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Types of Matter. Matter can be classified Matter Pure Substances ElementCompound Mixtures...

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Types of Matter
Transcript

Types of Matter

Matter can be classified

Matter

Pure Substances

Mixtures

Element CompoundHomogeneous

(Solutions)Heterogeneous

Matter

Anything that has mass and takes up space

Anything made from atomsExamples:

MoleculesCellsPeopleAirWater

Pure Substances versus Mixtures

MixturesPure Substances

Every piece of matter is the same

More than one type of matter mixed

together

Matter is classified as either a pure substance or a mixture

Elements versus Compounds

CompoundElements

Every atom is the same type of atom

More than one type of atom chemically bonded together. Every molecule is

the same.

Pure substances are either elements or compounds

Elements

Pure substanceEvery atom is the same

Elements can be found on the periodic table!

Element

Single AtomCannot be separated by chemical or physical processes

Compounds

Pure substanceEvery molecule is the same

Compound

Single Molecule

Made of more than one type of atom bonded together

Can be separated by chemical reactions only

Mixtures

HeterogeneousHomogeneous (aka “solution”)

It looks the same throughout

Different matter can be seen (chunks, bubbles, floaties,

layers, etc.)

Mixtures can be classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous

Mixtures

Not a pure substancePhysical combination of more than 1 type of pure substance

Mixture

>1 different type of matter

Can be separated chemically or physically.

For example the oil and water was physically separated in Cleaning up an Oil Spill

Mixture possibilities

Mixtures can be any combination of solids, liquids and gases:Solid-solid: Medicine tabletSolid-gas: Pop Rocks candySolid-liquid: Ice waterLiquid-liquid: Lemon waterGas-Liquid: Carbonated waterGas-Gas: Air

True solutions, Colloids & Suspensions

ColloidTrue Solution

Particles don’t settle out and are

too small to scatter light

Particles don’t settle out but are large enough to

scatter light

Suspension

Particles will settle out over time

Dissolved Particle Size Increases

Particles Scattering Light

If the dissolved particles are large enough to scatter light, we say it exhibits the “Tyndall Effect”

SolutionLight passes through unchanged

Colloids exhibit the Tyndall EffectLight is scattered by larger solute particles

Leave a few lines of space to add information you will

receive in class

DO NOT WRITE ANYTHING DOWN FROM THIS SLIDE!

Properties of Matter

Physical versus Chemical Properties

Chemical PropertyPhysical Property

Can be observed or tested without

changing the atoms or molecules

In the process of observing or

testing, the atoms or molecules are

changed into different

substance(s)

Intensive and Extensive Properties

Extensive PropertyIntensive Property

Size of the sample doesn’t matter—you’d say a big

piece and a small piece were the

same with respect to this property

Size of the sample does matter—a big piece and a small

piece would be different with

respect to this property

Leave a few lines of space to add information you will

receive in class

DO NOT WRITE ANYTHING DOWN FROM THIS SLIDE!

States of Matter

Solid

Closely packed together particlesVibrate in placeCan’t switch placesDefinite shapeDefinite volume

Liquid

Particles more spread out than solidParticles are free to move past each otherSlightly compressibleDefinite volumeNo definite shape – take shape of container

Gas

Particles very spread outRapid, random motionHighly compressibleNo definite volume—they will fill containerNo definite shape—take shape of container

Solid

Liquid

GasSublimation

Melting

Boiling or Evaporating

Condensing

Freezing

Deposition

Incr

easi

ng m

olec

ular

mot

ion

(tem

pera

ture

)

Changes in State

Temperature of state changes

Freezing point = melting pointBoiling point = condensation point

What’s between the particles?

?

Nothing! There is absolutely nothing between the particles!


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