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The Last Theorists

Date post: 17-May-2015
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The Last Theorists! Bathes Hall Jameson Foucault Denzin
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The Last Theorists!



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Bathes –Semiotics

• The study of signs and symbols (denotative and connotative)

• Bathes argues that the interpretation of meaning lies with the audience and depends on the experiences, interests, beliefs and culture they bring with them (multiple meanings)

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• Hall again focuses on the audience and the different reading they can make of a text

• But in this case individuality is downplayed and it is more about the relationship between the audience and the producer/institution making the text

• The Producer will have in mind a way in which they want their text to be read and we as an audience can either accept or reject that reading

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• Hegemonic Reading– Reader accepts and reproduces the preferred

meanings of the text (as set by the ‘institution’)• Negotiated Reading– Reader broadly accepts the preferred reading but

resists or modifies elements • Oppositional Reading– Reader understands the preferred reading but

rejects it

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HallReading FOTC Catfish Lady Gaga




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• Pomo for Jameson is all about the modern day and how it has lost connects to the past.

• In regards to ‘reality’ Jameson argues that we make no effort to get to know the ‘real’ but instead like and get to know the exaggerated replicas of people (simulacra – Hyperreality)– Less on concern about the past– The entertainment value is more important than historical

accuracy/ meaning eg Music Vidoes – ‘Historical deafness’– We live in the here and now (instantaneous) – Depthlessness: there is not deep thought/meaning/ ideology


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Foucault • Panopticalisation – gaining power through

watching• We live in a society where we are always being

watched and want to be watched• We like watching other people

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Denzin (1988)

• Past and present boundaries are blurred• Blunt statements about social climate• Unreal is real• Present the unpresentable• Sexuality/violence as a tool for freedom• 2 categories of women – red and white• Remnants of the past used to signify safe and