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Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments Investigating the scope for marine reserves in Northern Europe under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Mia Pantzar ESRC Symposium on Marine Conservation and Governance: MPAs and beyond 24 September 2015 Research built on thesis for the fulfilment of the Master of Science in Environmental Management and Policy, Lund University, 2014
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Page 1: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments Investigating the scope for marine reserves in Northern Europe under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Mia Pantzar

ESRC Symposium on Marine Conservation and Governance: MPAs and beyond

24 September 2015

Research built on thesis for the fulfilment of the Master of Science in Environmental Management and Policy, Lund University, 2014

Page 2: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

< 1% Of all ocean are marine reserves

70% Ocean

30% Land

15% Of all land is

protected

3–6% Of all ocean is

protected

Ocean

Land

• MSFD first to enforce EBM approach

• Spatial measures mandatory (Art. 13.4)

• Current MPA coverage

• Marine reserves: Closed for all extractive or otherwise to the environment harmful activities.

INTRODUCTION

Why did I conduct this research?

Page 3: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Aim To improve the understanding of how the implementation of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) is influencing marine spatial protection in Northern Europe

Investigate the scope for marine reserves as a policy instrument for achieving the EBM objectives of the Directive

INTRODUCTION

Why did I conduct this research?

Page 4: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

METHODOLOGY

How did I approach it?

Page 5: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs • 3 designation types

• 6.3% of marine waters

(lowest in Baltic)

• 6 designation types

• 9.5% of territorial waters,

limited coverage offshore

• 1 designation type

• One area fully

implemented; 5 pending

Of which marine

reserves today?

None 3 small areas None (not accepted)

Adopts spatial

measures under

MSFD?

No

• Governance structure

imposes time and

resource constraints

• Eutrophication

No

• Interprets Art 13.4

differently

Yes

• Two areas for seafloor

protection

KEY RESULTS

Case studies

Page 6: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Key factors Confirmed? Comments

Regulatory vagueness • New MPAs required or not?

• Lack of definitions

Regulatory overlap • CFP obstructing MPAs in EEZ

• Maritime Spatial Planning Directive causes concern

• Natura 2000 – not optimal for marine environments

Scientific uncertainty

and lack of knowledge • Hinders authorities’ ability to justify spatial measures

• Hinders adoption of socio-economic valuation

• Precautionary principle not operational at national or

local level

Dependence on

political will Determined by structural national priorities

MAIN FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

The MSFD steering

Page 7: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types
Page 8: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Key factors Confirmed? Comments

Regulatory vagueness • New MPAs required or not?

• Lack of definitions

Regulatory overlap • CFP obstructing MPAs in EEZ

• Maritime Spatial Planning Directive causes concern

• Natura 2000 – not optimal for marine environments

Scientific uncertainty

and lack of knowledge • Hinders authorities’ ability to justify spatial measures

• Hinders adoption of socio-economic valuation

• Precautionary principle not operational at national or

local level

Dependence on

political will Determined by structural national priorities

MAIN FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

The MSFD steering

Page 9: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Environmental relevance Confirmed? Comments

Limitations relating to the

nature of the instrument Marine reserves have not been discussed as an

option

Scientific uncertainty and

lack of knowledge Need for data, pilot areas and empirical examples

Uncertainty about environmental relevance

MAIN FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

Marine reserves as a policy instrument

Political acceptability

Political will Low at governmental level; higher with authorities

Socio-economic

consequences

Unacceptably high coercion; risk of conflict; fear

for ‘dead hand’

Low political acceptability

Page 10: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

MAIN FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

Ways forward?

Stakeholder participation

Designation in low-activity areas?

Marine reserves as scientific baseline areas?

Ecotourism

• Kosterhavet marine national park (SWE) success story

• Sweden and Scotland

• Scientific relevance?

• Long-term perspective?

• Easier politically

• Network thinking?

• Reconcile economic and ecological objectives

• Preconditions?

Page 11: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types
Page 12: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

MAIN FINDINGS & ANALYSIS

Ways forward?

Stakeholder participation

Designation in low-activity areas?

Marine reserves as scientific baseline areas?

Ecotourism

• Kosterhavet marine national park (SWE) success story

• Sweden and Scotland

• Scientific relevance?

• Long-term perspective?

• Easier politically

• Network thinking?

• Reconcile economic and ecological objectives

• Preconditions?

Page 13: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Conclusions

MSFD delivers limited progress for spatial protection

Marine reserves no scope under the MSFD

Page 14: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Recommendations

1. Manage/enforce existing protection first!

2. Address lack of scientific data

3. Improve balance between exploitation and conservation

4. Strengthen ecosystem credentials of Natura 2000

Page 15: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

• EU and national focus on the Blue Economy

• What will happen to marine conservation objectives under the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive?

Points for discussion

Page 16: Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments...Sweden The UK The Netherlands MPAs •3 designation types •6.3% of marine waters (lowest in Baltic) •6 designation types

Thank you for listening! Towards Ecosystem-Based Protection of Marine Environments Investigating the scope for marine reserves in Northern Europe under the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Thesis prepared at Lund University, 2014

Mia Pantzar [email protected] Institute for European Environmental Policy (IEEP) London


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