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The Modern Mediterranean The Iberian Peninsula Peninsula The Balkan Peninsula Peninsula The Italian...

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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • The Modern Mediterranean The Iberian Peninsula Peninsula The Balkan Peninsula Peninsula The Italian Peninsula Peninsula
  • Slide 3
  • The Ancient Mediterranean Fertile Crescent Empires AncientEgypt AncientGreece Ancient Rome AncientCarthage
  • Slide 4
  • The Geography of Rome
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  • The Role of Geography in Ancient Rome
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  • Trade and contact with other civilizations was possible but invasion was also a constant threat, thus a strong military developed. 1.Alps to the north separate Italy from the rest of Europe. They offer some but not total protection from invasion because of natural passes. 2.Apennines run the length of Italy but do not hinder trade or travel. Effects: The Role of Geography in Ancient Rome Mountains: Two Major Ranges - Alps and Apennines impact Italy
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  • Northern Italy The Alps
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  • Northern Italy The Apennines
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  • People turned inland for trade rather than to the sea as the Greeks had.People turned inland for trade rather than to the sea as the Greeks had. The long coastlines made invasion easier.The long coastlines made invasion easier. 1.Long coastlines with fewer natural harbors than Greece. 2.Rivers are generally short and shallow. Poorly suited for travel and transportation. The Role of Geography in Ancient Rome Seas: Adriatic Sea lies to the East and Mediterranean to south and west Effects:
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  • The Seas The Italian Riviera
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  • The Romans were mostly self-sufficient in early history but turned to trade to supplement food supply as empire grew.The Romans were mostly self-sufficient in early history but turned to trade to supplement food supply as empire grew. 1.Most soil is sandy and easily erodes. Best suited for grazing. 2.Northern valleys are fertile enough for grains. 3.Most other areas are good for vegetable, grapes, olives, and citrus fruits. Effects: The Role of Geography in Ancient Rome Land, Soil and Vegetation: Most of land is foothills and mountains except in the valleys of the north.
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  • The Land Central Italy
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  • Northern Italy - Tuscany
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  • Italian Farmland
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  • Like the Greeks, Romans spent much time outdoors socializing and trading ideas.Like the Greeks, Romans spent much time outdoors socializing and trading ideas. Citrus, grapes, and olives were major exports for trade.Citrus, grapes, and olives were major exports for trade. Climate: Mediterranean Climate 1.Mild temperatures and plentiful winter precipitation. 2.Suitable for citrus, grapes, olives, and vegetables. Effects: The Role of Geography in Ancient Rome
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  • Mild Mediterranean Climate
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  • Italy in 750 BC Three Groups of Early Settlers in Italy Latins 1000 B.C. Etruscans 900 B.C. Greeks 750 B.C.
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  • The Latins Arrived around 1000 B.C. Settled in area known as Latium. Latium Primarily farmers who lived in villages along the Tiber River. Established the city of Rome around 753 B.C. Considered to be the first Romans The Ancient City of Rome Built on Seven Hills Along the Tiber River
  • Slide 21
  • The Etruscans Arrived around 900 B.C. Settled in area known as Etruria in northern Italy. Etruria Skilled metal workers and advanced in engineering. Developed the arch. Had a writing system which was adopted by the Romans and became the basis of Latin. Influenced early Roman religion.
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  • The Greeks in Italy Began establishing colonies in southern Italy between 750 and 600 B.C. southern Italy southern Italy Greek cities became prosperous and spread trade contacts throughout Italy. Introduced Romans to Greek culture. Had a strong influence on Roman trade, architecture, politics, and religion. Romans adopted Greek religion and gods.
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  • Early Settlements in Italy Etruria Latium Greek Colonies
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  • The Mythical Founding of Rome: Romulus & Remus
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  • Early Rome Before the Republic 1.The Latins and Etruscans began to merge and became known as Romans. 2.Around 600 B.C. an Etruscan was elected king of Rome and established the Tarquin dynasty. 3.Rome began emerging into a major city with impressive engineering and architecture. 4.Great temples and the forum were built during this time. 5.In 509 B.C. a harsh and unjust Tarquin king was overthrown by the Romans. The Romans declared they would never again be ruled by a king. 6.The Romans established a republic that would last for nearly 500 years. This began Romes climb to glory and world prestige.
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  • 1000 BC 3000 BC 900 BC Neolithic Culture Latin Settlement Etruscan Settlement 600 BC 509 BC 264 BC 146 BC 73 BC Etruscan Rule of Rome Establishment of the Republic Punic Wars Spartacus Slave Revolts 60 BC 44 BC First Triumvirate Formed Assassination of Julius Caesar EARLY PERIOD THE RUPUBLIC ANCIENT ROMAN HISTORY THE REPUBLIC Greek Colonization 750 BC
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  • Patricians(Aristocrats) Plebeians Farmers Merchants Artisans Freedmen Slaves City SlavesCity Slaves Household SlavesHousehold Slaves (Early Republic)
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  • Patricians vs. Plebeians 1.The Patricians were wealthy landowners and held most of the power. 2.They inherited their power and social status and claimed to be descendants from the original Romans.
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  • Patricians vs. Plebeians 3.Plebeians were the common people and made up the majority of Romans. 4. Plebeians were citizens, could vote but couldnt hold powerful government office. 5. Eventually Plebeians gained the right to appoint tribunes to protect their rights. 6. Around 450 B.C. the Plebeians began writing down Romes laws and posting them. These were known as the Twelve Tables.
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  • The Twelve Tables, 450 BCE Provided political and social rights for the plebeians. Established the idea that all free citizens had a right to protection by the law.
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