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Thermal Physics Temperature Thermometers Thermal Expansion.

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  • Thermal PhysicsTemperatureThermometersThermal Expansion

  • DefinitionsThermal Contact if energy can be exchanged between two objects, then they are in thermal contactThermal Equilibrium if two objects are in thermal contact and there is no exchange of energy, then they are in thermal equilibrium

  • The Law of EquilibriumZeroth Law of ThermodynamicsIf objects A and B are separately in thermal equilibrium with object C, then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each otherDefinition of TemperatureIf objects A and B are in thermal equilibrium, then they are at the same temperature.

  • Constant V Gas ThermometerFig. 10.3, p.324Reference points 100C for boiling water 0C for freezing waterExtrapolate graph to zero pressure to find absolute zero temperatureFig. 10.5, p.325

  • Temperature ScalesColumn of fluid changes height in response to warmth or coolness of surroundingsNumbers assigned to the height establishes the temperature scaleEach division in the scale is called a degreeFig. 10.7, p.326

  • Temperature ScalesDefined by:Height of column when water freezes (0C = 32F)Height of column when water boils (100C = 212F)Note: 40C = 40F

  • ConversionsSlope:Intercept = 32F

  • ConversionsFrom C to FFrom F to CTemperature ReadingTemperature Change

  • Absolute Zero and Kelvin ScaleTemperature is in units called kelvins (K)T = 0 K is called absolute zeroRepresents the temperature at which an ideal gas:Has zero volume (at constant pressure)Has zero pressure (at constant volume)

  • Thermal ExpansionFor solids and liquids:Energy increase via heat inputAtoms vibrate with greater amplitudeAverage separation increasesLeads to macroscopic expansionsFig. 9.1, p.269Fig. 10.8, p.329

  • Expansion CoefficientsLinear Expansion 1DArea Expansion 2DVolume Expansion 3DIf is the same in all directions then

  • No Life Without WaterFig. 10.11, p.334As water cools, it first contracts, but then expands near freezing

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