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Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees

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COMP171. Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees. Trees. Linear access time of linked lists is prohibitive Does there exist any simple data structure for which the running time of most operations (search, insert, delete) is O(log N)? Trees Basic concepts Tree traversal Binary tree - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees COMP171
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Page 1: Trees, Binary Trees,  and Binary Search Trees

Trees, Binary Trees, and Binary Search Trees

COMP171

Page 2: Trees, Binary Trees,  and Binary Search Trees

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Trees

Linear access time of linked lists is prohibitive Does there exist any simple data structure for

which the running time of most operations (search, insert, delete) is O(log N)?

Trees Basic concepts Tree traversal Binary tree Binary search tree and its operations

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Trees A tree T is a collection of nodes

T can be empty (recursive definition) If not empty, a tree T consists

of a (distinguished) node r (the root), and zero or more nonempty subtrees T1, T2, ...., Tk

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Tree can be viewed as a ‘nested’ lists Tree is also a graph …

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Some Terminologies

Child and Parent Every node except the root has one parent  A node can have an zero or more children

Leaves Leaves are nodes with no children

Sibling nodes with same parent

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More Terminologies

Path A sequence of edges

Length of a path number of edges on the path

Depth of a node length of the unique path from the root to that node

Height of a node length of the longest path from that node to a leaf all leaves are at height 0

The height of a tree = the height of the root = the depth of the deepest leaf

Ancestor and descendant If there is a path from n1 to n2 n1 is an ancestor of n2, n2 is a descendant of n1 Proper ancestor and proper descendant

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Example: UNIX Directory

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Example: Expression Trees

Leaves are operands (constants or variables) The internal nodes contain operators Will not be a binary tree if some operators are not

binary

Page 9: Trees, Binary Trees,  and Binary Search Trees

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Tree Traversal

Used to print out the data in a tree in a certain order

Pre-order traversal Print the data at the root Recursively print out all data in the leftmost subtree … Recursively print out all data in the rightmost

subtree

Page 10: Trees, Binary Trees,  and Binary Search Trees

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Preorder, Postorder and Inorder

Preorder traversal node, left, right prefix expression

++a*bc*+*defg

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Preorder, Postorder and Inorder

Postorder traversal left, right, node postfix expression

abc*+de*f+g*+

Inorder traversal left, node, right infix expression

a+b*c+d*e+f*g

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Example: Unix Directory TraversalPreOrder PostOrder

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Preorder, Postorder and Inorder Pseudo Code

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Binary Trees A tree in which no node can have more than two

children

The depth of an “average” binary tree is considerably smaller than N, even though in the worst case, the depth can be as large as N – 1.

Generic binary tree

Worst-casebinary tree

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Convert a Generic Tree to a Binary Tree

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template <class Comparable>

class BinaryTreeNode {

Comparable element; // the data

BinaryTreeNode* left; // left child

BinaryTreeNode* right; // right child

public:

BinaryTreeNode getleft () { return left; }

BinaryTreeNode getright () { return right; }

};

template<class Comparable>

void preorder (BinaryTreeNode<Comparable> *root)

{

if (!root){

// output the node

preorder (root->getleft());

preorder (root->getright());

}

}

A Binary Tree Node

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Binary Search Trees (BST) A data structure for efficient searching, inser-

tion and deletion Binary search tree property

For every node X All the keys in its left

subtree are smaller than the key value in X

All the keys in its right subtree are larger than the key value in X

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Binary Search Trees

A binary search tree Not a binary search tree

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Binary Search Trees

Average depth of a node is O(log N) Maximum depth of a node is O(N)

The same set of keys may have different BSTs

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Searching BST If we are searching for 15, then we are done. If we are searching for a key < 15, then we

should search in the left subtree. If we are searching for a key > 15, then we

should search in the right subtree.

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Searching (Find) Find X: return a pointer to the node that has

key X, or NULL if there is no such node

Time complexity: O(height of the tree)

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Inorder Traversal of BST Inorder traversal of BST prints out all the keys

in sorted order

Inorder: 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 9, 13, 15, 17, 18, 20

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findMin/ findMax Goal: return the node containing the smallest (largest)

key in the tree Algorithm: Start at the root and go left (right) as long as

there is a left (right) child. The stopping point is the smallest (largest) element

Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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Insertion Proceed down the tree as you would with a find If X is found, do nothing (or update something) Otherwise, insert X at the last spot on the path traversed

Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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void insert(double x, BinaryNode*& t)

{

if (t==NULL) t = new BinaryNode(x,NULL,NULL);

else if (x<t->element) insert(x,t->left);

else if (t->element<x) insert(x,t->right);

else ; // do nothing

}

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Deletion

When we delete a node, we need to consider how we take care of the children of the deleted node. This has to be done such that the property of the

search tree is maintained.

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Deletion under Different Cases Case 1: the node is a leaf

Delete it immediately

Case 2: the node has one child Adjust a pointer from the parent to bypass that node

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Deletion Case 3 Case 3: the node has 2 children

Replace the key of the node with the minimum element at the right subtree

Delete that node with minimum element Has either no child or only right child because if otherwise, that

node would not have been the minimum in the first place! So, invoke case 1 or 2.

Time complexity = O(height of the tree)

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void remove(double x, BinaryNode*& t)

{

if (t==NULL) return; // empty tree or not found

if (x<t->element) remove(x,t->left);

else if (t->element < x) remove (x, t->right);

else if (t->left != NULL && t->right != NULL) // two children

{

t->element = finMin(t->right) ->element;

remove(t->element,t->right);

}

else

{

Binarynode* oldNode = t;

t = (t->left != NULL) ? t->left : t->right;

delete oldNode;

}

}

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Make a binary or BST ADT …

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Struct Node {

double element; // the data

Node* left; // left child

Node* right; // right child

}

class Tree {

public:

Tree(); // constructor

Tree(const Tree& t);

~Tree(); // destructor

bool empty() const;

double root(); // decomposition (access functions)

Tree& left();

Tree& right();

void insert(const double x); // compose x into a tree

void remove(const double x); // decompose x from a tree

private:

Node* root;

}

update

access,

selection

For a generic (binary) tree:

(insert and remove are different from those of BST)

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Struct Node {

double element; // the data

Node* left; // left child

Node* right; // right child

}

class BST {

public:

BST(); // constructor

BST(const Tree& t);

~BST(); // destructor

bool empty() const;

double root(); // decomposition (access functions)

BST left();

BST right();

bool serch(const double x); // search an element

void insert(const double x); // compose x into a tree

void remove(const double x); // decompose x from a tree

private:

Node* root;

}

update

access,

selection

For BST tree (non-template version)

BST is for efficient search, insertion and removal, so restricting these functions.

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class BST {

public:

BST();

BST(const Tree& t);

~BST();

bool empty() const;

bool search(const double x); // contains

void insert(const double x); // compose x into a tree

void remove(const double x); // decompose x from a tree

private:

Struct Node {

double element;

Node* left;

Node* right;

Node(…) {…}; // constructuro for Node

}

Node* root;

void insert(const double x, Node*& t) const; // recursive function

void remove(…)

Node* findMin(Node* t);

void makeEmpty(Node*& t); // recursive ‘destructor’

bool contains(const double x, Node* t) const;

}

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