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The Music Industry Aim – To understand who controls the music industry.

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The Music Industry The Music Industry Aim – To understand who controls Aim – To understand who controls the music industry the music industry
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  • The Music IndustryAim To understand who controls the music industry

  • Read Koopa articleHow could it be related to Marxist theory?:Consumer as producerLondon rapper Master Shortie is among a new wave of artists to use digital technology to produce, market and distribute their music, almost completely cutting the music industrys A&R department.

  • The consumer as producer.

    The Marxist approach - Karl Marx said that one reason the masses were being dominated by the dominant ideology was through the media. What is the dominant ideology?The government, big businesses, religion..

    Antonio Gramsci; If you can control the means of production then you can control the message.In the 21st century digital world the means of production has been increasingly handed over to new groups of society us! The masses and not the dominant ideology are setting the agenda for making media.

    Dr Aleks Krotski - the democratising of the media through the internet

  • Who are the significant companies in the music industry?

    What do these companies have in common?

  • -Huge Multinational companies

    - Employ thousands of people

    - Most produce more than one type of media

    - Huge marketing and advertising budgets

    - Established, they have been around for a long time and are household names

    - They often work in collaboration with each other (e.g.. Sony and BMG)

    - Often U.S or Japanese owned.

  • Why are the big multi national companies the producers of music?

  • Multi nationals and New Tech.Large profits:

    The big four accounted for 71.7% of the global retail music sales:

    Universal Music Group 25.5% Sony BMG Music Entertainment 21.5% EMI Group 13.4% Warner Music Group 11.3% independent labels 28.4%

  • - Huge Multinational companies

    - Most produce more than one type of media

    - Huge marketing and advertising budgets

    - Established, they have been around for a long time and are household names

    - Often U.S or Japanese owned.

  • Case StudiesIn order to achieve success in this exam you will need to write about specific case studies in your essay. You should be very familiar with at least two record companies one major label and one independent label and the ways in which they operate.

    We will look at two together here and then in groups you will research into another two that you will present back to the class in the form of a PowerPoint.

  • Group case study presentations5 minutes long Roughly 5 PPT slidesTo be presented next ThursdayWe have the rest of today and Monday next week to work on these

  • 1 (Universal): Ola, Violet, Ryan2 (Sony BMG): Lauren, Senam, Steven3 (Warner): Zak, Daphen, Elise4 (Independent): Shanice, Robert, Ingrid5 (Independent): Lois, Josephine, Chanice6 (Independent): Denai, Paul, Tiffany7 (Independent): Laxsan, Chantal

  • When and where were they founded?Do they specialise in a specific genre?What other media industries are they involved in (vertical integration)?Who are their biggest artists?How have they been affected by the credit crunch and illegal downloading?Did they pioneer any new musical technologies?Do they own any smaller subsidiary companies?Consider these words/concepts: multinational vs local, synergy, proliferation, vertical integration

  • EMIEMI is one of the world's leading music companies, home to some of the most successful and best known recording artists, songwriters and music catalogues.

    EMI has two operational divisions - EMI Music and EMI Music Publishing. - EMI Music deals with the artists and the promotion of music

    EMI Publishing looks after the rights of songs. Every time a song is played on radio or used on TV for example the publishing company ensures that the artist gets paid. This is a successful source of income for the company and they look after acts on other record labels as well as their own.

  • EMI Record Companies OwnedEMI have bought out and also own lots of other record companies:

  • EMI Artists

  • History Key DevelopmentsThe Electric and Musical Industries Ltd formed in March 1931 from the merger of the UK Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, famous at the time for its record label "His Master's Voice". From its beginning, the company was involved in both the manufacture of recording and playback equipment and the provision of music to play on its machines

    In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London.

    EMI released its first LPs in 1952 and its first stereophonic recordings in 1955 (first on reel-to-reel tape and then LPs, beginning in 1958).

  • History Key DevelopmentsDuring the late 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s, the company enjoyed huge success. The groups and solo artists signed to EMI and its subsidiary labels -- including Parlophone, HMV, Columbia Graphophone and Capitol Records -- made EMI the best-known and most successful recording company in the world at that time, with a roster that included scores of major pop acts of the period including the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Hollies, Cilla Black and Pink Floyd.

  • Other reasons for multi-national ownership of the music industry.

    Experimental: They can afford to experiment with new ideas, genres, artists. Mainly because they buy out smaller independent companies.

    Competition: cant afford to be left behind and be taken over.

    Takeovers: Can afford to take over any direct competitors (e.g.. Sony and Bertelsmann)

    Public perceptions and image: can develop a brand loyalty.

  • Criticisms of multi national ownership

    Creates Monopolies. When a single media organisation dominates production and distribution in a particular industry. The music industry is controlled by the big four.

    Exploits the consumer.For many years the music industry was accused of exploiting the consumer particularly over the price of CDs. In the modern music consumer world, music can be obtained digitally for free, forcing the music industry to create on line music stores.

    Is culturally imperialistic.The idea that one culture can dominate and dictate to other cultures. This can be said of the music industry whereby in recent years US influenced music controls and dictates the market. E.g: Estelle American Boy

    Doesnt allow smaller independent media companies to flourish.The Smaller independent companies cannot compete with the big four, many of whom end up being bought out.

    Suppresses creative freedom for the artists.Many artists have complained that their record label dictates their creative output, not giving them the freedom to make the music they want to make. This is particularly true in the mainstream pop market where the brand is very important.

  • Support for the multi nationals

    Creates more consumer choice. Monopolies have more money and greater power than smaller companies and are therefore able to offer more.Established brands are maintained as the status quo. Customers have confidence in well known brands

    Saves smaller labels from going under. Investment from large companies can save small companies who cannot afford to compete.

    Creates advancements in media technology. A number of smaller companies merging under the one can afford to become more technologically advanced.

  • The artist versus the record industryWatch this discussion with John Kennedy the chief executive of the BPI.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=upmprBC2HiM

  • Quick Research Task.

    From the multi national music company you are given find out the following:

    - When were they founded?

    - What other media industries are they involved with?

    - Did they pioneer any music technology?

    - Who are their biggest selling artists?

    - What smaller subsidiary labels do they own?

  • 1 (Universal): Ola, Violet, Ryan2 (Sony BMG): Lauren, Senam, Steven3 (Warner): Zak, Daphen, Elise4 (Independent): Shanice, Robert, Ingrid5 (Independent): Lois, Josephine, Chanice6 (Independent): Denai, Paul, Tiffany7 (Independent): Laxsan, Chantal

  • When and where were they founded?Do they specialise in a specific genre?What other media industries are they involved in (vertical integration)?Who are their biggest artists?How have they been affected by the credit crunch and illegal downloading?Did they pioneer any new musical technologies?Do they own any smaller subsidiary companies?

  • Some (former) independent labelsMo WaxNude RecordsFactory RecordsSilvertone RecordsXL RecordingsDef Jam


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