISM and TIMBER. Retrieved June 11, 2012, from http://mags13history.wikispaces.com/file/view/The+significance+of+Gold+Mining+in+New+Zealand+book.pdf

Langton, G., Taylor, B., & Hasler, J. B. (2000). Year 13 history, New Zealand in the 19th century: study guide. Auckland, N.Z.: ESA Publications.

Please note: Any image which is not referenced was obtained via the ClipArt tool from Microsoft PowerPoint

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