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The translator’s immobility: English modern classics in Italy

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  • 7/30/2019 The translators immobility: English modern classics in Italy

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    Forum

    Te translators immobility E gl h cla c Italy

    Pa la V tU v ty B l g a

    a lat a act ta g t c lt , b t th p c v tat c t xtha a b a g h w th a ct act th ta g t la g ag . T

    p p t pa t c la ly v t th ca cla c : wh t a lat havt w k l t a y c at cc py g a p v tal p t th c /ta g tc lt , th y a pt t at g l t al a bl t wh ch b t ay aq a - l g aw th ha , a t th ac th - v g al a l ttl a p bl ; a th th , a t at t p cth pp cla cal q al t th cla c v wh th y a t p t th c . I th ll w g a t cl , I xa h w th a cla c ct a lat th y a p act c , b ta t at g y th t cal b vat by l k g at Ital a t a lat E gl h cla c . A a k a h t cally t pa ty b tw c a ta g t a h p , a th t a la-

    t v c th p t g g al , c p t p c Ital a vwh ch a ch w a l ga t tha th E gl h c t pa t .

    Keywords: c pt v t a lat t , c pa at v l t at , t a lat, l g l t at , l t a y cla c , h t y a g

    1. English classics in Italian translation

    D p t th h g g c t cal app a al, l t a y w k j y thc ly acc pt a a ly q t tat cla c . B g w ly k wa c g z a pa a g l t a y xc ll c , th w k a th t a la-t hav b th bj ct gl c pa at v t . What t black g, th gh, a w p p ct v th c t llat t a lat l t at

    a a wh l , a p c cally h w th a cla cal l t at ca g t a -lat th ch c (b th y awa th p c t). It th p p ct vthat I w ll att pt t k tch, w th pa t c la ga t th Ital a t a lat aw E gl h cla c .

    arget 21:2 (2009),333357. doi 10.1075/ta g t.21.2.06vissn 09241884 / e-issn 15699986 J h B ja P bl h g C pa y

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    334 Pa la V t

    A xa at th Ital a v E gl h a at v t xt wh cha w pa t th ca h w g ca t g la t , a p v a

    ght t th ( y ) that g v th act t a lat what

    p c v a cla c. T v y al h l ght th p t that t a latcla c cc py w th th Ital a l t a y p ly y t , a th c p -t ha w th th ta g t c lt (Ev -Z ha / ).

    T b l ct xa pl h w b l w Ja A t Emma ( ), G g El t Middlemarch ( ), a V g a W l o theLighthouse( ) h w tw a c g t c : a t ct l x cal a y -tact cal a h c t th c t xt, a a v all h ght g th g t .

    [] th w th a va tag that th at all y t h a y j y t[] a a y a l g Oct b a N v b v g t b t ggl th ghat Ha t l [] (A t 3/ : )[] tali a gl va tagg ch acc ava corrompere la purezza delle suemolte gioie [] lt l gh at tt b v b dovevano venir a rontate a Ha t l [] (A t : 3 )

    A g at tak , Ch tta , t p M B k , g g t l ct y g yla a that k th g, a ak g a pa l y c w-h . It w t . I

    w t t c c a g at al y l at t ; b t I aw t w l t . It l at v yth g; y ca l t th g al . N , that y t a t t llth t aw, a that k th g; a g v th a g-t l , y k w. B ty a cy- a g w ll t th t xp v t wh tl y ca b y;y ay a w ll k p a pack h . (El t / : 3 )U g , Ch tta , t M . B k pensare di l tt ca la v t at ta c l g , t a a la v t a talla al tt . N - v a lla. Anchio un tempo ho appro ondito molto questi aspetti tecnici; ma mi

    sono accorto che non sarebbe servito a niente. C v lg t tt ; p t ala c alla. N , c t llat ch v t a tt a v a la pagl a, c q t g ; orniteli t g l p l agg , ap t . Ma la v t a utopica

    conduzione agricola v a lla c cap cc l p c t . a t val t b a c g g . (El t : )

    Y , c , t t - w, a M Ra ay. B t y ll hav t b pw th th la k, h a . (W l / : )S, c t , a ar bel tempo, la g a Ra ay. Ma b g che

    ti levi al canto del gallo,soggiunse. (W l : 3)I th t xa pl , th ta g t t xt cl ly a h t th g a at cal c t c-t th g al, a v xp t h ty l g cal l v l: th v b t b t ggl th gh by v va v a tat , wh chg ly ll w th E gl h w , a ath al a t lt

    Ital a ; g all y a c p la p zza (c pt g th p ty),

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    T t a lat b l ty 335

    th t a lat t v th p - g at v all y a bl tal , -t a pt g a pl ch c l k guastare ( p l g). I th xc pt tak

    Middlemarch, th g al ty th ta g t t xt la ly l vat

    th gh a g al h ght g g t : xp l k g g t l ct y gy la I w t t c c a g at al y l wh ch a pa t a -al c v at al c t xt b c p a l tt ca la v t a t ta

    (th k g l ct y g y tat ) a A ch t p h app t l-t q t a p tt t c c (I lv p t th t ch cal a p ct y l at t ). T gh a c t t l vat g t ( la ( terra ) t t ta(estate), c c ( scienza) t a p tt t c c ( technical aspects), g vth ( dategli) t th al t l ( provide them with), th Ital at a lat ta c t l th al th c t xt a h t waa w tt (Hall ay a Ha a : ).

    T la t xa pl v a pa at a aly . Alth gh th a t cy t th g a at cal t ct th g al ca b t ct , t g th w th a

    v all h ght g g t th th Ital a t t aa b l t p l ghtly w c pa t th W l a t t -

    w; th Ital a v b l va ( awaken) al tha th v b b p

    th c t xt t ght b w th t c g that l k th th , c t t a lat , th Ital a v o the Lighthouse p bl h by Ga za tat back t 3 3. O th ha , th y l t t g pl cat a tth hap g th Ital a l t a y y t th t . T v y h t pa y a b tw W l b k a t t a lat t all w a h ght g

    al ty t t p al ta c th , ght that th l t a y y t th ta g t c lt wa t abl t acc at th th, c ll q alla t W l al g . O th th ha , th act that th 3 t a lat ha

    b app p at t ay, a c t t app a th c ll ct i grandi libri garzanti , t t (a g t th th g ) that th a , ply t

    c t t apply.I a w , alth gh th y b l g t t p , all th ta g t t xt a

    a k by t at g t ct l t al a , at th a t , by a t cy t -wa what A t B a t a l tt a at (l t a zat ; B a

    : 3 ). W th th p c B a p c cally aw att t t -bl t ( bl t; B a : ) a th p bl g

    t c th c t c t a lat bj ct t a a la g ly c c y t c :

    I th , t a lat ( ally) tha th g al. [] T a -th t c l l th l g c at al zat : v y c t b a ne c .I p t y, th lt p t zat ; p h t zat . E b ll h gh t zat c t p c g l ga t t c pl y g th g al, a

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    336 Pa la V t

    t w , a aw at al. T , bl t th g b t a -w t g, a tyl t cx c wh ch tak t c (a at th xp ) th g al. (B a : ; t a lat )

    I th p ct, th t at g bl t a th cl a h c t th l tt th g al ca t th gh a va ty t a at al l at th

    l v l y tax, l x a g t ct a gl , g al ac - wh chay b a z th what ta t l g cal ax :

    RANSLA E HE CLASSIC SO AS O HIGHLIGH I S NA URE AS A CLASSIC

    It y c t t that th b hav g at th v c p by th v y a cla c (al ta l g t xp ct a h p, a t c pt by p pl - -th -c lt ), a that th c t a t p p th t a lat ca z w k a pa t c la ly v t th Ital a v E gl h cla c , t th t h t cal a c al v l p t th c ata g t c lt . a t ally b l g g t th a w k h gh l t at , thcla c t b t a lat ch a way that th ta g t t xt v all h t tp t g v th a t t g g c ll q al a c , a g a k al ty wh ch a t p t th g al th c g th t a lat t

    a tat v t al b l ty.

    2. What is a classic? Te classic as a sacred text

    A cl p ct th t th cla c ay h lp ach v a cl -ta g th att t . H w a w k a t g t t b v w a a cla -

    c? What t a t a t xt play ( a v ally att b t t t) that t

    a tt w th th cl c cl w k wh ch b y c lt t h gh t, a a ha w t p t ty a v ally acc pt p t

    t th? Alth gh th val ght b q t , a t w k wh ch havall t bl v ght t av ably b c pa t cla c , ly at ct g p act ally c t t t th ca , a t at acc gly, b th c pt a t a lat .

    l ay b at ly t a th t p t a-t a c at w th th p t g th cla c. A cla c, w t Sa l J h h Pre ace to Shakespeare ( ), a w k g j y g l gth a-

    t a c t a c t (S th : ), wh val ha cc lly w th t th t t t . Te new Ox ord dictionary o English ( ) thw cla c a j g v a p t t b th h gh t q al ty at ta g t k , a a w k a t c g z a tabl h val .

    Oth a j ct v l k l g-la t g a t g atly bj ct t cha g (

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    T t a lat b l ty 337

    th a t y) p t a la ct , a th w ca g ca tly t l t a y a a w k c t b p a tly

    tabl h a b g th h gh t q al ty.

    T a g at l t at t a c g t c .S. El t a ta th v al tal t ( ):

    a t a att ch w g ca c . It ca t b h t , a y wa t t y t bta t by g at lab . It v lv , th t plac , thh t cal [] a th h t cal v lv a p c pt t ly th pa t th pa t, b t t p c ; th h t cal c p l a a tw t t ly w th h w g at h b , b t w th a l g that thwh l th l t at H a w th t th wh l th l t at hw c t y ha a lta x t c a c p a lta .T h t cal , wh ch a th t l a w ll a th t p alt g th , what ak a w t t a t al. (El t : 3 )

    T w k th gl a t t th val abl t th lat h p ttabl h w th th g at a th th pa t: th w a th l c h a t a -

    t al y t wh ch l ghtly alt a b ght t a j t t by w c .T , c b h t y a p at by a p c c th pa t, th

    v al tal t j th t t a t , a ab v t . R ct-g a a b th t l a ac , El t w k tch th ag

    a pa th w t , a ac w wh ch th w t th p t c x tw th th cla cal a th wh hav la th at c lt .

    I t at p al ty, th cla c j y th a q al ty a th ac t xt. L kth ac t xt, th cla c p c v a v labl : t p aw ; t a aa p lat w th xt ca , pa t c la ly t a lat . T a al gy w th th

    v t att t a pt by St. J wh al g w th th t a lat thB bl at ly c t . Ech g C c t ct b tw l t al a

    t a lat , J c ag th a pt th latt a a a c la t xta c c , b t t gly a t th t b p ct l th l tt wht c t t a lat g th B bl , wh ch v v b y t t.G v t t l , ac at , th l g ca w ll th q p c alatt t , a a w w t a lat c a th t tablt at gy t p v t h l .

    F a h t cal p t v w, th t ct, l g p ct p by th a-c ca g a ally h t th c la ph . I E p a c lt , H aa th R a a c ay b t a th p wh ch th t a takplac , th gh a v t p c t a lat a c t a t xt , al

    hap g t a lat al g th t cal l . I th ba c l t a lat g A -t tl G k t Lat tl by th Ital a L a B a a ly a

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    T t a lat b l ty 339

    att pt t p c a pa t ally, at that. I th p ct, a p t-R a t c p -p ct v ght b c wh ch a c b p ty t th g al t b k ,q a - y t cal ty a a g, th q g at l a t att pt-

    g a ta g t v a cl t th g al a p bl . I j ct g a th t a lat that b th g al t xt t th t a , F chSchl ach ( ) a v cat a cl a h c t th c t xt t t a t ty c t t, a hyth , wh l at th a t h gh-l ght g th c lt v lv th p c , a t q tly at act y tc . A al th a c ct Schl ach w t Walt B ja ct ( D A gab b tz , 3) h w th p val ty

    all E p a la g ag ght b c v th gh W tl chk t (B ja: ) that , a th l t th w th g al a w ll a th gh

    l t al p ct c y tax th ta g t t xt. I th al a aly , vLaw c V t cla p c g z g ath tha t cat-g t a lat (V t ), h c t t c t z gth (V t : ), ay b a t ll w th a l : p t th -

    t c a v al zat , all th p t b l a -c th c t xt.

    A la t cy ca b th c t th zat . F th p t v w l t a y t a lat a t t ach g, a ca p t R b t Bly ha -b k Te Eight Stages o ranslation ( 3). I h ll t at a ght- tagth t a lat g p t y, th a th ach th c cl that, v a thal a , th t a lat ca t capt th g al t t ty (Bly 3: ). I

    l g t c-ba t , th a t va ably app a wh l t a y t a -lat c pa t p c al z t a lat : Sca pa c t cal th y ( : )th l t a y w k a a c t b c at v y t , w th v -

    tabl l t t p , lt l v l at , a pp t th cl q al ty p c al z t xt . I a t way, th a al th gh th w p ayth that g at l t at a lt at ly t a latabl , a th c -plac acc g t wh ch ly w t ca ct v ly t a lat th w t .

    T aw l t a y t xt wh ch p v t ca t t a lat , a ap-pl pa t c la t th w k b a g th a k ca zat ct thp c v tat ac .

    F a b a p p ct v , th gly g tat al p -t th p c a xt al appa at l g t at g t ab l ty. T c -

    t ct th cla c a a ac b k l c t tly a xt a-t xt al p -ct cl g a w a g at al , at v t t ay .

    Ev th c c Ga za t t o the Lighthouse at a t ct y tw ty-pag ct p v g a h t cal-c t cal p l th a th l aw k p by th p t Att l B t l cc , a w ll a a ta l c g

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    340 Pa la V t

    V g a W l w k a th Ital a t a lat , w th a l ct vac t cal l t at . I th t xt ha ach v ca cal tat , t w ll t ball w ch v t: gl , t t th t xt, p ac , c -

    ta va t , w t b g aph a b bl g aph cal l t t ll a thal t a at y acc pa t t th t cla c , a p th tat , a c t th p tat . T cag c ta y c t b-t t th p tat a p vat th a ct t xt (a ay v bxpl t t t c w cla c t th y t ). T ca z b k w ll tply b a : t w ll b t p t a a aly w th a a -

    w k c pt that ay t b w th t c q c th act t a latt l . W th t a a q t abl , g val , a t by thp g wall c ta y, th cla c w ll t all w ch l way t t t a la-

    t th , a w ll ct h /h ch c t wa a tyl at th a t xt ly p ct l th g al a , pa a x cally, bl g, wh th h ght a -

    c a c at w th ca z t xt h l app a t b lack g.O c , H a a th R a a c p v th g a c l-

    t al a h t cal xpla at : a p p t t th cla c th g al a pp t th c pt - lab at p c a

    t a tt val t th a c t t xt w t t th t y ch la w th t a tabl acc pa t. T p t g cla cal w k wag all by a c t t a t gl a c ta :

    T h a t a th ag p t [] t xp ct cla cal w k t achh k t ch . T p ta t th a th a th bj ct, th th ckth bl ck c ta y wh ch th . Ev t ally, h a t p bl h-

    a a c that v -cla cal Lat l t a y t xt gl ;th wa th way t l g t at th l t a y p t . [] Pa a x cally,

    th , th h a t t xt ha v t t th p t val auctoritas .[] B t th w c ta y p a l th t xt a c lly a ta c t c t pa t. C w by h a t x g , th t xt wa t ly p -ta t t l , b t al , c aga , by v t t t c ct w th a y t

    t ct a t p tat . (G a : 3 ; t a lat )

    A cl l k at th h t y a g h w that th g cap lat thcla c al a y at w k R a t , wh (t wa th th thc t y) th volumen wa b t t t by th t p g codex, a ly c ll ct g l g a l gal c p a. T t y th b k ha a l t c -

    w th tat , a th pl a abl t a c at w th l t a y w kwa xcl t h z (Cavall : , ). T h gh, p c pt v tat th t xt c ta th c x q b th a t c c t at

    a a c lt ta k t p tat th pa t th a , wh ch q al tha ac b k c t t t g th c lt al a al ba c ty.

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    T t a lat b l ty 341

    I a w , th ac th t xt, appa tly c b t v y at ,al v th xt al appa at wh ch th t xt ca , a tc pt 3 . T t a lat th cla c w ll tak plac w th th b a

    th t t y, a w ll th v lv a b c t a t :T p t l g cal app ach cl a ly cat that th ac a t xt a abj ct v act ha l va c []. a lat g th B bl v tly t th a a t a lat g a w pap a t cl : t b ca th B bl is th w G , b t b ca t w ll b received a ch by th aj ty th t a lat

    a . T tw th g a c pl t ly t. (Sal 3: ; t a la-t )

    T g at c c c pt ly g th l l g t a lat al xtt th t a lat a t t c w k , wh ch ay t b th w G b t a

    th l p c v a th v c th p t. T y w ll th a - v t t th l tt th g al, a w ll p t a t t l g cal c t a t

    th t a lat : app ach g th cla c, th t a lat ha t play thbl t w t g q al t ; h / h t t y w th th t xt ; h / h t b ath- tha th g . S g ca tly gh, a h w by th h t y th

    a c t G k zat H w k (M ta a ), th att t v c ca b p tt w ll b th Ch t a a, a ay b lat t

    a w p a a th p l g cal t cy c lt t t y ac b k wh ch t lay th at . T , th c t wa th g al tc a ly t t c t t wh th t b l g t ct law, ph -

    l phy l t at b t ath th c ty c lt t c tht t by a yth cal c a yth cal bj ct . I th p c c

    ca l t at , th a t t th l ct cult texts (Sal 3: ),

    wh p t g l g t at by th a th ty c t c , xp t a , a xt a-t xt al app c .I a t app ach p by th c th g al pa t c la ly

    v t th t a lat l g a cla cal w k th pa t, t p ca t ct a t ll t ctabl wh t c t g l t a y cla -c . T t a at v w k wh ch hav ach v ca cal tat -

    t , a j y g p p la ty th t , l k D ck v l av p , a p t y c ly a p t all th l t a y

    . I a Ital a v L v L tt , by Sylv a Plath ( ), th -t p g l N t a y t tat th cha g y a t a t th g N ac l l ca b a t ch p a t (It t a y t ay

    th cha g y p at ), wh ch th q a - l g ph l g cal a h ct th g al ( -w v b E gl h a t t -w v b Ital a ) l a th t a lat t th ch c a pa t t wh ch ath t lt

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    342 Pa la V t

    Ital a , a al p c a c a y l vat th g t th ct xt. T , th ch c play by th ta g t t xt at y t, th ha , ab l g g t h gh l t at , th y al c y tall z t a p j ct -l tt at

    (hyp -l t at ; B a : 3 ) wh ch t app a t th g -al. It t c lt t h w th p c v p ty ca z t xt ay c th t a lat a t a lat t a p ct l -b l ty.

    3. English writers, Italian readers, and immobile translators

    I a aly g th p w th c t a lat , S a Ba tt b v thatth c ly h l yth l t a y t a lat a ca g c lt that ch cal t a lat ly t th that th p w a a th ty th

    c t xt l k ly t b th at g t th t a lat wh l t a y t xta v lv , pa t c la ly th y a ga a ca cal, a that th tat th c t xt t c t xt, a w ll a th xp ctat th g at a -h p w ll v tably p t a c t a t th t a lat ch c (Ba tt : ,

    ). T a x ty th g al t b ha by t W t c lt ,a t ct h w w th a kabl g la ty th gh t th c t , wh th y g l t a y y t p t g g t xt a a a c l at g

    th w t a t , at c lt w th a w ll tabl h l t a y ca .At th a t , th v c t wa th l t a y t xt cl ly t tw w thth th ta g t c lt , wh ch w ll va ably a ct th al tc th t a lat g p c : t a lat , v cla c t xt cl , a , th

    , act th c lt wh ch h t th , w th th c c ta t a pt that

    what v th ct a t ty, th a c t t t w th th a c lta ct t w c t llat ( y : ).

    w xa pl , lat g th ca t th v l p t a c l at y g l t a y p ly y t , c t h w h w th th ta g t c ltca a ct th t a lat ca cal t xt at l a t a ch a th aw th g-al . I th a ly ca th tw t th c t y, noucentisme, a v t

    wh ch a at a g th ta a Catala l t at t th l v l th t E p , l h av ly th t a lat E gl h a A ca a th(l k D ck wa ) wh tat a cla c ha l g b ack wl g .T Catala v play vat v at , b t w al a k by ah gh g al ty a g a h c t th g a at cal t ct th

    g al. I h t y Ca , th t p t noucentista w t at a lat , J p Ma c t c a t cy t calq , t (p hap t )cl ly th a t ct th g al t xt, x w th a h gh g

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    344 Pa la V t

    : ) wh ch app al g t th t c c ty. O c ,th t a lat a l t a y t xt wh ch t y t a cla c, b t ay a p tach that tat pt a g b va c th w a y tax

    th g al, at th a t ak g p t c a b ll h g v cat g g t l vat . I th ca Ma lba t a lat , th t at gy p v cc l, a th w k ally ack wl g a ca cal by th h tc lt . D p t th cla a by h t a lat , U ga tt g -b ak gach v t vat g Ital a p t y a tat w th a c g zablh t c z t a t that w ll c t b t t th ca zat th p t thU t Stat :

    Ma lba t a lat t ly p t U ga tt E gl h-la g agp t c t a t , b t a l at h w th th a t t c t p a y p t y t a lat . [] Ma lba v b g th c lt al gap b twU ga tt act al Ital a a h p a h p t t al A ca a c . a -lat g a Ital a p t t th c that at A ca p t y t a lat wa ct v ly a ca z g g t , a p t c way l k g h A ca a t ca cal p t l k H a Da t ( t t tth ch y , Shak p a , Ma l w ). Y t th t c c ptv at U ga tt g ca c th Ital a p t c t a t []. T -at E gl h v wa a g a th a c , t ctly A ca , p -t y a a l a w th B t h a A ca p t c t a t a w ll a c tt a lat that w ly p p la . (V t : )

    T t a lat p c by Noucentisme, th H b w t a lat Shak -p a , a th b l ca th A ca v U ga tt c , th ha , th p c a att t c t wa th g al p c ally wh t p c v a a cla c b t th y al p t t th c c al l

    play by th xp ctat th ta g t a c hap g th al p ct. T c at a a by th t p t v c t , by th

    a (F h : , ) th t c y t t hav a pact tht a lat g v t wh ch at l a t a p w l a that p by th p t g th c t xt.

    T p w th hap by th ta g t c lt , a th th at g -c th c t xt, ac w th p c al v c th Ital a t a lat

    E gl h cla c . H , a ph c t t W t c l-t t p t ag by th t ct v at thItal a l t a y y t . I t a lat a t ally act th ta g t c lt a a conditioned typ b hav ( y : ) wh app p at bj ct t th th c v g y t th c lla y that t a lat

    a al act th ta g t a h p, wh th al (h t cally c t xt al z ), pl . A a l t at b a t p t v c ty ha g t at g

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    wh ch x t p t th act a g a th t th hap what a (F h : ), th a ak l t at l tha th w t , th

    t a lat . What, th , a th a pt Ital a t p t v c t

    wh t c t th c pt cla c , a h w th a ptc t a lat ? Wh th l a (Ec : ), th pla (I : 3) E gl h cla c Italy, a what tyl t c h / h t p? F ally, h w a th lly th c t ct ct, a

    h t cal a c al p t v w, th t v l t a g hab t Italy a G at B ta ?

    A cl l k t th h t cally g ca t ( y : 3 ) h ghl ght av g c b tw th ap g wth th E gl h a g p bl c a th l w

    Ital a a g hab t . O th t c p c at that a k th v ha t t l g : P t ta t , th w l Halvy,a b k l g (Alt ck : ), a , th t t b g t hap E gl hc lt th xt th c t y, t lay a c c al pha p vat a g. Tp act c al t t tally ab t, t act v ly c ag , Cath l c c tl k Italy, wh th k wl g th B bl a ly c t th al ph .Alth gh t p t t ctly y g p p t v g g

    th p l cal , a h w by th c bl b t act a pa phl t ,j a c t - j that th b k a k t g th C v-l Wa th ct app ach t th ac t xt a v cat by th R atav th a g P t ta t c t , al c t b t g t thc l at a l t a y v ac la th gh t a lat . It c ly acc pt , a J a -F a G l t ( : ) b v a aly g th -c R at a g hab t , that a t v th W t w l th p ct: th ha , th P t ta t , g at c th w tt

    w ; th th , th Cath l c , wh ly al t a t , a t t b k a p c , al t ac bj ct t t th t ct l t th h gh-ly cat . H w v , th g wth th a g p bl c G at B t-a , wh ch ach t ac V ct a t , th lt a y c , th p ly pp t by th l g a p l t cal p w , th b-c a l a y t c t l, b t t l v g . T l g t ggl th

    th a xt th c t ha g v g p l t a a g p act ca at th l vat th p t: p pl a t ach v p t al p v ta c lt vat al v t . B t p pl al a a ha alway t l ta a p p . S c Shak p a ay , a g ha v th p p c ct g b t a act , t p t g l gal c t , a k p gc ; lat th c t , a g c t t b a a l a tp v k wl g th w l , wh th a c t c, p l t cal, ca-

    t al, h t cal c al p t v w. I h Miscellaneous Observations Relating

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    346 Pa la V t

    to Education , p bl h , J ph P tl y, a cat al th t tht , gg t th a g g b k , b th a cla cal, t a a

    t l , b t th p p ha c g al ty a la g g k wl g :

    [h w v ] at act y t q a - t l ta a b a t t ay, th latght th c t y aca y q t ably h lp p a th a g hab t (Al-t ck : ). R a g wa t ly a way t l g t th alth gh th athat l t acy ght p a t wa a p w l c t c b t al a

    t t w l - p v t. I th t th c t y, th va g l cala th t l ta a , tw th aj g p hap g th c lt al t V ct aE gla , b th p th a xt a , alth gh t a .

    H w v , t th ct c b th va g l cal a t l ta a , a -g laxat a pl a wa p hap th t abl a tht pl c at play th b k a k t th ght th a t th

    c t . T v l c w th wh ch th hab t c b a w t t tt gth 3 : th b th a p a c c lat g l b a (th t wh ch app a Sc tla ), a ly al g w th ct , th w c c lat ch ap b ka p cal , a w ll a th g w g p p la ty th v l R cha -

    Pamela ( ) t at al v l a th h gh t ach v t

    V ct a w t all t t y t th act that th B t h a g p bl c, b th ala al , a a g at al, a a pl a . T a a g a cthat W lk C ll ha th U k w P bl c , a wh att tt l t at ha b th bj ct D ck wa c a l tt t Cha lK ght , h w h w a p act c a g p t al ch t, t ct ,a t all a t wa al a y ply t G at B ta by th

    t th c t y, wh t ach t p ak. E gl h a th b th p ap t y wh ha al a y ach v th tat cla c V ct a t P p ,

    Sc tt, D , T , A w p t ch ap t , a w thbj ct p p la pa . I a w , by th th t th c t y, E g-l h a h p wa a p a k a all c al back-g , pa at c a l t at (b t l ght, a h gh q al ty)that ct th l v a la g ag w th g a ta a thw tt p ct a w ll, a c by th a xp ctat .

    I a g a a pl a abl laxat ca t b acc pt B tag th V ct a ag , al hap g th way wh ch w k w w tt , a

    th B t h a a g p bl c ha ach t p t a cha actby , h w th Ital a t at c pa ? Tat Italy ha v b a a-t k a , at l a t t , ha th c t a t typwh ch th l c ta a g a t th: c t v y hav h wthat, alth gh l t acy al t v al, l tha % th a lt p p lata b k , a ly % ca b c t g a (p pl wh a

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    tha t b k a y a ). I Italy, a j al t a ch l w t E a D tt( : ) b v , a g p act cal a t t p va l v a g pl a : a g a w t g a t ta ght t w t t w th a capac ty

    t j y l t at t w ak , b t a a t t p v k wl g , a -abl p pl t pl y c pt v k ll wh th y th . G b k aatt b t a p t g val , b t th y a ta t bj ct t b a , al . I th a p p a g l vat , t th c c pt ac -c (D tt : ) that ab v pl a th att t th av ag Ital aa .

    A b h t cal acc t th v l p t Ital a p bl c l b a vt ll t at b th th ca c a th t l ta a cha act a g Italy. wa th l th t th c t y, at th th h l p l t -cal cat , Ital a l b a a p c v a at al t w thp v g, ath tha a c t b k c c lat . A ta l t y c ctby Pa l a ll ( ) h ghl ght th p p t b tw th h g a t v l h t by Ital a t t t th k , a th al t at alb act al : a ca b a p t at g t , th ll b k ak g p th Ital a l gacy t th wly R g , al t

    ha b a that y a , t t t th act that l b a a ly c -ta a c t b k a ccl a t cal t xt , v y w c t c p bl cat , a v t ally g w k ( a ll : , ). It a y t agthat th a ava l g th lv th v c b l g t th v y t ctc cl th h ghly cat wh ha ach v ty l v l. I a p a k gth h gh t xpa a l g- tabl h a g p act c G at B ta , Italy a k a g th l a t l t at c t W t E p , t g al ag ta-t al h g th at a c , y g la g ag : C t

    ch la , a g c t b a pa abl ha t y, ac c , a bl p p l vat . Alth gh th v c a b k p -ct p c ally a t th l w cla , a ca t ly p t c c lat g

    l b a ( a ll : ), at th b g g th tw t th c t y, Italy a at g a a a g p bl c, a v y l ttl g ca b t ct a -

    g a a t ta t. T B t h a A ca xp c p bl cl b a , q tly a t bly tak a a l by Ital a a t at , aat th a t c c ag g l ght l t at . P bl c l b a havt y t b t p h , w t G B ag , ct th B bl t ca M c -

    La z a a Fl c , b t h l th y b c ly a g cab t ,a c ll ct v l tt a h t t , t a b tt t t hav th ,a th w l b a y t t b t c v th cha . 3 ( a ll

    : ; t a lat ). S ta by b th th c la tabl h t a thcath l c ch ch, a g (a a th wh l p t th xt ) th

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    a l t t act v ty th happy w, a p ag g cal t t t cat tha , a ha c th al val . Aga , th l v l a xp ctat ala , gl w th th a a ac g th a g p act c

    Italy, ca t b t hav c q c th g v g th w t g act v ty a th a t a lat al k .I a at v by al ct , th t th c t y w t t t g

    a ha l t a y la g ag cl ly atch th a ac c pl th act a g. What g th t ggl th p p , pa t ally ca -ba , a t c al Ital a , l by Al a Ma z p g , a

    ya t ck aga t wh ch th tyl t c ch c all Ital a a th w a a l v tly ga g t ay, wh th t th y ch t c

    t th l. St ggl g w th th Ital a la g ag , w t a Ital a v l t ac t w pap a t cl , w th th at al, g , va ca p v v y

    ha th wh w t a Ma z 3 . W t g Ital a a a -b g, cap c la g ag a t t ght g aga t a g cag b- j ct v , a x l a y v b a consecutio, a t c t t g v y all t wa tb t g v . T tyl t c ac - at g th Ital a l t a y p ly y tha t g a t h ghly al l t a y cta, wh ch t v y c lt

    t v at : tyl , Ba ba a Alb t w , t b c q w tha g (t a lat ). I , c t p a y att pt t chall g th a attack by c t c a v w : a c t b t t th l t a y ppl -

    t La Stampa , a at al Ital a w pap , G g F ca a c pla thatc t p a y v l t hav c th c t ty w th th w t a t wh ch q al l t a y q al ty t l g t c t av a pla ta y

    l ct, a a p t la g ag that h t pla :

    ay Ital a w t hav , p t act, c th c t ty w th Ital al t at , wh l c t c , th pa t, th all w l , apply t that c t -ty, ab v all l g t c t : th Ital a v l, ta c , ch t v y ta t ( Ma z ) a p t Ga a, t F gl , t th way t a at v p -g , b t th l g t c way, a v bl l , a bl t c ak g, [] wh chth p t v l t ak a g . 3 (F ca a : ; t a lat )

    T l ghtly gat y t w th wh ch v at th a j cta w thy a h gh l t a y t a t , h w h w p w lly th actp Ital a c lt al c cl : th wh w t l t at th Ital a la g ag ac ta tly th tyl t c ta a th y h l c t , a all at-t pt t t ay th b at path ( v th wh ch a c c ally cc -l) c app val 33.

    It ay a ly b that Ital a t a lat l t at , wh ch c bw th th a a w k, w ll b bj ct t la c t a t . I th c

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    th t a lat g act, t w ll b ha th t a lat , a t th Ital a w t , tcap th w ght th la g ag ( F ca a t ), th th c

    t xt ca z , a t p j ct a a a ly t ct t th h ghly -

    cat ( , at t, t t t ) wh w h t p v th k wl g , ath thaj y a g t l . I th p ct, Ital a v E gl h cla cc Ev -Z ha b vat th p ph al p t t a lat l t a-t w th th l t a y p ly y t th c v g c lt :

    C t g that t a lat l t at ay a ta a p ph al p t athat t c t t t a p ph al y t w th th p ly y t , g ally pl y gc a y l . I ch a t at t ha c aj p c a

    ll acc g t al a y c v t ally tabl h by a al a y a t typ th ta g t l t at . a lat l t at th ca b ca aj act c vat . Wh l th c t p a y g al l t at ghtg v l p g w a l , t a lat l t at a h t wh ch hav b j ct th c tly l g b by th wly tabl hc t . (Ev -Z ha / : )

    Ital a t a lat ca cal b k t th ag th sys-

    tme dantan wh ch p v t a t al ta t , a a at cally g aby th ag t c a y l aga t v cha g (Ev -Z ha/ : ). Ital a w t , a , a t a lat al k , ( th capac ty

    a - at -w t ) hav t v w th th a g th t ct a ta g t y t that p v l g a h ghly al, t a t al la g ag v a l

    c t v tyl .T x bl cha act th pa t c la ly t c abl th Ital-

    a v E gl h cla c , wh q t g t l vat a th

    what g Ital a y tax, cl ly g th g al, v at th va , l c t a la g ag th c t xt , p c ally al g

    c t ct . S a H a y t a lat th Ital a p LAq l ( )by G va Pa c l , p t by th w t th c a c t a g h w w k (U v ty B l g a at F l , th J ), c thb vat by way c t a t: th E gl h v , q alc a [] a t c ( th g [] a c t) t t th pl th g l ( qualcosa di pi vecchio); la ly, th t a c ll (a al w ch l ) acq a

    at al, al t p k av th xp k ( noi bambini ): thp t c g t th c t xt bj ct t a h gh g va at thta g t la g ag , th wh l p th acq g a p ta t . A - v p c t t a lat E gl h ca z w k tItal a , w g t th p c v p t g th g al a th t by th

    t c c lt , a th t ct g th t a lat a g ava labl pt 3 .

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    I th al a aly , th p c ca zat b th a c t a w k t gg a c t wa th ac th c , ally p pt g a c c a ca t t a lat th g al t xt wh ch b

    b l ty. T t t p c a ct l tt a at th l g t cpla , that l vat la g ag th ta g t t xt alway atch th h ghtat th c t xt, h ght g th tyl a g t th g al wh thv at th ta a . T w k g th a pa t c la ly v t th c lt l k Italy wh ch a v y al, what a t c al l t -

    a y la g ag g v p c , a a a ha lab , a th tpa t at th ha c t p al k wl g , c ly a c at w th thp p ct v a h p g at b k . I th p ct, th l ttl bt that, l-l w g C c t ct , Ital a a g cla c a pp t a

    t l ta tha v l pta (Cavall : ). B t th E gl hb k wh ch hav ach v ca cal tat w t a t al a t tp v pl a abl t ta t, a ght v t ach a w p t t alta g t a c , w th t b g c t t a lat al b l ty.

    A y t aga , a gg t by Mach av ll pa at c pt h a -g xp c , a h gh a a l w l v l ca c x t, a v gl , th c -

    pt th cla c : p t l k Ov ca b a pl a ; wh l atth a t , th t y th a c t wh ch th w t p pa h l al t l g ly c b th gh w wh ch, p gly, l k p w thv l pta ath tha t l ta :

    A l av g th w , I walk t a all t a ; a th c t a b -catch gg . I hav a b k w th , th Da t P t a ch, th

    p t , l k b ll , Ov a th l k : I a ab t th a pa ,a th l v : I ch h th th ght a wh l . [] Whght all , I c back h , a I t y cab t: a th t p I v ty l y v y ay ga t , c v a , a I w a y -gal, c tly b ; th tably att , I t th a c t c t a c t ;wh I a l v gly c v , a I h y l that wh ch solum

    , a wh ch I wa b . Wh I a t a ha t talk t th , a ta k th why th y act a th y ; a t h a ty, th y a w y q -t ; a a ll h , I t l a y b , I g t all ca , I t a p v ty, a ath t ght : all y l t a t

    th . 3 (Mach av ll : ; t a lat )F v c t a Mach av ll l t , Italy t hav g tt th pl a-

    abl a g, at l a t a a a g at b k a c c . T cla ca th gh w th th a gath g l at a t ct ,ath tha th a th t c pl a th y a . Acc gly, th t a lat tt a all g p , t ct v a th t c pl a th p ct .

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    Oth t a t , c , ay play a bala c att t t th t a lat cla c 3 a w th th c c t act g th l vat g p ll ca za-

    t S a H a y, a all, t a lat a c ll a k . B t t Italy

    bala c att t t th cla c , a t l t at g al, wh ch ak t aval abl l a ch th p cal t y a ph c tall W t c lt .

    Notes

    1. A t ct ght b aw h b tw t a lat act a t a lat v t ( y : ), th latt b g th tc th t act al p ct c b a

    c ta c t xt. It th gh th a aly a t a lat v t that ca b .2. All th ct th ta g t t xt wh ch play th t at g tl b l w atal c z .

    3. O ly c tly hav tw Ital a p bl h g h (M a a F lt ll ) lt th t-t a lat th w k, b th g th a t a lat by Na a F .

    4. I a aly g a F ch t a lat Kafa Prozess, B a ( : 3 ) t g h b twl tt al t (l t al ) a l tt a at (l t a zat ): [] la c p t pa at

    c , a t a l v t l v la a , t tacha ga t l va l y x , l y a t t la ta c t la l tt a at t la l tt al t . Appl q chaq ph a l v , la lg t ch l tt at V alatt t pa p a t Kafa, t b pa b a la g (th c ay l ght, b t b twa w th a b k a a b k h ha , b tw h l h gaz a h l k p,th all th ta c pa at g l t a zat a l t al . Appl t all th t c th w k, V alatt l ght l t a y t ch p p c g a th Kafa by c g t hla g ag ; t a lat ).

    5. O ab t t c c , q la t a ct t pl b ll ( ll t) q l g al. []L tht q v t c c plt la l g q la at al at : t t c t t beau

    c . E p , c la la p t at ; p la p , ht at . [] Laht at b ll a t c t p ph a lga t t l a t p a - l g al c at p . L bl t t c q -c t ,

    x c c tyl pa t ( t a x p ) l g al.

    6. y ( : 3 ) aw att t t th act that t t ly p c , b t al c l t at wh play a l th act vat .

    7. B a ( : ) b v that t p c ly th p lyl g (p lyl -g al ), a c ta al c (ba w t g), -c t l ( -c t l) typ cal g at ct al w k , wh ch t t b ga a att th t t a lat .

    8. Ja pk ( : 33, 3 ) a g that a l t a y cla c a p ct all thc c ta c wh ch t ha t a t ally b pp t b p t, a that thl t a y w k that w ak p th ca b ca th g p that hav a v t t th a c lt ally th t t al.

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    9. C . F l a ( ) th val c c pt t a lat a a t a c t t, v lv-g -c at ath tha cl a h c t th l tt th c t xt.

    10. C . M ( : , ) a ta l c pa at v a aly th c a ta g t t xt , a

    w ll a a xha t v t y t a lat th y a p act c t .11. O a g al pla , th at ay all t what L v ( / : ) call act : It th gh t a lat c b w th c t cal act ( t ct , t ,c ta y acc pa y g th t a lat , a t cl t) that a w k l t at p ct a g v y t tak t plac that w y t . It th gh act th c aly t cat al t- p that ca zat ach v a , p ta tly, a ta .A la c c pt v l p by B a ( : ) wh h t a translation thp c th gh wh ch a g w k tabl h t l th ta g t c lt by a -t a lat al t xt al v -t xt al t a at , cl g c t c .

    12. Il l tt a ta ll t lla ta pa [] att va ch cla c g gtatt lla a c va a. Q a t p a t a g t a p ta t , ta t p p -a t v va bl cch c t . I , t l tt a tc ch a ch t t l tt a lat a g t cla c abb g ava gl ; c a alt p l g tt a l p t l tt a . [] Pa a al t q , l t ta t c a t at lla p z ll auctoritas val . [] Ma l v c tap g ava llava l t t c alt tta t v g q ll a t ch . I c at all ga t ca, l t t appa va p ta t l p t , a a ch q a t l gat , a

    v lta a c a, a t a t z t p taz .13. La a Sal ( 3: ) w t : N c t dentro la B bb a ch amaterialmente ac ;l ac l t t ac ta uori , lla alt xt at t al (T th g inside th B blthat materially ac ; th ac th ac t xt l outside, xt a-t xt al al ty;t a lat ).

    14. Lapp cc p t l g c ca ch a a t ch la ac al t t t c attgg tt v ha p ta za [] a la B bb a v t t la t a c a

    ch t a a t c l g al : a p ch la B bb a la pa la D , b p chverr recepita c tal alla agg pa t t ata lla t a z . L c p a t v .

    15. I h v y E gl h lat v t th- a ght th-c t y t a lat th y, .R.St t a a g al that y path t c t cat b tw t a lat a

    g al wh ch wa ga [ c] th c cc l t a lat , a pha z th wtal t, th al t Oly p a tat wh ch wa q t a lat cla cal t xt (St

    : , 3).

    16. A B a p t t, [ ] t a ct acq t a t -c ta c q c t t a tc t xt ( v ), t c la, ll l p t q a t ltat l tt-a p t q c t p a a la g (A t a lat acq a t -c t cy ly c t t t g t l a a t xt ( a w k), a t ca th ly by g t l thc t p a y l t a y a p t c c t t la g ag B t : ).

    17. Act ally, th t app a y a aly t th-c t y H b w t a lat G th p .

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    18. A la p c g t l vat t th c ta g t c lt tht a lat cla c h ghl ght by R ca D t ( ) h t y b q t R a a v Robinson Crusoe. I th ca z t a lat by P t C -a c ( 3), at th l v l g t , th g al tyl al tha that th E gl ht xt. T ha t w th R a a wh t a lat g cla c , a tat [ c] that D haach 3 (D t : ).

    19. L k W l t t L ( t a ; W l ), Ec a M l R a (Ec ) lat t th ag th a that th a th ha a al z awh c p at w th th a th a t p t v p t v w, a ha th a l x cala tyl t c h tag . O a l ghtly t pla , I pl a t c b a p cal t al ty, b t ha h t ly pla t th t ct th t xt (I

    : 3 ).

    20. S D q J l a ( : ) a t y th t ct c t that g lat th acct th ac t xt a th t a lat Cath l c c t g th C t -R at .A c pl t t a lat b th th Ol a th N w ta t wa t ava labl Italy t l

    .

    21. Ma t L th cla ( h 3 Sendbrie vom Dolmetschen) t hav th a th t cla g ag p k by G a p pl h t a lat th B bl , that th y c l ach alva-t th gh th ll k wl g th W G , w ll-k w : Y v g t t g t aa k th th h h , th ch l th t t, th a y a at th a k t. Watchth th v wh talk[ g], a t a lat that way. T th yll ta y a al-z that y p ak g German t th (R b : ; t a . D gla R b ).

    22. A p c al, alth gh p ph al, t t b a h th c t b t Sc tlat th p a g l t acy a a g: T a g hab t wa c at z ab v th b -

    l g b t wa a th th, tha k t th t g Calv t t a t B bl t y ath c q t pha p ch l g all. D p t th t bl p v ty, th ght thc t y th Sc tt h cat al y t wa p bl a c c l t acy a b k a g t k gly g at tha E gla (Alt ck : , ).

    23. F th t th R t a B a ch p t t , wh ch attack th p val c la c v , l a p tabl B k a Pa phl t , Play-B k a Balla , th P tav c a l ly c th a g b k wh ch tha l t ta -t (Alt ck : ).

    24. Ev th t ct a lway t av l G at B ta t hav g v p l t thc pt b k . F th , what b ca k w a a lway l t at ch apb k b ght a l at a lway t al c t t t a la g pa t th a k t.

    25. T t a ght wa D ck w a kabl : T E gl h a , a a I k w,th ha t-w k p pl wh th h . B c t t , th w tch t val pl a , th y a a t a w (Alt ck : 3 ).

    26. S E a D tt ( : x ).

    27. T a that a t a g ca p l th th cat al p c la C th Ital a M t y E cat t ba Pinocchio Ital a ch l

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    T t a lat b l ty 355

    a v l t , pa c q l c b ch solum ch acq p l . D v v g g pa la c l a a l lla ag ll l az ; q ll p l a t

    p ; t , p q att t p , alc a a, t c g a a , t la p v t, b g tt c la t : t tt t a c l .

    36. Ob v g th a c ph p ly y t ay p v pa t c la ly t l h . I p t gth tc th GRE I g p -t a lat t F ch W ll a Fa lk Te Hamlet ( ) at a l ct g v F l (U v ty B l g a at F l, SI L C D pa t t, th May

    ; c . Chap la a G. La -M c ), Ca a a ch la A ck Chap la p t- t th ch t y b tw th c al F ch v Fa lk w k wh ch l c al vat t v ac la v c th ak th b c xag al ( xag al g tth g g aph cal hap F a c ) a th t c app ach th GRE I t a lat ,wh ch aw t c l ct th Q bc p t , a v w th th l c t a

    a that p ph al y t . Ev t c abl th h b tw th pa t ally a -t z t a lat Te Hamlet by H ll t, p bl h by Gall a th c cal l -t , a th Pl a v v by C pay a G t (al Gall a ), wh ch v t ally all th ll g t at v ac la app a . O ay that th F ch

    l t a y y t c b w th th a at g Ital a c lt : wh Fa lkt th ac w th cla c a h w k ga acc t th p t g B bl thq la Pl a , T Ha l t g a ca z g t at t lt g a p ctabl vtt y (p l h v ) wh ch th al c ac c t a l ga t l t a y tyl .

    References

    Alt ck, R cha D. . Te English Common Reader . A Social History o the Mass Reading Pub-lic 18001900. Ch cag -L : Ph x B k -T U v ty Ch cag P .

    A t , Ja . / . Emma . Ox : Ox U v ty P .A t , Ja . . Emma . a . A a L a Zaz . M la : M a .Ba tt, S a . . xt yp a P w R lat . A a b g, . ext ypology and

    ranslation . A t a -Ph la lph a: J h B ja . .B ja , Walt . . Illuminationen. Ausgewhlte Schrifen . F a k t a Ma : S h ka p.B a , A t . . Pour une critique des traductions : John Donne . Pa : Gall a .B a , A t . . La traduction et la lettre ou lauberge du lointain . Pa : t

    S l.Bly, R b t. 3. Te Eight Stages o ranslation . B t : R wa P .B t, A . . Sociocritique de la traduction. Ttre et altrit au Qubec (19681988) .

    L g l: L t P a b l .B , L a . . Opere letterarie e politiche. : Ut t.Cavall , G gl l . . a v l c x. La l tt a l a . Cavall a

    Cha t . 3 .Cavall , G gl l a R g Cha t , . . Storia della lettura nel mondo occidentale .

    Ba : Lat za- t S l.Chap la , A ck a G ll a La M c , . . Faulkner. Une exprience de retraduc-

    tion. M t al: P lU v t M t al.D tt , E a . / . Il piacere di leggere. F z : La N va Ital a.D t , R ca. . F Robinson Crusoe t Robinson in Wallachia . T t cac th

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    356 Pa la V t

    c pt p c . A th y Py , M a Shl g , Z za a J tt a v, . Sociocultural Aspects o ranslating and Interpreting . A t a -Ph la lph a: J h B ja . 3 .

    Ec , U b t . . Lector in abula . M la : B p a .El t, G g . / . Middlemarch. Ha w th: P g .El t, G g . . Middlemarch. a . M ch l B ttal c . M la : M a .El t, .S. . Selected Prose o .S. Eliot . L : Fab & Fab .Ev -Z ha , Ita a . / . T P t a lat L t at w th th L t a y P ly-

    y t . Law c V t , . Te ranslation Studies Reader . N w Y k-L : R t-l g . .

    Ev -Z ha , Ita a . . Polysystem Studies. l Av v-D ha : T P t I t t t P t ca S t c -D k U v ty P . [ Poetics oday : ]

    F h, Sta l y. . Is Tere a ext in this Class? Te Authority o Interpretive Communities . Ca -b g (Ma .)-L : Ha va U v ty P

    F l a, G a a c . . Volgarizzare e tradurre . : E a .G l t, J a -F a . . R a p t ta t l tt a. Cavall a Cha t . 3

    .G a , A th y. . L a ta c l tt . Cavall a Cha t . .Hall ay, M.A.K. a R qa ya Ha a . . Cohesion in English. L : L g a .I , W l ga g. . Te Act o Reading: A Teory o Aesthetic Response . Balt : T J h

    H pk U v ty P .J l a, D q . . L tt c t a. Cavall a Cha t . 3 .L v , A . / . M th C ag C c b : xt, Sy t a R ct a

    T y L t at . Law c V t , . Te ranslation Studies Reader . N w Y k-L -: R tl g . 3 .

    Mach av ll , N cc l. . Lettere. : E a .Ma c , J p. . a lat g tyl a tyl t a lat g: H y Ja a E ga Alla

    P Catala . Language and Literature 3: . 3 .M ta a , F a c . . a al g c g c . Salvat N c a, . La traduzione dei

    testi classici. eoria prassi storia . Nap l : DA a. 3 .M , Ma l a . . udor ranslation in Teory and Practice . Al h t: A hgat .Plath, Sylv a. . Opere. a . A a Rava . M la : M a .R b , D gla , . . Western ranslation Teory rom Herodotus to Nietzsche . Ma -

    ch t : St J .Sal , La a. 3. eoria della traduzione. Storia, scienza, pro essione . M la : Valla .Sca pa, F ca. . La traduzione specializzata: Lingue speciali e mediazione linguistica.

    M la : H pl .Schl ach , F ch. . b v ch M th b tz . Abhand-

    lungen der philosophischen Klasse der Kniglich-Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschafenaus den Jahren 18121813. B l : R al ch l-B chha l g. 3 .

    S th, Ja Ha y, . . Te Great Critics . N w Y k: W.W. N t .St , G g . . Afer Babel: Aspects o Language and ranslation . N w Y k- L :

    Ox U v ty P .pk , Ja . . Ma t p c th at : T p l t c Hawth l t a y p tat .

    Ja L. Mach a Ph l p G l t , . Reception Study. From literary theory to cultural studies. N w Y k-L : R tl g . 33 .

    y, G . . Descriptive ranslation Studies and beyond . A t a - Ph la lph a:J h B ja .

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