TURBO TAKSWeek 6
Lesson 1: Body SystemsLesson 2: Heat Transfer & WavesLesson 3: Energy & ElectricityLesson 4: Motion, Forces, & Physics Equations
Lesson 1: Body Systems
The Human Body must also maintain homeostasis (a balance). The organs of the body work together in organ systems to perform specific functions.
Organ systems are often connected and work together to allow the body to function.
Integumentary: Skin, hair, nails: Protects, prevents infection, temperature control
Skeletal Support and protection of organs.
Muscular Uses bones as simple machines to exert force on the body to create movement.
Nervous Control system of the body. Works with other systems to maintain homeostasis.
Endocrine Secretes hormones that circulate in the blood stream and tell other systems what to do.
Reproductive: produces gametes in ovaries and testis.
Circulatory: transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes wastes.
Respiratory Brings O2 to circulatory system and removes CO2 (gas exchange!).
Immune Fights infection Helper T-cells and macrophages turn on the immune response and start attacking invaders.
Digestive: breaks down food and absorbs nutrients
Excretory Takes waste from the blood stream for removal from the body.
Lesson 2: Heat Transfer and Waves
Heat TransfersHeat moves from hot to cold.
Example: When you put your hand on a lab table it feels cold because the heat in your hand is leaving your body and transferring down, into the table. Not the other way around.
Heat from the 25oC block is sinking into the 10oC blockHeat does not rise, hot air rises.
ConductionConduction transfers from one substance to another by direct contact of molecules.
Example: When you touch a hot stove!
ConvectionConvection transfers heat through moving currents in fluids (gases or liquids). Convection cannot occur in solids, because solids cant move.
THINK: Liquids and Gases
Much of the weather on earth comes from convection currents. The sun warms air at the surface of the earth. Warm air rises, causing winds. When the air cools it falls back to the ground
Examples: The sun warming your face.Warmth you feel sittingclose to a campfire.
Heat (thermal energy) in the form of electromagnetic radiation from a light source.
Lets PracticeName the type of heat transfer:Boiling water in a pot.
3. McDonalds keeping french fries warm under a heat lamp.
CONDUCTIONRADIATION2. Your feet burning on concrete in the Summer time.4. Which letter represents a possible heat transfer?
WavesA wave is any disturbance that transmits energy through matter or space
Types of Waves1.2.
Types of Waves1. Compression/ Longitudinal waveProduced by moving a slinky spring back and forth.Example: Sound
Types of Waves2. Transverse WaveProduced by waving a rope or other medium up and down Example: Light wave, or a ripple in a pond
Parts of a Transverse Wave
Characteristics of All WavesWavelength- distance from a point in a wave to the next point on the next wave in the same phase
Frequency- the number of times that a repeated event occurs per secondFor sound, High pitch = high frequency
V = f (Velocity = frequency x wavelength)
Wave PropertiesReflectionWhen waves bounce off a hard boundary.The sound waves are bouncing off the tank. (i.e.- mirror, echo)
Refraction The bending of light as it passes from one medium into another. (i.e.- lenses)
Wave PropertiesDiffractionOccurs when a wave bends around a corner.
InterferenceA wave interaction that occurs when two or more waves overlap.Click screen when ready
Wave PropertiesResonanceOccurs when one object vibrates because of another objects vibrations.
Common in tuning forks and other musical instrumentsExample: EarhearingBody of guitar vibrates because of its strings vibration.
Click screen when readyMake sure sound is turned down.
Lets PracticeAnswer with: Reflection, Refraction, Diffraction, Interference, or Resonance. 1. Lenses2. Using a mirror3. Water waves passing through an opening.4. When the primary colors of light combine to form white light5. When singing near a piano, the keys can start to sound.
Lesson 3: Energy and Electricity
Energy is the ability to cause motion or forces; the units of energy are joules (J).
Potential Energy1. Gravitational Potential Energy (in Joules, J) is stored energy, because an object is above the ground.More height = more Potential Energy. It has the potential to cause motion and forces.
Gravitational Potential Energy= mass x gravity x height
Potential EnergyThe acceleration due to gravity we experience on Earth is 9.8 m/s2. In space, gravity is 0 m/s2.
Potential Energy Practice: PE=mgh
Dont forget to use the given constants and formulas!m =h =g =Ep =
Kinetic EnergyKinetic Energy (in Joules, J) is the energy of motion. Moving objects have kinetic energy.
Kinetic Energy= mass x velocity2
Mass is measured in kilograms (kg) and velocity is measured in meters/second (m/s).
Energy TransfersWork (in Joules, J) is how forces change energy. Work=Force x Distance
Power (in Watts, W) is how fast work is done.Power = Work Time
Energy can be transferred from one type to another.
EfficiencyEfficiency is the percentage of energy retained (not lost) in an energy transfer.
Efficiency CalculationWin=Fd= 30(8)=240 JWout=Epgained =mgh =10(9.8)2 =98(2) = 196J196.82 x 100=82%
Types of EnergyThermal EnergyHeat energy. A product of most other forms of energy.
Mechanical EnergyAny kind of Kinetic (moving) or Potential (height) Energy.
Chemical EnergyStored in chemical bonds. Includes energy in food, plants, and batteries (produce electricity by combining chemicals).
Electrical EnergyEnergy of moving electrons: lightening, electricity.
Radiant EnergyLight energy from light bulbs or the sun (renewable solar energy).
Nuclear EnergyEnergy from nuclear reactions (radiation): makes huge amounts of energy, but also long-term, radioactive waste like power plants.
Lets PracticeWORD BANK Kinetic EnergyPotential EnergyEnergyHeightJoulesMatch with the terms to the right:The units for energy. The ability to create forces or motion. Energy because of an objects motion.Energy because of an objects position above the ground due to gravity.Vertical distance above the ground.
ElectricityMoving of electrons through conductors. The path must be closed, or electrons cannot move.
Electrical CircuitsSeries CircuitProvides a single conducting pathway without junctions.
Parallel CircuitWhen two or more components of a circuit are connected across junctions, providing separate pathways for the current. Notice how the lines are parallel!Which type of circuit would you rather have for your Christmas lights?Parallel, so that if one light burns out, the current can still reach the other bulbs.
Assuming the chart contains all energy transformations in the Earth system, how much solar radiationgoes toward evaporating water?F 40,000 terajoulesG 92,410 terajoulesH 121,410 terajoulesJ 133,410 terajoulesSubtract all the energy expenditures from the total amount reaching Earth.173,410 52,000- 81,000 370 40 = 40,000Lets Practice with Energy!
Lesson 4: Motion, Forces, and Physics Equations
Speed and VelocitySpeed is the distance an object travels per second. Velocity includes the speed of an object and the direction of its motion.
They share a formula on your equation sheet.
Measuring SpeedTo measure speed you must determine the distance traveled and the elapsed time.
Accelerationa = a =
An object accelerates when it changes speed OR changes direction!If acceleration is unknown use acceleration due to gravity out of the constants box on the formula chart!
Acceleration is how fast you change velocity OR how much the velocity changed in a certain amount of time.
Solving for Acceleration1. Calculate initial velocityAccelerates for 2 seconds
4 m Measure Vf (Final Velocity)8 mMeasure Vi (Initial Velocity)Measure T (Time it took to Accelerate)3. Determine the change in time.2. Calculate final velocity4. Plug into acceleration equation.So T = 2 sec
MOMENTUMMomentum is how hard it is to stop something and is a product of an objects mass and its velocity. Momentum is increased if either the mass or velocity is increased.
MomentumThe canon ball has a smaller mass and a larger velocity. The canon has a larger mass and a smaller velocity. However, since the system started with a net momentum of zero, the momentums of the objects afterwards must be equal and opposite to cancel each other out, or = 0. Pcanon = Pcanon ball
ForcesA force is a push or pull that one body exerts on another. Force is measured in Newtons (N).
Forces can add and subtract.
Total Net Force = +65 -15= 50 N Right is positive.Left is negative.
Newtons Laws of Motion:
An object in motion will stay in motion unless a force acts upon it. (Law of Inertia). If an object is at rest, it will stay at rest until acted upon. *Why we need seatbelts.
Force = mass x acceleration*Why a bowling ball does not go as fast as a ping pong ball when the same force is applied.
3. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.*Why a rocket goes up when gasses push down.
InertiaInertia is the tendency to not change motion, and is dependent only on the objects mass (measured in kilograms). - Newtons First Law.
Frequent Equations from the Formula Sheet
Solving Physics Problems:Identify what is being asked and underline or highlight it.
Find the appropriate formula and write it down in your test booklet.
Plug in the known information (WRITE IT OUT).
4. Solve for the unknown.
Lets Practice the Steps TogetherWhat is the approximate difference in gravitational potential energy of a 2kg object 3m off the ground and a 2kg object 1m off the ground?
F) 19JG) 39 JH) 59 JJ) 79 J
First SituationPE=mghPE=(2)(9.8)(3)PE= 58.8 JSecond SituationPE=mghPE=(2)(9.8)(1)PE= 19.6 JDifference Between=58.8 19.6 = 39.2 J or approximately 39J = Ggravitational potential energy
The illustration above shows a student about to throw a ball while standing on a skateboard. Which illustration below correctly shows the skateboards direction of motion after the student releases the ball?Lets Practice!ABCDskateboards direction of motion
A cyclist moves at a constant speed of 5 m/s. If the cyclist does not accelerate during the next 20 seconds, he will travel
A 0 m B 4 m C 50 m D 100 m
They are asking for distance and giving us speed and time.S=d/t5=d/20(Multiply by 20 on each side of the equal sign.)
20 x 5= 100m = D
How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate is pushed 15 m with a force of 20 N?
F 300 J G 750 J H 1,000 J J 15,000 J
workW=FdW= (20)(15)W= 300 J = FWatch out for extra information!
LeversWhich lever arrangement requires the least effort force to raise a 500 N resistance?
A mechanic used a hydraulic lift to raise a12,054 N car 1.89 m above the floor of agarage. It took 4.75 s to raise the car. Whatwas the power output of the lift?
A) 489 WB) 1815 WC) 4796 WD) 30,294 W
This is a two part calculation.Youre looking for Power, but must have work before you can solve (P=w/t)Calculate work:w=fdw=(12054)(1.89)w=22,782.06 J2. Calculate power:P=w/tp=(22,782.06) (4.75)P=4796.22 WWe know its a force because its measured in Newtons!
A ball moving at 30 m/s has a momentum of 15 kgm/s. The mass of the ball is
A 45 kg B 15 kg C 2.0 kg D 0.5 kg
momentumMomentum = mass x velocityP=mv15=m(30)Divide by thirty on both sides.15/30= 0.5 kg = D