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  • THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION

    IN INDONESIA REPORT

    BADAN RESTORASI GAMBUT REPUBLIK INDONESIA (THE PEATLAND RESTORATION AGENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA)

    JANUARY 2019

  • Peatland restoration is one of the commitments of the Indonesian Government to prevent forest and land fire and suppress green house gas emissions. In the last three years, President Joko Widodo has demonstrated a strong commitment to save the peatland ecosystem. The amendment and formulation of the new policy regarding the protection and management of peatland ecosystem is an obvious indicator of such a commitment. It then became the essential orientation in the implementation of the restoration.

    A lot of efforts had been carried out with regards to the implementation of the peatland restoration program. This report records the development and the status of the peatland restoration implementation from 2016 to 2018.

    We realize that the implementation of the peatland restoration demanded an effective coordination and a solid collaboration between the ministries/agencies, regional governments, and other parties, including community, NGOs, scholars, business partners, as well as international partners, in the perspective of Peatland Hydrological Unit (KHG).

    We would like to express our gratitude to the Minister of Environment and Forestry, who always provided guidances on the program, and all parties who supported the implementation of the peatland restoration. The essential philosophy we learned from the implementation in the last three years is that it is important to rely on the spirit of mutual cooperation in safeguarding the peatland. May God always bless our endeavors to keep the peatland ecosystem in Indonesia intact.

    Jakarta, 24 January 2019 Chief of the Peatland Restoration Agency of the Republic of Indonesia

    NAZIR FOEAD

  • FOREWORD ................................................................................................................ ii TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... iii LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................... iv LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................... v LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................ vi 1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................. 1 2. THE DESCRIPTION OF TASKS AND FUNCTIONS IN BRG’s ACTIVITIES ............. 3

    2.1 Tasks and Functions ............................................................................... 3 2.2 Working Area and Target ....................................................................... 4 2.3 Working Units and Activity Description ................................................ 6 2.4 Approach and Framework ................................................................... 11

    3. PERFORMANCE STATUS OF THE THREE-YEAR PEATLAND RESTORATION .... 14 3.1 Work Criteria and Indicator ...................................................................... 14 3.2 Peatland Restoration Performance in 2016-2018 ................................... 16 3.3 Performance Status of the Three-Year Peatland Restoration .................. 23

    4. OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABILITY ............................................................ 30 4.1 The Support of Local Government and Villages.................................... 30 4.2 The Integration of Peatland Restoration into Village & Regional

    Development .............................................................................................. 30

    4.3 The Presence of Grass Root Cadres ......................................................... 32 4.4 Partnership with NGO and Universities ................................................... 33 4.5 International Support ................................................................................34 4.6 Comprehensive and Systematic Peatland Restoration ........................ 35

    5. ORIENTATION FOR STRENGTHENING ............................................................. 37 5.1 Institutional Strengthening ................................................................. 37 5.2 Cooperation between All Parties .............................................................. 37 5.3 Involving Companies ........................................................................... 38 5.4 Medium and Long-Term Planning ........................................................ 38

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA iii

  • BRG : Badan Restorasi Gambut (Peatland Restoration Agency) BUMDes HGU HPHD IUPHHK IUPHKm IUPHTR KHG KPH Perdes PIPG PIR RKPDes RPJMD RPJMDes RREG RTT

    : Badan Usaha Milik Desa (Village-Owned Enterprise) : Hak Guna Usaha (Right of Exploitation) : Hak Pengelolaan Hutan Desa (Village Forest Management Right) : Izin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan Kayu (Forest Timber Product Exploitation Permit) : Izin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hutan Kemasyarakatan (Community Forest Utilization Permit) : Izin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hutan Tanaman Rakyat (Permit to Utilize Community Timber Forestry) : Kesatuan Hidrologis Gambut (Peatland Hydrological Unit) : Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan (Forest Management Unit) : Peraturan Desa (Village Regulation) : Pembangunan Infrastruktur Pembasahan Gambut (Peatland Rewetting Infrastructure Construction) : Peta Indikatif Restorasi (Restoration Indicative Map) : Rencana Kerja Pemerintahan Desa (Village Government Work Plan) : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Daerah (Medium-term Regional Development Plan) : Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Desa (Medium-term Village Development Plan) : Rencana Restorasi Ekosistem Gambut (Peatland Ecosystem Restoration Plan) : Rencana Tindak Tahunan (Annual Action Plan)

    SIPALAGA : Sistem Pemantauan Air Lahan Gambut (Peatland Water Monitoring System) SLRG : Satuan Lahan Restorasi Gambut (Peat Restoration Land Unit) TMA TP TRGD

    : Tinggi Muka Air Gambut (Peatland Water Level) : Tugas Pembantuan (Assistance Task) : Tim Restorasi Gambut Daerah (Regional Peatland Restoration Team)

    iv THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Tabel 1. Details for the activities of each working unit of BRG based on the tasks and functions .................................................................................. 7

    Tabel 2. Model of the Peatland Restoration Hierarchy Adopting the Comprehensive-Systematic Approach .............................................. 15

    Tabel 3. Peatland Restoration facilitated by the APBN of 2017–2018 ................ 25 Tabel 4. Peatland Restoration coordinated with BRG’s development

    partners ................................................................................................... 25

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA v

  • Figure 1. The implementation of peatland restoration in Indonesia .............. 5 Figure 2. The area and distribution of the peatland restoration in seven

    provinces ....................................................................................... 5

    Figure 3. The working units of the Peatland Restoration Agency ..................... 6 Figure 4. Succession trajectory of peatland forest ecosystem ......................... 11 Figure 5. Peatland restoration by replanting ................................................... 12

    Figure 6. Performance Criteria and Indicators .................................................. 14

    Figure 7. BRG collaborated with the Banjar Baru Environmental and Forestry Research and Development Agency to conduct revegetation on the burn scar area in KHDTK Tumbang Nusa at the 1st Tropical Peatland Roundtable 2017 ......................................................................... 17

    Figure 8. The Development of the 2017 Annual Action Plan (RTT) ............... 18 Figure 9. Peatland fishery as one of the economic revitalization efforts. ..... 19 Figure 10. Water level monitoring device ......................................................... 20 Figure 11. BRG and its partners have built the peatland rewetting

    infrastructure, such as canal blockings .............................................. 21

    Figure 12. Stakeholder perception index on peatland ecosystem restoration. 22 Figure 13. BRG, in cooperation with the community group, is constructing

    the deep well, one of the rewetting infrastructures .........................24

    Figure 14. BRG’s peatland restoration milestones in 2017-2018 ....................... 26

    vi THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Figure 15. The number of Peat Care Village ....................................................... 27 Figure 16. Elementary school teachers’ teaching and learning activities in

    the peat care village ........................................................................... 28 Figure 17. Field school programs on peat care village ................................. 28 Figure 18. Water level monitoring device ......................................................... 29 Figure 19. Workshop on product development and training on rattan

    weaving in BRG's peat care village ............................................... 30

    Figure 20. BRG with Javara are holding a training on processing food materials found on peatland into healthy food ............................ 31

    Figure 21. One of the community groups’ economic revitalization activities is swamp buffalo cultivation ............................................................ 32

    Figure 22. Community involvement in peatland restoration program for 2017-2018 .................................................................................. 33

    Figure 23. One of the 1st Tropical Peatland Roundtable activities, conducted in 2017 and attended by 69 peat observers from 9 (nine) countries. ............................................................................ 34

    Figure 24. President of the International Peatland Society (IPS), Gerald Schmilewski, is testing a deep well in Central Kalimantan in 2017 ............................................................................................... 34

    Figure 25. International support towards peatland restoration ....................... 35 Figure 26. The training of Bhabinkamtibmas (community police officer) for

    the integrated community involvement in the peat care village to support the implementation of peatland restoration ................ 36

    Figure 27. Chief of the Peatland Restoration Agency, together with the partners and community members, are carrying out the rewetting process by using the deep well ......................................................... 38

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA vii

  • The establishment of BRG was motivated by the massive forest and land fires in 2015. That year was the worst period in the history of forest and land fire in Indonesia during the last 18 years. The fire occurring from June to November had burned 2.6 million hectares of land and resulted in thick smoke and haze. According to the World Bank’s record, Indonesia experienced an estimated loss of IDR 221 trillion.1 Nevertheless, such number has not taken into account the losses in health and education. 37% out of 2.6 million hectares of land burned in 2015 was peatland. In fact, peatland serves as a reservoir that can contain a huge amount of carbon.

    One of the factors which triggered the fire is the practice of draining, causing the peatland to be more prone to fire, particularly during the dry season. However, a further analysis on the peatland fire indicated a rather complex and systematic problem situation, while the data and knowledge on the characteristics of the peat ecosystem and the safe appropriate technology to manage the peatland were still too limited.

    To prevent and reduce the risk of recurring fire, the Indonesia Government issued a number of policies, among which are the Government Regulation on protection and management of peatland ecosystem and the Presidential Regulation on the Peatland Restoration Agency. The Government Regulation regulates the protection and management of the peatland ecosystem, including the revitalization of the peatland ecosystem. In the meantime, by virtue of the Presidential Regulation, BRG

    1 World Bank, 2016. The Cost of Fire: An economic analysis of Indonesia’s 2015 Fire Crisis. Indonesia Sustainable Landscapes Knowledge Note 1. Jakarta: World Bank.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 1

    1

  • was mandated to carry out the emergency and immediate action with the focus on the priority locations while preparing a solid foundation for more systematic revitalization of peatland ecosystem in a wider scale, under the protection and management of peatland ecosystem as set forth in the Government Regulation.

    The Peatland Restoration Agency (BRG) was established by virtue of the Presidential Regulation No. 1 of 2016 on the Peatland Restoration Agency, which was signed by President Joko Widodo on 6 January 2016. BRG operates under and reports to the President. BRG is responsible for coordinating and facilitating the peatland restoration in seven priority provinces, namely Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and Papua. BRG’s target of peatland restoration is set to two million hectares, which must be accomplished within the working period, starting from 6 January 2016 to 31 December 2020.

  • 2.1 TASKS AND FUNCTIONS The Presidential Regulation No. 1 of 2016 on the Peatland Restoration Agency

    states that BRG is responsible for coordinating and facilitating the peatland restoration in Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and Papua. In this regard, the coordinating and facilitating tasks are directed to the execution of the nine functions of BRG, which are: (1) Strengthening of the peatland restoration policies; (2) Planning, controlling & collaborating on peatland restoration; (3) Mapping out of the peatland hydrological units (KHGs); (4) Establishing the protection and cultivation zones; (5) Constructing peat rewetting infrastructure and its supporting devices; (6) Restructuring the burn scar areas; (7) Disseminating information and organizing education activities on peatland restoration; (8) Overseeing the activities of construction, operation, and maintenance within the concession areas; and (9) other functions given by the President.

    The execution of the coordinating and facilitating tasks relies on the collaboration between BRG and other government agencies as well as other parties responsible for the peatland restoration efforts/activities. Other government agencies referred to in this context are the central and regional government agencies with the authority, duty, and function relevant to the 9 (nine) functions of BRG, as set forth in the Presidential Regulation No. 1 of 2016. Meanwhile, the parties responsible for the peatland restoration are the regional permit holders/ concessionaires of the forest and land whose working areas expand across BRG’s peatland restoration target area. Therefore, other government agencies and parties responsible for the peatland restoration are the main targets of BRG’s coordinating and facilitating tasks.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 3

    THE DESCRIPTION OF TASKS AND FUNCTIONS IN BRG’S ACTIVITIES

  • In executing its tasks and functions, BRG is required to report the implementation to the President via the Minister of Environment and Forestry (LHK). The report is carried out regularly every month or every three months, depending on the intensity of the field activities, or whenever necessary.

    2.2 WORKING AREA AND TARGET In executing its tasks and functions, BRG arranges the plan and implementation

    of the peatland ecosystem restoration for five-year time frame. The total area of the peatland ecosystem expanding over the seven priority provinces reaches 12.9 million hectares. 2.49 million hectares of the area is set to be the peatland restoration target.

    BRG selected the priority areas based on 3 (three) criteria, which are (1) Burn scar areas, which were burned during 2015; (2) Peat dome with canals; and (3) Shallow Peatland for Cultivation. 2.49 million hectares of peatland restoration priority area, or 19.26% of the total peatland area in the 7 (seven) provinces, was found to match the three criteria. Such area is then set as the target of the restoration by virtue of the Decree of the Head of BRG, SK.05/BRG/Kpts/2016 concerning Peatland Restoration Indicative Map (PIR), which was issued on 14 September 2016.

    The target of the peatland restoration expands across 104 Peatland Hydrological Units (KHGs) in 57 districts. According to the regional spatial planning, the peatland restoration target is spread across 684,638 hectares of conservation area, 1,410,926 hectares of cultivation area with permit, and 396,945 hectares of cultivation area without permit.

    The implementation of the peatland restoration is carried out with respect to the task, function, and responsibility of the relevant parties. The restoration in conservation area is implemented by the stakeholders of such area, as assigned by the Minister of Environment and Forestry. Regional stakeholders can establish a partnership with NGOs. In the Non-Forest Estate and production forest estate which do not subject to permit, and protected forest, the restoration is implemented by the regional government with the scheme of Assistance Task (TP)-community- NGOs. In the meantime, the concessionaires are responsible for implementing the restoration in their own concession areas.

    4 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Figure 1. The implementation of peatland restoration in Indonesia

    The Presidential Regulation No. 1 of 2016 has set the annual targets to be achieved by BRG. The target for 2016 is 30%, 20% for 2017, 20% for 2018, 20% for 2019, and finally for 2020, it is 10% of the total target. It implies that BRG was demanded to work hard and effectively during the early period of its establishment. At the same time, BRG had to organize its system and institution, assess the target locations, plan the activities, arrange the budget, as well as identify and collaborate with other related parties. BRG considers this situation a challenge, rather than a problem.

    Figure 2. The area and distribution of the peatland restoration in seven provinces.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 5

  • 2.3 WORKING UNITS AND ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION To accomplish the tasks and functions with respect to the aforementioned target, BRG is equipped with the following organizational structure: Chief of BRG; Secretariat of BRG; Deputy for Planning and Cooperation, Deputy for Construction, Operation, Maintenance; Deputy for Education, Socialization, Participation, and Partnership; and Deputy for Research and Development on Peatland Restoration. BRG is also supported by the Technical Steering Team and Expert Team. The members of the Technical Steering Team include the governors of the participating provinces and 20 related agencies/ministries. The members of the Expert Team are from universities, research institutes, professionals, and community members. To support the accomplishment of the task and function at the regional level, the Regional Peatland Restoration Team (TRGD) was appointed and formed by virtue of the Governor’s Decree.

    Figure 3. The working units of the Peatland Restoration Agency

    Organizational development is continuously carried out by BRG, especially to complete the organizational structure and meet the need for human resources. Up to 2018, BRG has employed 199 officials from different employment status, level of education, and gender, which are distributed throughout 5 Deputy and Secretariat working units.

    The details for the activities of each working unit of BRG based on the tasks and functions are as follows:

    6 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Table 1. Details for the activities of each working unit of BRG based on the tasks and functions

    2 Deputy for Planning and Cooperation 3 Deputy for Construction, Operation, and Maintenance 4 Deputy for Education, Information Dissemination, Participation, and Partnership 5 Deputy for Research and Development

    Task FUNction COORDINATION AND FACILITATION OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN 7 PROVINCES

    DETAILS FOR THE ACTIVITIES OF EACH WORKING UNIT OF BRG

    Secretariat of BRG deputy for p&c2 deputy for

    com3 deputy for eidpp4 deputy for

    r&d Strengthening of the peatland restoration policies

    Establishing theorganizational structure ofBRG and forming theRegional PeatlandRestoration TeamAllocating budget throughthe state budget (APBN)Fulfilling the positions inBRG’s organizationalstructure

    Providingrecommendations forredefining the function ofpeatland ecosystem withinBRG working area

    Arranging thetechnicalguidelines and thestandard cost forpeatlandrewettinginfrastructure

    Providing recommen-dations for the regulationon the supervision of thepeatland restoration inconcession areas

    Facilitating thedevelopment of VillageRegulation on peatlandrestoration at village level

    Conductingresearch on thepolicies relevantto peatlandrestoration

    Planning, controlling, and collaborating on peatland restoration

    Developing thePeatland RestorationStrategic Plan of2016-2020

    Developing thePeatland RestorationGovernment Work Plan

    Developing the PeatlandEcosystem Restoration Plan(RREG) for 7 provinces

    Developing RREG for eachprovince 2017 Contingency Plan Preparation Developing theContingency Plan of 2017

    Developing the AnnualAction Plan (RTT)

    Establishing the national andinternational partnership forpeatland restoration

    Developing theSurveyInvestigationDesign (SID) andthe DetailedEngineering Design(DED) for peatlandrewettinginfrastructure

    Mainstreaming peatlandrestoration into the VillageDevelopment Plan(RPJMDes) and the VillageGovernment Work Plan(RKPDes)

    Establishing partnershipwith national and localNGOs for empoweringthe community living inpeatland village

    ConductingResearches Developing thePeatland WaterMonitoringSystem(SIPALAGA) withthe PeatlandWater Level(TMA) as the basis

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 7

  • TASK FUNCTION COORDINATION AND FACILITATION OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN 7 PROVINCES

    DETAILS FOR THE ACTIVITIES OF EACH WORKING UNIT OF BRG

    Secretariat of BRG deputy for p&c2 deputy for

    com3 deputy for eidpp4 deputy for

    r&d Mapping out of the peatland hydrological units

    Listing the peatlandecosystem in 104 KHGs

    Mapping the result of theinventory of the KHGecosystem

    Remapping the KHGs

    Mapping village peatlandmanagement area in theKHG

    Establishing the protection and cultivation zones

    Making recommendationsfor the zoning of 104 KHGsbased on the peatlandecosystem inventory

    Holding public consultation on the zoning

    Constructing peat rewetting infrastructure and its supporting devices

    Implementing peatlandrestoration in collabo- ration with the RegionalGovernment withAssistance Task (TP)mechanism

    Facilitating the provision oftechnical resources for theTP

    Planning the construction ofpeatland rewettinginfrastructure in 7 Provinces

    ConstructingPeatlandRewettingInfrastructure(PIPG) in1.1 millionhectares ofpeatland area. Setting uprevegetationdemonstration plot

    Disseminating information(with early non- compulsory notification) tointroduce the constructionof Peatland RewettingInfrastructure in thepeatland within the villagemanagement area

    Conductingresearch on theconstruction ofthe peatlandrewettinginfrastructure

    Restructuring the burn scar areas

    Mapping the 877,257hectares of peatland areaburned by the fire

    Conducting a village-basedsocio-economic analysis onthe peatland

    Providing recommendationfor the managementmodel of the peatland

    Conducting research on the policies relevant to peatland restoration

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 8

  • TASK FUNCTION COORDINATION AND FACILITATION OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN 7 PROVINCES

    DETAILS FOR THE ACTIVITIES OF EACH WORKING UNIT OF BRG

    Secretariat of BRG deputy for p&c2 deputy for com3 deputy for eidpp4 deputy for

    r&d Disseminating information and organizing education activities on peatland restoration

    Developing the restoration plan Revitalizing thelivelihood of thelocal community

    Disseminating information at the level of province, district, and international forum

    Disseminating informationconcerning peatlandrestoration on printed, online, and electronic media

    Providing training forteachers, religious leaders(da’i and pastor), paralegals, village officials, andwomen’s groups

    Providing educational teaching aids for elementary schools/equivalent

    Providing assistance andempowerment for village community through the Peat Care program

    Providing assistance in the Farmer Field School andcraftsman group

    Handling complaints about the construction of the peatland rewetting infrastructure (PIPG) andproviding resolution for the conflict

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 9

  • TASK FUNCTION COORDINATION AND FACILITATION OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN 7 PROVINCES

    DETAILS FOR THE ACTIVITIES OF EACH WORKING UNIT OF BRG Secretariat of BRG deputy for p&c2

    deputy for com3

    deputy for eidpp4 deputy for r&d Overseeing the activities of construction, operation & maintenance within the concession areas

    Providing map andwork plan

    Integrating extra- concessionactivities

    Disseminatinginformation, providingtechnical guidance, andoverseeing the peatlandrestoration in theconcession area

    Other functions given by the President

    Developing paddy field modelfor the peatland through the‘public private partnership’scheme

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 10

  • 2.4 approach and framework

    In many cases, developmental activities, including land-based development activities in peatland ecosystem, have to be carried out notwithstanding all the unpreparedness. It also applies to peatland restoration, as a part of the development activities. The implementation of peatland restoration is considered urgent and should be carried out immediately, despite the limited data, knowledge, and technology.

    In a short term, the restoration is targeted to cover 2.49 million hectares of peatland up to 2020. Nonetheless, in a long term, BRG will endeavor to establish a solid foundation for more comprehensive and systematic revitalization of peatland ecosystem in a wider scale after 2020. As a strategic measure, it is important that BRG prepares more comprehensive and systematic work instruments and institutional infrastructure for the revitalization by taking into account the existing ecological rules and institutional systems.

    The adequate understanding on the ecological restoration is supported by the knowledge on ecosystem and succession. In the context of succession, the theory on ecosystem is classified into two, namely classical and contemporary ecological theories (Kimmins, 1997).6 The classical ecological theory states that ecosystem stability is achieved through the process of succession, in which the ecosystem undergoes a process to bring about dynamic equilibrium. This theory assumes that, at the climax level, succession is closed in nature. On the contrary, the contemporary theory suggests that the development of ecosystem can progress through a trajectory which is not one way. The basic assumption of this theory is that ecosystem is open in nature.

    Figure 4. Succession trajectory of peatland forest ecosystem

    6 Kimmins, J.P., 1997. Forest Ecology. University of British Columbia.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 11

  • Succession is the change in the species composition and association of substrate change over time. The change which is initiated by the condition of bare land and lasts without catastrophic interference is called primary succession. If the change occurs after a destructive interference, provided that such interference does not completely destroy the biotic community of the ecosystem, secondary succession takes place.

    Succession and restoration are intrinsically linked because succession comprises species and site change over time, and restoration is the purposeful manipulation of that change (Walker et al., 2007).7

    Succession has many possible trajectories and types of organismal change, depending on the initial condition and the expected outcome. According to Aroson et al. (1993),8 the sub-components of restoration are reclamation (any site amelioration), rehabilitation (repair of ecosystem function), reallocation (alteration to a new function), and bioremediation (reduction of site toxicity). The restoration of peatland ecosystem can start from any of the method (reclamation, rehabilitation, reallocation, or bioremediation), depending on the damage severity and the restoration objectives.

    Based on the framework, there are at least two key aspects to consider in taking the approach and arranging the framework for the peatland ecosystem restoration: (1) Peatland ecosystem restoration is management of succession, which entails

    Figure 5. Peatland restoration by replanting

    7 Walker, B. C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig, 2004. “Resilience, adaptability and transformability in

    social–ecological systems”. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5. HTTP://WWW.ECOLOGYANDSOCIETY.ORG/VOL9/ISS2/ART5.

    8 Aroson et al., in Supriyadi, 2009. Ekologi Hutan. Yogyakarta: Te Faculty of Forestry, Gadjah Mada University.

    12 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

    http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol9/iss2/art5

  • long-term scenario because it will undergo the phases of succession; and (2) The peatland restoration requires a relatively permanent institutional infrastructure, so that the progress can be controlled and monitored in order to makes sure that the succession trajectory matches the expectation.

    Nevertheless, the implementation of the restoration, as directed by the ideal concept restoration, succession, and ecosystem cannot be implemented and accomplished in 5-year time frame (2016-2020). As a matter of fact, the Presidential Regulation No. 1 of 2016 implies the urgency of the peatland restoration, particularly because the damage was triggered by the recurring peatland fire which had caused large-scale adversary impacts, even reached and caused problems for the neighboring countries. Therefore, BRG has set two approaches in the implementation of peatland restoration, namely quick response approach, and comprehensive-systematic approach.

    The quick response approach aims to reduce the risk of recurring fire at certain parts of KHG through the construction of peatland rewetting infrastructure and operation as well as community empowerment to reduce the risk of fire. Research and development on the appropriate technology is also conducted for the effective and efficient planning, utilization, and monitoring with regard to the peatland. In the meantime, the comprehensive-systematic approach aims to set the benchmark for comprehensive and systematic KHG-based revitalization of peatland ecosystem, which can be mainstreamed systematically and in tiers into the planning and development activities of the relevant government agencies and regional governments and into the business/activity plans of the parties responsible for the peatland restoration at site level. The comprehensive and systematic revitalization of peatland ecosystem is expected to be the main business process in the peatland revitalization efforts after 2020.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 13

  • 3.1 Performance Criteria and Indicators The outputs/outcomes in relation to the use of the budget with a measured

    quantity and quality will point out the Peatland Restoration Agency’s performance in the coordination and facilitation on peatland restoration programs. Based on the implemented approach, there is a different performance standard of the coordination and facilitation on peatland restoration between the quick response approach and the comprehensive-systematic approach.

    Objectives Reducing the Frequency and Causes of Recurring Fire in the BRG Working Area

    Criteria Physical Non-physical

    The number of burn scar areas in the BRG working area show a

    decline.

    Common causes of fire can be prevented.

    A lot of parties show an active involvement in the program.

    Data, Knowledge, and Policy on Peatland have improved.

    Activities Core Activity: Rewetting, Revegetation, Revitalization of Livelihood Supporting Activities: Planning and Cooperation, Education,

    Promotion, Participation and Partnership, Research and

    Development, and Improvement.

    Indicators • Peatland Rewetting

    Infrastructure

    • Peatland Fire Trends • Revegetation

    Demonstration Plot

    Community

    Livelihoods

    • Peat CareVillage

    • Cooperationon Peatland

    Restoration

    • Inventoryresults and

    KHG mapping

    • RREG• Results of

    • PLTB (Non-Burning Land-Clearing)

    Demonstration Plot

    • PartnershipProgram on

    Peatland

    Restoration

    Research on

    Peatland

    Restoration

    • MRV System

    Figure 6. Performance Criteria and Indicators

    14 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

    PERFORMANCE STATUS OF THE THREE-YEAR PEATLAND RESTORATION

  • From 2016 up to 2018, peatland restoration activities were carried out with the quick response approach using the performance criteria and indicators derived from the approach objectives as shown above in the figure. The quick response approach will be applied until the end of 2020 to 2.4 million hectares of peatland ecosystem which have been designated as the 2016-2020 BRG working area.

    As shown in Chapter 2, the peatland restoration adopting the comprehensive- systematic approach is aimed at obtaining a comprehensive and systematic benchmark of KHG-based peatland ecosystem restoration which can be mainstreamed systematically. The performance standards of the comprehensive- systematic approach on peatland restoration are set up based on the criteria and indicators derived from the following related objectives:

    Table 2. Model of the Peatland Restoration Hierarchy Adopting the Comprehensive- Systematic Approach

    The comprehensive-systematic approach on peatland restoration should be able to be mainstreamed systematically in tiers into the development plan and activities of the relevant government agencies and regional government into the business/activity plans of the parties responsible for the peatland restoration at site level. Therefore, peatland restoration should be integrated with the village development plan, RPJMN, RPJMD at the district/city/province level, and also with the plan on forest and land management in any respective forest and land management unit (KPH, IUPHHK, HGU, HPHD, IUPHKm, IUPHTR, etc.). The plan contents on peatland ecosystem restoration mainstreamed in the plan of forest and land management in any respective forest and land management unit should start from a technical plan on peatland ecosystem restoration plan at the KHG level.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 15

  • The implementation of peatland restoration adopting the comprehensive- systematic approach will begin in 2019 on a model scale through several pilot projects in the three selected KHG. The results of the implementation of this peatland ecosystem restoration model will be the main content in the development of the business process on peatland restoration which will be implemented after 2020.

    3.2 Peatland Restoration Performance in 2016-2018

    In 2016, BRG focused on the institutional set-up task through the institutional structure development, strengthening the coordination between the central government and local government, and completing the work program planning. The following are the BRG achievements in 2016:

    1. Developing the 2016-2020 BRG Strategic Plan in May 2016 with the support of Ministryof National Development Planning of Republic of Indonesia (Bappenas).

    2. By virtue of the Decision Letter of the Governor, building the Regional PeatlandRestoration Team (TRGD) in 7 (seven) provinces namely Jambi, South Sumatra, WestKalimantan, Riau, South Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and Papua. TGRD involvesthe local government, academics, local NGOs, private organizations, community, andjournalists.

    3. Developing and strengthening BRG as an institution, stipulated in the Decision Letterof Organization and Work Procedure of the Peatland Restoration Agency (DecisionLetter of the Chief of the Peatland Restoration Agency Number P.02/BRG-KB/2016dated 31 October 2016) and the Presidential Regulation Number 69 of 2017 onFinancial Rights and Facilities for Chief, Secretary, Deputy, Working Groups, andExpert Team of Peatland Restoration Agency dated 18 July 2017.

    4. Providing an input in the regulation amendment, such as in the amendment processof the Government Regulation Number 71 of 2014 to the Government RegulationNumber 57 of 2016 on Protection and Management of Peatland Ecosystem.

    5. Setting up the peatland restoration indicative map by the virtue of the Decision Letterof the Chief of Peatland Restoration Agency Number SK.05/BRG/Kpts/2016 dated 14September 2016 regarding Peatland Restoration Indicative Map (PIR).

    6. Collaborating with BRG partners to complete the construction of peatland rewettinginfrastructure, including 1,000 deep wells and 30 canal blockings.

    7. Collaborating with BRG partners to implement revegetation in the burn scar area in SouthKalimantan.

    8. Providing a number of guidelines and modules on restoration implementation(construction of peatland rewetting infrastructure, plant nursery, and planting on thepeatland), social safeguards on peatland restoration, and community engagementthrough the Peat Care Village Program.

    16 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Figure 7. BRG collaborated with the Banjarbaru Environmental and Forestry Research and Development Agency to conduct revegetation on the burn scar area in

    KHDTK Tumbang Nusa at the 1st Tropical Peatland Roundtable 2017

    9. Promoting and educating the community on peatland restoration, includingorganizing the first peatland Community Jamboree in 2016 which was attendedby 1,000 farmers and community groups; promotion at the province level;promotion at the Climate Change Summit in Marrakech, Morocco; andpresentation of the village data through social mapping.

    10. Strengthening the coordination and cooperation with several relevantMinistries/Agencies, permit holders, universities, and non-governmentalorganizations to design and implement the initial stages of peatland restoration.

    In 2017, BRG had expanded the scope of activities in its working practices. The key factor of the 2017 implementation pattern of peatland restoration site activities is the internal strength adopting a self-managed implementation pattern. Almost all BRG technical staffs strove for a collaboration with the relevant community groups, local universities, and in some areas, with several development partners. Some planning activities agreed in a contract are carried out by the selected third parties. The following are the BRG achievements in 2017:

    1. Developed the RREG at the National Level and in 7 (seven) Priority Provinces at36 KHG covering an area of 7,537,647 hectares.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 17

  • Figure 8. The Development of the 2017 Annual Action Plan (RTT)

    2. Developed the Annual Action Plan (RTT) on Peatland Restoration in 43 KHGs and theinventory on peatland ecosystem characteristics of an area of 4,589,281 hectares.

    3. Conducted peatland ecosystem mapping in a scale of 1:50,000 at 8 (eight) KHGscovering 1,147,212 hectare area, including 650,777 hectare peatland. The 8 (eight)KHGs include Sungai Lalan-Sungai Merang and Sungai Sugihan-Sungai Lumpur (SouthSumatra), Sungai Tapung Kiri-Sungai Kiyap (Riau), Sungai Ambawang-Sungai Kubu(West Kalimantan), Sungai Utar-Sungai Serapat (Central Kalimantan/WestKalimantan), as well as Sungai Barito-Sungai Alalak and Sungai Maluka-SungaiMartapura (South Kalimantan).

    4. Collaborated with 10 foreign governments and international institutions and signing aMemorandum of Understanding with 13 Ministries/Institutions, 20 universities, and 7domestic and foreign non-profit organizations.

    5. Completed the construction of peatland rewetting infrastructure, including 5,900 deepwells, 1,849 canal blockings, and 110 canal backfilling locations in Riau, Jambi, SouthSumatra, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, and South Kalimantan, within theAPBN.

    6. Collaborated with local BRG development partners to complete the construction ofpeatland rewetting infrastructure, including 121 canal blockings and 99 retention basin(embung).

    18 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • 7. Collaborated with 32 community groups in the construction of peatland rewettinginfrastructure and with 97 community groups to revitalize the communitylivelihoods.

    8. Facilitated the community through the Peat Care Village Program (Desa PeduliGambut/DPG) in 75 villages and kelurahan in 7 provinces to support the peatlandrestoration targets. There are 11 villages in Riau Province, 10 villages in JambiProvince, 15 villages in South Sumatra Province, 16 villages in West KalimantanProvince, 10 villages in Central Kalimantan Province, 10 villages in South KalimantanProvince, and 3 villages in Papua Province, which participate in the Peat Care VillageProgram.

    9. Provided trainings for elementary school teachers and granting the educationalteaching aids on peatland to elementary schools/equivalent at the DPG location.

    10. Promoted peatland restoration at the district level and at the UN Climate ChangeSummit forum in Bonn, Germany.

    11. Provided training for village officials, women’s groups, and paralegals.

    12. Facilitated the revitalization of the community livelihoods. A total of 101 community groups were fostered to manage local commodities, beekeeping, cattle farming,and fisheries.

    Figure 9. Peatland fisheries as one of the economic revitalization efforts.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 19

  • 13. Installed 40 peat water level monitoring devices in five selected provinces, namelyin Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, and Central Kalimantan.

    Figure 10. Water level monitoring device

    14. Conducted 61 research packages on various themes on peatland restoration, incollaboration with several universities and other scientific institutions.

    In 2018, the Assisted Task (Tugas Pembantuan/TP) scheme had been approvedand implemented. The TP scheme had helped 7 (seven) local government at the provincial level to be promoted to become the Task Force responsible for implementing the TP on Peatland Restoration.

    The dynamics in the implementation of peatland restoration activities through the TP scheme was indeed quite high, both in terms of technical and administrative tasks. Futhermore, lots of improvements were required in terms of the coordination between the central government and local government. These problems certainly have affected the performance in implementing peatland restoration activities. However, the government involvement in the process is one of the long-term investments to sustain peatland restoration. The following are the achievements of BRG in 2018:

    1. Developed the Annual Action Plan (RTT) on Peatland Restoration and theinventory of peatland ecosystem characteristics at 7 KHGs.

    2. Conducted peatland ecosystem mapping in a scale of 1:50,000 at 7 KHGs coveringan area of 1,137,726 hectares, including 650,777 hectares of peatland.

    20 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • 3. The seven KHGs are KHG of Pulau Rupat, KHG of Kiyap River-Kerumutan River, KHGof Mendahara River-Batanghari River, KHG of Batanghari River-Air Hitam LautRiver, KHG of Ngirawan River- Sembilang River, KHG of Mempawah River-PenitiRiver, and KHG of Kahayan River-Kapuas River.

    4. Signed 10 Memorandum of Understandings with Ministries/Agencies andDevelopment Partners.

    5. Completed the construction of peatland rewetting infrastructures in 7 (seven)priority provinces, which include 3,326 canal blockings, 4,801 deep wells, and 33canal backfillings using the APBN. The construction of 1,250 deep wells, 216 canalblockings, and 33 canal backfilling locations in the conservation area was carriedout in collaboration with the local Technical Implementation Unit (UPT) of theMinistry of Environment and Forestry. In addition, the local government throughthe TP mechanism has constructed the peatland rewetting infrastructures, whichcomprise 3,551 deep wells and 3,110 canal blockings.

    Figure 11. BRG and its partners have built the peatland rewetting infrastructure, such as canal blockings.

    6. Collaborated with BRG partners to complete the construction of peatlandrewetting infrastructures in 7 priority provinces, which include 95 deep wells, 604canal blockings, and 42 retention basin (embung).

    7. Collaborated with 254 community groups to complete the construction ofpeatland rewetting infrastructure and with 194 community groups to revitalizethe community livelihoods.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 21

  • 8. The following activities were aimed at educating, promoting, encouraging involvementand partnerships on peatland restoration:a. The second Peatland Community Jamboree to encourage support to deal with the

    dry season was carried out in South Kalimantan and attended by around 1,600farmers.

    b. Training on Peatland Restoration for Da’i (i.e. Moslem religious leaders) wasconducted in collaboration with the Indonesian Ulama Council (Majelis UlamaIndonesia/ MUI) and Universitas Nasional, while the Peat Care Pastor program washeld in collaboration with the Communion of Churches in Indonesia.

    c. Conducted The Peatland Farmer Field School which was participated by 274 cadresand 2,090 members of the field demonstration plot management group and 127demonstration plots on PLTB.

    d. Promoted peatland restoration at the district level, international forum in Oslo, andthe UN Climate Change Summit in Poland.

    e. Announced the peatland restoration on the radio, TV, newspapers, national andlocal online media, and several exhibitions.

    f. Provided training for 150 elementary school teachers and granted educationalteaching aids on peatland restoration to the elementary schools/equivalent in 75villages. Since 2017, the training has been attended by 397 teachers.

    g. Provided training for the village officials and members of the community to developVillage Regulations on peatland restoration, integrating peatland restoration intothe Village RKP and RPJM, and developing BUMDes.

    h. Appointed the paralegals. Since 2017, 326 people have joined as cadres.i. Launched the Peat Care Village Program (Desa Peduli Gambut/DPG) in 75 villages

    and kelurahan within the APBN scheme and in 112 villages in a collaboration withnational development partners.

    j. Handled 114 complaints and conflict resolution cases.k. Conducted a stakeholder perception survey on peatland restoration at 3,802

    respondents in 10 districts/cities. In general, the stakeholders noticed that thepeatland restoration activities have been implemented smoothly with an indexscore 76.72.

    Figure 12. Stakeholder perception index on peatland ecosystem restoration

    22 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • l. Developing input for the guidelines on the implementation of constructionsupervision, operation, and maintenance in the concession area; promoting,carrying out tests and implementing pre-supervision towards 5 (five) companiesholding forestry and plantation permits covering an area of 143,477.77 hectares.

    9. Conducted 61 research packages, employing various themes on peatland restoration, incollaboration with several universities and other scientific institutions, conducting 42thematic packages of research and development.

    10. Peatland Restoration Monitoring System (PRIMS) has been successfully constructed andwill be effective in 2019. PRIMS manages the information on the location of the activityand the condition of the output of the peatland restoration activities based on the dataon the planning, report from the implementer, and verification result. The verificationsystem is supported by a simple android-based application which can display thegeographic data with the visual data of the field. PRIMS is also capable of displaying real-time data on the land cover activities carried out around the locations of restoration.

    11. Installation of 102 unit of water level monitoring devices in the selected locations. 142units of water level monitoring devices has been installed since 2017;

    12. Developed Peatland Monitoring System Application (SIPALAGA), which provides theinformation on the wetness level of the peatland and the fire danger rating based onthe peat water level. The peat water level monitoring devices for this system has beeninstalled in 142 locations out of the total 300 planned locations.

    3.3 Performance Status of the Three-Year Peatland Restoration

    In terms of performance, the status of peatland restoration in the last three years is as follows: 1. In general, the achieved milestones in terms of Planning and Cooperation are as

    follows:a. The target locations and the BRG’s peatland restoration plan in 7 provinces

    were set in 2016.b. Peatland restoration plan on pre-determined location for each province was

    arranged in 2016 and 2017.c. Contingency plan for the implementation of peatland restoration in 2017 were

    arranged in 2017.d. Process of listing and mapping the peatland ecosystem characteristics has been

    carried out for 18 peatland hydrological units (KHG), up to 2018, out of 104KHGs in total which are BRG’s working areas.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 23

  • e. Annual Action Plan targeting 57 KHGs up to the end of 2018 has been arranged.f. The monitoring of peatland restoration by the use of information

    technology application and developed GIS.g. Another task given by the President, which is to develop paddy field model on

    the peatland area where the Mega Rice Project took place, has been carriedout for the area of 200 hectares in Pulang Pisau District through public privatepartnership scheme.

    2. In general, the achieved milestones in terms of Construction, Operation, andMaintenance are as follows:

    a. Up to 2018, BRG has constructed the rewetting infrastructures whichcomprise 11,800 deep wells, 5,936 canal blockings, and 242 canal backfillings,by using the fund from APBN or the support of the partner institutions. Mostof the constructions were carried out in collaboration with the communitygroups, while a few others were carried out in collaboration with theuniversities and in contracts with third parties. The estimated overall areaaffected by the rewetting activities is 679,901 hectares or 62.9% of the totaltarget outside the 1,081,584 hectares of concession area.

    b. Cooperation with 530 community groups for the construction of therewetting infrastructures and the revitalization of community’s livelihoodsactivities. The members of the community groups are 7,950 people in total.

    Figure 13. BRG, in cooperation with the community group, is constructing the deep well, one of the peat rewetting infrastructures.

    24 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • c. 713 revegetation demonstration plots have been constructed across Riau,Jambi, South Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Central Kalimantan;

    Table 3. Peatland Restoration facilitated by the APBN of 2017–2018

    PROVINCE

    2017 2018

    R1 (unit) R2 (ha)

    R3 (package)

    IMPACT ESTIMATION

    (ha)

    R1 (unit) R2 (ha)

    R3 (package)

    IMPACT ESTIMATION

    (ha) Deep Well

    Canal Blocking

    Canal Back- filling

    Deep Well Canal Blocking

    Canal Backfilling

    RIAU 400 311 0 0 25 26,595 325 815 0 120 37 50,889

    JAMBI 0 114 0 0 10 6,448 297 301 0 125 32 61,778

    SOUTH SUMATRA 0 0 10 0 11 2,000 99 516 18 150 26 100,060

    WEST KALIMANTAN 100 200 0 0 16 3,114 126 279 0 0 19 16,805

    CENTRALKALIMANTAN 5,257 1,184 100 40 23 62,126 3,600 1,350 15 350 69 72,754

    SOUTHKALIMANTAN 125 40 0 0 12 3,193 354 65 0 42 10 4,568

    PAPUA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 11 1,100

    TOTAL 5,900 1,849 110 0 97 103,476 4,801 3,326 33 787 204 307,953

    Total area facilitated in 2017 & 2018: 411,429 hectares

    Table 4. Peatland Restoration coordinated with BRG’s development partners

    PROVINCE

    2018

    R1 R2 (ha)

    R3 (package)

    IMPACT ESTIMATION

    (ha) Deep Well

    Canal Blocking

    RETENTION BASIN

    RIAU 0 0 0 0 0 535

    JAMBI 8 5 0 0 0 5,892

    SOUTH SUMATRA 8 2 0 0 0 32

    WEST KALIMANTAN 79 30 42 0 0 25,950

    CENTRALKALIMANTAN 0 494 99 40 0 131,133

    SOUTHKALIMANTAN 0 0 0 0 0 0

    PAPUA 0 0 0 0 0 0

    TOTAL 95 531 42 0 0 170,542

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 25

    PROVINCE

    2016 2017

    R1 R2 (ha)

    R3 (package)

    IMPACT ESTIMATION

    (ha)

    R1 R2 (ha)

    R3 (package)

    IMPACT ESTIMATION

    (ha) Deep Well Canal

    Blocking CanalBack- filling

    Deep Well

    Canal Blocking

    Retention Basin

    RIAU 150 0 0 0 0 630 0 0 0 0 0 0

    JAMBI 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31 0 0 0 3,410

    SOUTH SUMATRA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    WEST KALIMANTAN 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    CENTRALKALIMANTAN 800 30 0 40 0 1,924 0 90 99 40 0 91,809

    SOUTHKALIMANTAN 50 0 0 0 0 157 0 0 0 0 0 0

    PAPUA 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

    TOTAL 1,000 30 0 40 0 2,711 0 121 99 40 0 95,219

  • Total coordinated in 2016+2017+2018= 268,472 hectares

    Total facilitated and coordinated= 679,901 hectares

    Notes: R1 : Rewetting R2 : Revegetation R3 : Revitalization of Social-Economy SB : Deep Well SK : Canal Blocking TK : Canal Backfilling

    Figure 14. BRG’s peatland restoration milestones in 2017-2018

    26 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • 3. In general, the achieved milestones in terms of Education, Campaign, Participation,and Partnership are as follows:

    a. BRG and its partner has provided assistance for 262 villages and kelurahanthrough Peat Care Village program. The indicative area of the entire village/kelurahan is 3,261,257 hectares, while the peatland restoration target area inthe village/kelurahan is 871,043 hectares or 35% of the total restorationtarget. The number of hotspot in the villages/kelurahan have decreased by85% compared to the number in 2015. In general, Peat Care Village aims atmainstreaming and institutionalizing peatland restoration into people’s livesand village development.

    Figure 15. The number of Peat Care Village

    b. Education and promotion of peatland restoration through training andcampaign involved 20,950 people. They took part in the training, villageplanning workshop, participatory mapping, and jamboree.

    c. The restoration cadres at site level comprised 2,364 field school cadres, 326paralegals, 397 elementary teachers, 173 peatland restoration da’is, 65 peatcare pastors, 176 Peat Care Village facilitators and 773 members of peat carewomen’s group.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 27

  • Figure 16. Elementary school teachers’ teaching and learning activities in the Peat Care Village program

    Figure 17. Field school programs on Peat Care Village program

    28 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • d. In 2018, the supervision activity or technical assistance was initiated for theconstruction, operation, and maintenance of the infrastructure in the concessionarea of 143,477.77 hectares. In 2018, a Memorandum of Understanding with theDirectorate General of Plantation has been signed in order to establish acooperation to implement the supervision activity or technical assistance inplantation area. The implementation of the peatland restoration in concession area is a part of the responsibility of the relevant parties in charge of thebusiness/activity. The Ministry of Environment and Forestry has instructed 148companies holding the forestry and plantation permit to implement therevitalization. The companies are responsible for recovering the total of2,498,266.84 hectares.2 Some of the area are situated in the peatland restorationtarget area. Thus, in accordance with the mandate of the Presidential RegulationsNo. 1 of 2016, BRG carries out the supervision function so that the hydrologicalrestoration activities on the concession land are implemented in line with theGovernment provisions.

    4. In general, the achieved milestones in terms of Peatland Restoration Research andDevelopment are as follows:a. Research and Development has implemented 103 theme-based research

    packages. The research and development were conducted in a collaboration withnational and foreign universities, research and development of the relevantMinistries/Agencies, and the other scientific institutions.

    b. BRG has installed 142 units of Water Level monitoring device in the peatlandecosystem. The purpose of this installation is to determine the level of peatlandwetness which can be further developed to analyze the fire danger ratings andthe rewetting infrastructure effectiveness.

    Figure 18. Water level monitoring device

    2 Presentation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry in the Working Meeting with the Indonesian Parliament, January 2019.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 29

  • 4.1 The Support of the Regional Government and Villages BRG collaborates with seven regional governments, including the governments in

    Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, and Papua provinces in completing the peatland restoration programs. The seven provinces are BRG’s priority for the period of 2016-2020. Additionally, collaboration with 57 district or municipal governments in the seven provinces is also established. BRG, along with its partner, has facilitated 262 villages and kelurahan across the provinces.

    4.2 The Integration of Peatland Restoration into Village & Regional Development

    As a strategy to maintain the sustainability of the economic revitalization in the community, the establishment and development of Village-Owned Enterprises (BUMDes) is facilitated. BUMDes has become the media for all community

    in BRG's Peat Care Village Program

  • activities which has been formed collectively by the village government and the community for the well-being of the villages’ communities. BRG encourages BUMDes to run business units that have no negative impacts on the peatland.

    To ensure the sustainability of the peatland restoration at village level, BRG has has facilitated the village governments to integrate several peatland protection activities into the village planning documents (Village RPJM or Village RKP). In addition, the villages are encouraged to establish regulations at village level to protect the peatland ecosystems. Up to the end of 2018, 190 village-level legal products, 44 BUMDes, and 69 RPJMDes/RKPDes have been facilitated. The activities incorporated in the village planning are, among all, fire prevention, non-burning land management, BUMDes equity participation, and so on.

    The involvement of the village government in peatland restoration program has significant impacts in supporting BRG. In the stakeholder perception survey conducted in the second half of 2018, it was found that village officials are considered one of the most experienced and credible parties to deliver the Peatland Restoration program. Some other district governments also expressed their readiness to integrate peatland restoration activities into their development plans.

    Figure 20. BRG, together with Javara, is holding a training on processing food materials found on peatland into healthy food

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 31

  • 4.3 The Presence of Grass Root Cadres Strengthening community groups has become one of the major concerns of BRG.

    Up to 2018, 291 Community Groups have conducted freshwater fisheries, livestock farming, beekeeping, etc. BRG also facilitated 286 community groups to build deep wells and canal blockings.

    Figure 21. One of the community groups’ economic revitalization activities is swamp buffalo cultivation

    The other cadres at site level include 2,364 field school cadres, 326 paralegals, 397 elementary school teachers, 173 peatland restoration da’is, 65 peat care pastors, 176 Peat Care Village facilitators, 773 members of peat care women’s group, and 7,950 members of Community Groups who involved in Rewetting Infrastructure construction and economic revitalization activities. All of them have roles in resonating the messages and activities on peatland restoration at site level.

    32 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • Figure 22. Community involvement in peatland restoration program for 2017-2018

    4.4 Partnership with NGO and Universities

    In addition to working with universities, BRG also establishes cooperations with a number of domestic and foreign NGOs. BRG collaborates with 15 universities in Indonesia, namely Sriwijawa University (Palembang), Jambi University (Jambi), Riau University (Riau), Lambung Mangkurat University (Banjarmasin), Tanjungpura University (Pontianak), Palangka Raya Univerity (Palangka Raya), Mulawarman University (Samarinda), Gadjah Mada University (Yogyakarta), Bogor Agricultural Institute (Bogor), Sebelas Maret University (Surakarta), Cenderawasih University (Jayapura), Bandung Institute of Technology (Bandung), Jenderal Soedirman University (Purwokerto), Palangkaraya Christian University, and Muhammadiyah University in Palangkaraya. In addition, BRG also collaborates with six foreign research institutions/universities, namely Kyoto University and Hokkaido University from Japan, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature/RIHN (Japanese government research institutions), Queensland University (Australia), Finnish University, and Leicester University (England).

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 33

  • Figure 23. One of the 1st Tropical Peatland Roundtable activities, conducted in 2017 and attended by 69 peat observers from 9 (nine) countries

    4.5 International Support Former Vice President of the United States, Al Gore (1993-2001), at the World

    Economic Annual Meeting in Davos, Swiss, 23-26 January 2018, appreciated Indonesia’s efforts in restoring forests and peat ecosystem. Norwegian Prime Minister Erna Solberg also expressed her appreciation to President Joko Widodo at the opening of Oslo Tropical Forest Forum in June 2018. PM Solberg appreciated Indonesia’s efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through the moratorium with regards to the natural forest and peat ecosystems and the safeguarding of the peatland ecosystem.

    Figure 24. The president of the International Peatland Society (IPS), Gerald Schmilewski, is testing a deep well in Central Kalimantan in 2017

    34 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

  • The world leaders showed their appreciation and also provided financial support, such as grants, received directly by BRG, and indirect benefit, BRG as a beneficiary. In the period of 2016-2020, the Government of Indonesia through BRG has received a total grant of US $ 92 million from the Kingdom of Norway with the amount of US $ 66.2 million, MCA-Indonesia with the amount of US $ 22.2 million, Republic of South Korea with the amount of US $ 3 million, the Japanese Government with the amount of US $ 551,000, the German Federal Government through GIZ with the amount of US $ 300,000, and CLUA with the amount of US $ 332,000.

    In addition, BRG also received indirect benefits from the peatland projects carried out by USAID for US $ 216,000, the United Kingdom for US $ 8 million, and Australia for US $ 4.7 million. ASEAN-EU have also committed to support sustainable peatland management of US $ 6 million.

    Based on BRG calculations, the total funding needs for the coordination and facilitation program for the peatland ecosystem restoration in seven provinces during the period of 2016-2020 reached IDR 10.6 trillion.

    Figure 25. International support towards peatland restoration

    4.6 Comprehensive and Systematic Peatland Restoration

    The concept of post-2020 peat restoration implementation is being prepared through modeling on several KHG. The comprehensive-systematic approach on peatland restoration will be more flexibly mainstreamed in tiers into the development planning and activities of the government agencies, the relevant regional governments, and village governments and into the business/activity plans of the parties responsible for the peatland restoration at site level. The synergy between the government institutions and the other parties will be one of the strengths in this approach.

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 35

  • Figure 26. The training of Bhabinkamtibmas (community police officer) for the integrated community involvement in the Peat Care Village program to

    support the implementation of peatland restoration.

    The capacity building for human resources in the management of peatland ecosystem is being prepared at the level of local government, private sector, and community by involving the experts from universities.

  • The peatland restoration program is proven to be effective in reducing the occurrences of forest and land fire and in suppressing the emission resulted from the land sector. It surely is a good achievement and the proof for Indonesia’s determination to control climate change. For more effective and sustainable peatland restoration, a number of steps need to be taken.

    5.1 Institutional Strengthening

    Institutional strengthening is essential, both for theoretical reason regarding peatland ecosystem restoration and institutional complexity reason in uniting all elements for more effective peatland restoration. One important aspect in this regard is to give authority to manage the budget autonomously.

    5.2 Cooperation between All Parties

    Cooperation between all parties is necessary to bring about sustainable peatland management. The cooperation between Ministries/Agencies at central and regional level as well as development partners needs to be established. The coordinative tasks highly depend on the cooperation. In executing its tasks, BRG involves almost 20 ministries and government agencies as well as seven governors. If the peatland restoration only ends up as temporary revitalization, the next BRG or other restoration activities will be required. Moreover, the prevention of peatland fire

    THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA 37

    ORIENTATION FOR STRENGTHENING

  • Figure 27. Chief of the Peatland Restoration Agency, together with the partners and community members, is carrying out the rewetting process by using the deep well.

    should be a sustainable effort, not just a program which applies for one-year period.

    5.3 Involving Companies It is necessary to involve the companies in the implementation of peatland

    restoration. About 1.4 million hectares of peatland set as the restoration target is situated within the areas with permit and held by the forestry and plantation sectors. The supervision on the concessionaires, as a technical assistance to enforce the Government Regulation No. 5 of 2016 on Protection and Management of Peatland Ecosystem, should be carried out effectively with the supports of all Ministries/Agencies and regional governments.

    5.4 Medium and Long-Term Planning Considering that the total peatland area to be restored is beyond the targeted

    2.4 million hectares, it is necessary to arrange a medium and long-term plan for more extensive peatland restoration. The 2.4 million hectares are only the priority target for five-year time frame, while the total peatland area in the seven provinces reaches 12.9 million hectares, 55 percent of which has been cleared and drained. This portion of land needs to be restored gradually and continuously in the next phase. Peatland ecosystem is connected to the authority of various development sectors or fields. Therefore, a National Action Plan on Peatland Ecosystem Revitalization must be prepared as the main material to be mainstreamed as a Cross-Field Program in the RPJMN of 2020-2024.

    38 THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA

    2.1 TASKS AND FUNCTIONS2.2 WORKING AREA AND TARGET2.3 WORKING UNITS AND ACTIVITY DESCRIPTION2.4 approach and framework3.1 Performance Criteria and IndicatorsCriteriaActivitiesIndicators3.2 Peatland Restoration Performance in 2016-20183.3 Performance Status of the Three-Year Peatland RestorationTotal area facilitated in 2017 & 2018: 411,429 hectaresTotal coordinated in 2016+2017+2018= 268,472 hectares Total facilitated and coordinated= 679,901 hectares

    4.1 The Support of the Regional Government and Villages4.2 The Integration of Peatland Restoration into Village & Regional Development4.3 The Presence of Grass Root Cadres4.4 Partnership with NGO and Universities4.5 International Support4.6 Comprehensive and Systematic Peatland Restoration5.1 Institutional Strengthening5.2 Cooperation between All Parties5.3 Involving Companies5.4 Medium and Long-Term Planning

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THREE YEARS OF PEATLAND RESTORATION IN INDONESIA REPORT BADAN RESTORASI GAMBUT REPUBLIK INDONESIA (THE PEATLAND RESTORATION AGENCY OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA) JANUARY 2019
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