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Transboundary aquifers in Maghreb: 2 Case Studies towards Regional Cooperation

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  • Morocco - AlgeriaMorocco - MauritaniaTransboundary aquifers in Maghreb: 2 Case Studies towards Regional CooperationProf. Abdelkkader LARABIDirector of the Regional Water Centre of MaghrebMohammed V University, RabatE-mail: [email protected] East and North Africa Land and Water Days, 15 18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

  • Creataceous basin Bir Guendouz-Boulanouar aquiferS 1 = 64100 Km2

    S2 = 3000 km2

  • watershed and drainage system in Morocco, showing the Jorf Torba dam located in Algeria very close to the border.- A large part of Guir basin is located in the High Atlas and the rest is located in Algeria (Hammad du Guir).

    - Water flow is maily coming from High Atlas, storms and deep aquifers under springs

    I- Transboundary watershed Morocco-Algeria:

  • II- Transboundary aquifers Morocco-Algeria:Importance of the Senonian aquifer

    Water supply for drinking and Irrigation of traditional Agriculture in Oases.

    Recharge of The Guir river.

  • Synthetic geological section (NNW-SSE), through the Cretaceous basin

    The Plioquaternary covers the central and southern parts of Boudnib. It is composed of silt, sand and silt with a variable thickness hardly exceeding 25m.

    Continental Tertiary extends to the east and south to form the Hamada Guir (sandstones, conglomerates, clays, siltstone, limestone, gypsum and anhydrite). Tickness : can exceed 400 m in southwest of Boudnib.

    Senonian outcrops in North and South Boudnib Sehli axis (sandstone and clay gypsiferous).

    The Cenomanian (limestones with marly sandstone).

  • Functioning scheme of the khettara in south of Maghreb region.abDistribution of water coming from Khettara (a) and aeration wells for maintenance (b)

  • III- Transboundary aquifers Morocco-MauritaniaLocation and geological formations of the Bir Guendouz area Water supply for drinking of the Bir El Guendouz population in Morocco

    Water supply for drinking of the Boulanour and Noudibou cities

  • High salinity due Seawater intrusion from the west part of the aquifer system (overexploitation)

    The aquifer extends also to Senegal.

  • IV- Practices in the case studies Management of these aquifers for water supply is made independently

    Groundwater mining and Pollution, especially in the shared aquifer system between Morocco and Mauritania

    Informations and data on these aquifer systems are shared between scientists in the framework of EU Maghreb projects including Morocco , Algeria and Tunisia:

    Regional Water Centre of Maghreb (implemented in Rabat) to train Maghreb Professionals in Water Resources Management; Water Resources Studies, Organise Thematic Seminars and Workshops

    Biskra, December 2012 on Scarce Water Resources Management and Climate Changes;

    Annaba, April 2013 on Management of Transboundary Aquifers : Case studies from Maghreb (NWAS)

    Msc and PhD students exchanges between Maghreb Universities in the framework of Research projects and and mobilities

    Database to be developed and available for both countries

  • V - Challenges for the case studies Avoid irreversible degradation of these shared aquifer systems,

    Establish Dialogue/constructive collaboration between both countries,

    First Precondition is a GOOD UNDERSTANDING of the Characteristics and functionning of the shared aquifers,

    Establish cooperation between the 2 countries taking into account the common benefitof IWRM,

    Optimise the social, economic and environmental benefits of water,

    Create appropriate institutions (Laws, committees, joint authorities, ): A/Res/63/124 of the UN is an excellent reference,

    Involve international organisations to assist, especially for the regional cooperation and conducting Joint Projects as potential partners with the parties (OSS, .):

    Database to be developed and available for both countries, Regional monitoring network should be designed and covers both areas, Share and Exchange updated information,

    Agreement and Joint Structure of the study and developement must be created.

  • VI - Perspectives for the case studies Encourage Improving the Understanding of TBA of these cases studies,

    Establish Organisational and institutional tools to implement IWRM,

    Legal and Administrative tools,

    Economic and financial tools,

    Training and professional improvement tools,

    Tools for participation and cooperation to ensure exchange of information and develop long lasting cooperation,

    Learnt lessons from NWAS and NSAS

    Organise a preliminary workshop training to debate the technical issues and to come out with suggestions,

    Encourage Msc and PhD students exchages between both countries to study these aquifers.

    Web site of the regional Water Centre for better communication.

  • The New ParadigmFrom:technocratic to integrateddisciplinarity to multidisciplinaritysubjective to participatorysupply management to demand managementdeterministic to risk analysis

    ***

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