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Transnational Communities - Not Your Grandfather's Diaspora

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  • 1. Transnational Communities - not your grandfathers diaspora - Alvaro Lima Outubro , 2014
  • 2. AGENDA: I. Immigration Studies A Brief Background II. What is Immigrant Transnationalism? III. Drivers of Transnationalism IV. Traditional versus Transnational Lenses V.Some Implications of Transnationalism VI. Measuring Transnationalism VII. Transnational Entrepreneurship A New Research Front VIII. Transnational Innovation Portfolio
  • 3. Immigration Studies A Brief Background Traditionally migration studies have been concerned with understanding the origins and the impact of cross-borer flows; These flows have been understood mostly as a one way movement from sending countries to receiving countries; Immigration policies have been almost entirely focused on procedures and prohibitions governing admissions (who? how many? and what kind of immigrants should be admitted?). ADMISSION: Who? How many? What kind?
  • 4. There is a widespread belief that migration is caused by poverty, economic stagnation, and overpopulation in the countries of origin unrelated to receiving countries foreign policies, economic needs and broader international economic conditions; While overpopulation, poverty, and economic stagnation all create pressures for migration, there are systematic, structural relations between receiving countries policies and migration flows with worldwide evidence of a considerable patterning in the geography of migrations. poverty stagnation overpopulation etc WHY?
  • 5. Foreign-Born Population of Rich OECD Countries from Developing Countries Country Total Population (millions) Population from Developing Countries (millions) Percent of Total Population Top Five Source Countries (percent of total) Top Five Source Countries United States Spain France UK Netherlands Portugal Japan 281.4 40.8 58.5 58.8 16.0 10.4 127 28.4 1.5 3.7 3.0 1.2 0.5 1.2 10.1 3.7 6.4 5.1 7.6 4.5 1.0 45.2 44.2 20.4 30.1 48.6 62.8 69.6 Mexico, Philippines, Puerto Rico, India, China Morocco, Ecuador, Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey, Vietnam India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Jamaica, South Africa Suriname, Turkey, Indonesia, Morocco, Netherlands Antilles Angola, Mozambique, Brazil, Cape Verde, Venezuela North Korea, South Korea, China, Brazil, Philippines Source: Let Their People Come, Lant Pritchett, 2006
  • 6. Immigrant integration policies (education, training, placement, ESOL, health care, entrepreneurship, citizenship, etc..) are skeletal, ad hoc, under-funded and dominated by the ideology of assimilation the great melting pot of nations; As Nathan Glazer puts it, the settlement, adaptation, and progress, or lack of it, of immigrants is largely, in the U.S. context, up to them. labor market language acquisition housing education etc
  • 7. Re-integration policies for those returning are generally inexistent making the re-settlement process prone to failure feeding back emigration: labor market housing education etc
  • 8. What is Immigrant Transnationalism ? Regular, frequent engagement in economic, political and socio-cultural activities in both countries:
  • 9. Drivers of Transnationalism Developments in the means of transportation and communications have changed the relations between people and places (costs); International migrations have become crucial to the demographic future of many developed countries; Global political transformations and new international legal regimes weakened the state as the only legitimate source of rights; Fostered by global consumption, production, and immigration, cultural hybridization are substituting folkloric romanticism and political nationalism enshrined as essences of national cultures;
  • 10. 10 Traditional versus Transnational Lenses Traditional Lenses: immigration conceptualized as a bipolar relation between sending and receiving countries (moving from there to here) emigration is the result of individual search for economic opportunity, political freedom, etc. migrants are assumed to be the poorest of the poor immigrants occupy low-skilled jobs in agriculture, construction, and manufacturing Immigrants steadily shift their contextual focus, economic and social activities to receiving country immigration should not bring about significant change in the receiving society Transnational Lenses: immigration conceptualized as flows of cross-border economic, political and social-cultural activities (being here and there) emigration is the result of geopolitical interests, global linkages, and economic globalization migrants are not the poorest of the poor nor do they come from the poorest nations growth in the service and technology-based jobs create opportunities for low as well as high skilled migrants After the initial movement, migrants continue to maintain ties with their country of origin immigration creates hybrid societies with a richer cultural milieu
  • 11. Some Implications of Transnationalism Portability becomes crucial for transnational migrants education and certification processes; investment and retirement schemes, health insurance, etc.; The concept of community, society, as well as the local, must be redefined as space of flows (relationships), pluri-local and nation-state-boarder spanning, instead of bounded geographic places geographic and social container spaces; Transnational immigrant entrepreneurs contributions to the economy have to be recognized as such and not as just ethnic; Nation-state ideals of identity in both sending and receiving countries are challenged by transnational practices double citizenship; States must re-conceive immigration and adapt their policies and practices to accommodate transnational realities;
  • 12. Measuring Transnationalism The Six Ts of Transnationalism Source: Transnational Engagement, Remittances and their Relationship to Development in Latin America and the Caribbean, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University, Manuel Orozco, Principal Investigator, 2003.
  • 13. $875 $398 $331 $218 $900 $800 $700 $600 $500 $400 $300 $200 $100 $- Mxico Guatemala Brazil Ecuador Guyana Dominican R. El Salvador Colombia Nicaragua Honduras Cuba Monthly Remittance by Nationality $278 $274 $192 $188 $185 $177 $113 ABOVE AVERAGE BELOW AVERAGE AVERAGE = $294 Purchasing of Nostalgic Products Among Brazilians 45.4% 20.5% 17.8% 5.1% 4.9% 3.7% 1.6% 0.8% 0.2% 50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% spices CDs DVDs, Foods and Videos, Clothing Newspapers/magazines Alcohol Cigarettes Books Craft Items Others 37.6% 28.9% 26.0% 5.5% 1.6% 0.3% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Does not have / NR Checking account Savings account Credit card Investment account Foreign currency savings Financial Accounts in Country of Origin - Brazil MEASURING TRANSNATIONALIS M
  • 14. 46.6% 36.80% 27.0% 22.7% 20.0% 15.3% 14.0% 10.3% 9.1% 5.7% 3.7% 50.0% 45.0% 40.0% 35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Guyana Brazil Ecuador Honduras Colombia Nicaragua Dominican R. Mxico Cuba El Salvador Guatemala Help Beyond Remittances AVERAGE = 19.2% ABOVE AVERAGE BELOW AVERAGE 14 26.3% 12.4% 10.0% 6.7% 5.0% 4.0% 3.5% 3.3% 2.8% 2.4% 0.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Guyana Honduras Brazil Ecuador Colombia Nicaragua Mexico Dominican R. El Salvador Guatemala Cuba Support of Hometown Associations AVERAGE = 6.7% ABOVE AVERAGE BELOW AVERAGE MEASURING TRANSNATIONALIS M
  • 16. Transnational entrepreneurship Keeping Feet in Both Worlds the many social connections and organizations that tie migrants and non-migrants to one another create a border-spanning arena that enables migrants, if they choose, to remain active in both worlds Transnational entrepreneurs have played an important role in facilitating international trade, investment, and diaspora tourism; There is a remarkable disparity between the dynamism of transnational enterprises and governmental misunderstanding or ignorance of the phenomenon;
  • 17. Transnational entrepreneurs are a heterogeneous group coming from many countries, crossing ethnic, immigrant, and minority boundaries, and possessing different motivations and experiences: The current market capitalization of publicly traded immigrant-founded venture-backed companies in the United States exceeds $500 billion, adding significant value to the American economy. About 50% of Indian and Chinese entrepreneurs in Silicon Valley have set up subsidiaries, joint ventures, subcontracting, or other operations in their native countries (Saxenian, Mtoyama, & Quan, 2002:37); For instance, 39% of the 289 companies located at the Hsinchu science-based industrial park near Taipei were started by U.S.-educated Taiwanese engineers with professional experience in Silicon Valley. Seventy of the firms maintain offices in Silicon Valley to obtain workers, technology, capital, and business opportunities; Likewise, Indias technology-oriented diaspora stand behind much of the FDI in the countrys emerging technology hubs of Bangalore and Hyderabad; About 60% of Hispanic immigrant entrepreneurs in the U.S. are transnational (Portes, Haller, & Guarnizo, 2002); Migrant-founded venture-backed public companies today employ an estimated 220,000 people in the United States and over 400,000 people globally.
  • 18. Preliminary research suggests 4 distinct types of immigrant transnational enterprises (Landolt et. al. 1999): Circuit firms - involved in the transfer of goods and remittances across countries ranging from an array of informal international couriers to large formal firms; Cultural enterprises - rely on their daily contacts with the home country and depend on the desire of immigrants to acquire and consume cultural goods from their country such as shows, CDs, newspapers, videos, etc.; Ethnic Enterprises - are small retail firms catering to the immigrant community which depend on a steady supply of imported goods, such as foodstuffs and clothing from the home country; Return migrant enterprises - are firms established by returnees that rely on their contacts in the United States. They include restaurants, video stores, auto sales and repairs, office supplies, etc.;
  • 19. Transnational entrepreneurs do better economically than their waged co-ethnics and pure local immigrant entrepreneurs (Portes and Zhou 1999; Logan, Alba, and McNulty 1994; Wilson and Martin 1982): Activities Linking Immigrants to Their Home Countries by Type of Economic Adaptation Activity Employee/ Wage Worker % Ethnic Entrepreneur % Transnational Entrepreneur % Imports Goods from Abroad 8.2 9.9 31.9 Exports Goods 6.5 8.9 18.1 Invests in Business in Home Country 5.9 11.7 26.4 Invests in Real Estate in Home Country 20.7 28.2 41.9 Has Been an International Courier 10.1 8.3 23.6 Hires at Least One Employee in Home Country 0 30.8 42.2 Frequency of Business Travel Abroad: At least twice per year 7.1 17.3 28.4 Six times or more per year 0.9 6.1 14.6 Source: CIEP, 1998 Ethnic Entrepreneur (% ) Transnational Entrepreneur (% ) Source: The Comparative Immigrant Entrepreneurship Project (CIEP); Center for Migration and Development (CMD); Princeton University.
  • 20. Some Implications of Transnational Entrepreneurship: Transnational entrepreneurship is a promising form of integration; Transnational integration and transnational entrepreneurship are highly relevant to modern workings of global and gateway cities; Transnational integration and transnational entrepreneurship provide opportunities for business, social entrepreneurs, and governments; Finally, the model presented can be generalized to include ethnic and non-ethnic forms of social settlement and connections spanning multiple borders.
  • 21. New Possibilities Transnational Platform(s) Transnational platform Transnational platform
  • 22. First Generation Innovation Portfolio Digaai.com Transnational Index Diaspora Capital Services Educational Delivery & Partnership Models Health Care Management & Insurance Provision Social Security Political Representation
  • 23. it Brazil United States Japan Portugal Angola Spain Paraguay Brazilian Transnational Community Digaai Transnational Platform SEARCH AGGREGATE ARCHIVE CURATE capture social practices capture economic activity (PHASE I) capture everyday life practices PHASE II DATAVERSE SLIDESHARE
  • 24. Transnational Platform Model SEARCH AGGREGATE ARCHIVE CURATE capture social practices it Brazilian Transnational Community (PHASE I) capture economic activity capture everyday life practices (PHASE II) MASHUPS JOURNALING TAGGCLOUDS General Model WIKI DATAHUB DATAVERSE SLIDESHARE
  • 25. Conectando brasileiros mundo afora www.digaai.com
  • 26. http://exaptive.com/ Data visualization of Brazilian Immigrant newspapers

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