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Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

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Tissue Doppler Imaging Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease in Congenital Heart Disease L. Youngmin Eun, M.D. Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine
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Page 1: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Doppler Imaging Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Diseasein Congenital Heart Disease

L. Youngmin Eun, M.D.Department of Pediatrics,Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Kwandong University College of Medicine

Page 2: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

“The potential advantage of ultrasound cardiography is to permit the study of the soft tissues without catheterization and the introduction of contrast media. With regard to cardiovascular diagnosis the method is still in the stage of research.”

from 1/2 page on ultrasonic cardiography in chapter-“Phonocardiography and other graphic methods”

Friedberg, Diseases of the Heart, 1966

Page 3: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

What is TDI?What is TDI?

Quantitative Quantitative TissueTissueDoppler Doppler ImagingImaging

Page 4: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

What is the Principle of TDI?

♥ TDI is based on the difference between signals returned from blood and tissue.

♥ It filters out the high velocity, low amplitude signals,leaving the tissue motion information visible.( low velocity, high amplitude)

- The familiar color coding of color Doppler signals red-to-yellow scale : tissue movement

towards the transducer blue-to-green scale : movement awayred and blue --- low velocities yellow and green--- high velocities

Page 5: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

LV Longitudinal ShorteningDiastole Systole2D2D

Page 6: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Why do TDI exam in Apical View?

ApexApex

70% of fibers are longitudinal!

LVRVendo

midepi

BaseBase

Page 7: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Doppler Echocardiography

Simple, non-invasive and reproducible method for assessing cardiac physiology.

Provide a velocity value for every point in the myocardial wall.

Assessing wall motion not only regionally, but also quantitatively.

This may afford the opportunity to study regional systolic and diastolic function.

Page 8: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Where can TDI be used ?Where can TDI be used ?

Quantify myocardial velocities in multiple segments of the myocardium from different echocardiographic windows

Accurate estimate of LV relaxation - Insensitive to the effects of preload compensation

Potential to assess regional systolic and diastolic functionin both LV and RV

Diastolic regional change is an early marker of ischemia(regional isovolumic relaxation time obtained by DTI) --- before the development of regional systolic dysfunction

Page 9: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

How is Tissue Doppler displayed ?Color B-scan : the best overall impression

provide good view of a heart chambers and wallsframe rate limitations :

maximum frame rate 30 –90 frames/s

M-mode : dramatically improves time resolution sampling is only performed on a single linesuch a line– positioned on a clinically significant position

PW analysis : produces the maximum amount of informationhighest temporal and velocity range resolution

Page 10: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Conventional Doppler vs TDIConventional Doppler- velocity and direction of blood flow (RBC)

Tissue Doppler - velocity and direction of myocardial tissue

Blood: Mitral Flow Tissue: MV Ring Motion

Page 11: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Doppler in MTissue Doppler in M--modemode

Page 12: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Advantages of Color M-mode

- better temporal resolution of systolic diastolic velocityhigh frame rate obtained with M-mode

- represent in the same imageboth systolic diastolic velocities

- accurate quantitative information about myocardial motionduring the cardiac cycle

- accurately assess in one scan plane the different phases of the cardiac cycle

Page 13: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

What is the Limitation of TDI ?The Angle dependency

The agreement between pulsed and color Doppler derived velocities has not been systematically studied. ----- pulsed Doppler derived velocities are higher.

Sometimes difficult to distinguish whether the lack of color due to akinesia or to uncontrolled technical factors

The Tethering effect

Page 14: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

The assessment of ventricular function

TDE has the potential to assess - segmental systolic and diastolic function

in both LV and RV

transmural velocity gradientasynchronous ventricular contraction and relaxation visualized onlineglobal and regional systolic and diastolic time interval

Page 15: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

The amount of color in an image can be increased by-increasing the Doppler tissue imaging or color Doppler gain-Modifying the depth gain to take away some of the

underlying gray scale image-increasing the gate size-using lower filter settings-decreasing the scale-adjusting the ROI size-changing the transducer position or orientation

* Gain settings must be carefully adjusted to obtain the most homogeneous non-saturated color filling.

Page 16: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Tissue VelocityNormal heart : endocardium moves faster than epicardium

during myocardial contractionbecause of the change of wall thickness

myocardial velocities are highest in the base of the heartand decrease toward the apex, with reversal in apical area

The velocity gradient between the endo and epicardiumis an indicator of the regional myocardial contraction.

--- decrease in the velocity gradient should be expected ininfarcted myocardium when compared to a normal one

G = (V endocardium – V epicardium) / W cos θ

Page 17: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Tissue Velocity

Page 18: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Tissue VelocityParasternal long axis view

Page 19: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Tissue Velocity

Page 20: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Doppler Velocity & Strain Rate

Tissue Velocity Strain Rate

v1

v1

v2

v2

SR1

SR1

SR2

SR2

Expand

Contract

No deformation

[1/s][m/s]

Page 21: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Doppler Velocity

Systole

IVC

IVR

EA

VelocityDiastole

Time

LongitudinalVelocity

Page 22: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Tracking (Displacement)

IVC

IVR

EA

Velocity

VTI Time

LongitudinalVelocity

Velocity Time Integral ( VTI ) = Systolic DisplacementTissue Tracking = Color Coded Systolic Displacement

Page 23: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Strain Rate : Rate of Deformation(Spatial velocity gradient)

IVCIVR

EA

12

xvvSR

∆−=

v1

Δx

v2

Time

Strain Rate

Page 24: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Strain - Local Deformation

IVCIVR

EA

Strain Rate

StrainStrain

Time

Page 25: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Color encoding based on tracked motion

TStart TEnd

Page 26: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Longitudinal Displacement and Strain during the Systolic phase

EA

Systole

A

Diastole

Deformation = 0 %

Displacement = 0 mm

Velocity

E

Strain Rate

Page 27: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Longitudinal Displacement and Strain during the Systolic phase

EA

Systole

A

Deformation = 10 %

DiastoleDisplacement = 6 mm

Velocity

E

Strain Rate

Page 28: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Longitudinal Displacement and Strain during the Systolic phase

EA

Strain Rate

Systole

A

Deformation = 20 %

Displacement = 12 mm Diastole

Velocity

E

Page 29: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI, TT, SRI, Strain imaging & Profile

Page 30: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI, Strain imaging

Page 31: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI, Tissue tracking imaging Displacement

Page 32: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI Curved Anatomical MTDI Curved Anatomical M--modemode

1

2

34 5

78

6

1

NORMALNORMAL

LateralWall

Septum

Apex

2

3

4

5

6

7Curved Anatomical M-Mode

8

Page 33: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

CAMM : Apex Post systolic thickenig

Page 34: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

CAMM : Strain rate imaging

Normal

Apical akinesia

Apical dyskinesia

Voigt JU et al. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2000

Page 35: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Synchronization ImagingUsing Tissue Doppler to Map Synchrony

Peak of SeptalWall

Peak of LateralWall

Time-to-peak

TSI does this calculation for every piece of myocardium and displays time-to-peak

Page 36: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TVI Tissue Velocity Imaging

Measures Myocardial Long. Velocity [m/sec]

Parametric Parametric Imaging Imaging TTI TTI –– Tissue TrackingTissue Tracking

Measures Myocardial Longitudinal

Displacement [mm]

TSI TSI –– Tissue Tissue Synchronization Synchronization

ImagingImagingMeasures Timing;

Time-to-Peak Systolic Velocity [msec]

SI SI –– Strain ImagingStrain ImagingMeasures Myocardial

Longitudinal Deformation [%]

Advance ApplicationsTVI, TTI, TSI, Strain…

Page 37: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Clinical Application Clinical Application Functional assessmentin Congenital Heart disease

- s/p ASD device closure- Aortic Stenosis- RV function in TOF- Diastolic dysfunction- Ventricular function in

Fontan physiology- Etc.

Page 38: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Strain Rate vs Strain - longitudinal

Page 39: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Longitudinal motion and deformation in RV with TOF

Page 40: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Strain Rate vs Strain - radial

Page 41: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Peri-patch regional myocardial function in VSD repair

Eun, AHA 2002

Page 42: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Peri-patch regional myocardial function in VSD repair

Eun, AHA 2002

Page 43: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Table 1. The Strain parameters in VSD repain patients

Peripatch Remote region p-value

Longitudinal SRES -3.79 ± 3.19 -5.33 ± 4.17 < 0.05SRED 4.05 ± 1.62 5.63 ± 3.66 < 0.05SRLD 3.96 ± 2.34 3.42 ± 1.95 NSεε peak -24.69 ± 11.08 -30.71 ± 11.12 < 0.01

Radial SRES 3.31 ± 1.85 3.77 ± 1.61 NSSRED -4.02 ± 3.09 -7.02 ± 3.09 < 0.01SRLD -3.63 ± 3.36 -5.67 ± 5.49 < 0.05εε peak 19.02 ± 16.36 37.27 ± 28.37 < 0.0001

Eun et al. AHA 2002

Page 44: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Table 2. Time to Strain parameters in VSD patients

Peripatch Remote region p-value

Longitudinal SRES 0.144 ± 0.059 0.110 ± 0.046 < 0.01SRED 0.371 ± 0.087 0.357 ± 0.082 < 0.05SRLD 0.497 ± 0.148 0.486 ± 0.145 NSεε peak 0.313 ± 0.080 0.241 ± 0.062 < 0.0001

Radial SRES 0.147 ± 0.049 0.164 ± 0.199 NSSRED 0.347 ± 0.097 0.347 ± 0.113 NSSRLD 0.464 ± 0.136 0.460 ± 0.139 NSεε peak 0.329 ± 0.099 0.265 ± 0.079 < 0.0001

Eun et al. AHA 2002

Page 45: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue velocity in Normal vs RV dysplasia

Page 46: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue velocity in Normal vs RV dysplasia

Herbots et al. Eur J Echocardiography 2003; 4: 101–107

Page 47: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Conventional and TDI velocity

E / Ea : strong relation to invasively measured PCWPBy Paelinck et al. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:1109–16.

Page 48: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Velocities in normal children by age groupTissue Velocities in normal children by age group

Eidem et al, J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004, Vol 17 (3) 212 – 221.

Page 49: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Tissue Velocities in normal children by age groupTissue Velocities in normal children by age group

Eidem et al, J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004, Vol 17 (3) 212 – 221.

Page 50: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Normal children

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 51: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Heart Transplant patient

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 52: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Heart Transplant patient

Grade 2b Rejection

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 53: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Heart Transplant patient

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 54: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Heart Transplant patient

Grade 2b Rejection

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 55: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

TDI in Heart Transplant patient

Eun, ACC 2004

Page 56: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

The myocardial performance index (Tei index) by TDI

--- > Tei can also be obtained by TDI.

• Simple and noninvasive measurement for assessing global right ventricular (RV) function

• Sensitive indicator of RV functionpromising new means - global RV function with PR

By Yasuoka et al. Pediatr Cardiol. 2004 ; 25(2):131-6.

Page 57: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Acceleration during Isovolumic Contraction (IVA)

AT : Acceleration time of myocardial velocity during isovolumic contractionIVV : peak myocardial velocity during isovolumic contraction

Page 58: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA)

Page 59: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Myocardial Acceleration during isovolumic contraction (IVA)

a new index of right ventricular contractile function

--- unaffected by ventricular shape or loading conditions

--- assess RV contractile function for patients with repaired TOF and various degrees of PR

J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004 Apr;17(4):332-7.

Page 60: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

Clinical Application Clinical Application Congenital Heart disease- pre- operative assessment- post- operative assessment

Acquired Heart disease- Myocarditis- Other infection - Kawasaki disease- Diastolic dysfunction- Systolic dysfunction- Heart failure

Page 61: Tissue Doppler Imaging in Congenital Heart Disease

THANK YOU~*THANK YOU~*


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