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Unclassified Air Systems Division Modern Architectures for Radiolocation Radars Abraham van den Berg...

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Unclassified Air Systems Division Modern Architectures for Radiolocation Radars Abraham van den Berg Geneva, September 24 th 2005 Slide 2 1 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Frequency sharing in Radiolocation bands Operational System Requirements Radar Modes and Architectures Agenda Slide 3 Unclassified Air Systems Division Frequency sharing in Radiolocation bands Slide 4 3 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Frequency Sharing in Radiolocation Bands L-band: (1215 1400 MHz)RNSS: GPS, Glonass, Galileo S-band: (2700 3600 MHz)MS: ENG/OB, Future IMT-2000 Aeronautical Telemetry C-band: (5250 5850 MHz)MS: WAS, RLANs GPS IMT-2000 WAS ENG/OB TELEMETRYRLANs Slide 5 Unclassified Air Systems Division Operational System Requirements Slide 6 5 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Operational System Requirements Mission statements and requirements for a clear environment Requirements for an EM polluted environment Future radar requirements. Slide 7 6 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division L-band Requirements (1) Mission: Long Range Air Defence Long range detection of conventional aircraft (RCS > 2 m 2 ) Medium range detection of latest generation stealth air targets, i.e. missiles (RCS < 0.1 m 2 ) High performance w.r.t. Electronic Counter-Counter Measures Guidance support for patrol aircraft Surface surveillance up to the radar horizon. Slide 8 7 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division L-band Requirements (2) Mission: Volume Search by means of Multibeam Surveillance Fast 3D scanning with gapless elevation coverage up to 70 Excellent angular accuracy in elevation (< 1) Improved detection at low elevation (reduction of multipath effect) Increased resistance against jamming and other interferences Jamming detection Improved operation in bad weather conditions Suppression of sea and land clutter Improved surface surveillance. Slide 9 8 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division L-band Requirements (3) An example of a naval Volume Search Radar Slide 10 9 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division L-band Requirements (4) L-band Requirements, highlights Increasing number of spot frequencies in agile mode (Interoperability, Multipath) Increasing system bandwidth (Detection of stealth targets, Multipath, ECM) Digital beamforming for 3D scanning radars Frequency diversity for ATC. Slide 11 10 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division S-band Requirements (1) Mission: Military Air Traffic Control Civil ATC Radar modified for military application, i.e. with additional environmental constraints Capability of countering chaff, deception and noise jamming. Mission: Battlefield and Border Surveillance 2D Detection and tracking of moving targets over a local area Required to rapidly alert a co-located tracking sensor Detection in land and weather clutter Air and surface targets. Slide 12 11 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division S-band Requirements (2) Mission: Naval Surveillance Two-dimensional 2D primary surveillance and target indication Air as well as surface targets Suppression of sea clutter. Three-dimensional (3D Single Beam) Additional facility of measuring target altitude. Three-dimensional (3D Multi-beam) Multiple simultaneous beams to shorten reaction time. Slide 13 12 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division S-band Requirements (3) Mission: Naval Multifunction Radar Surveillance and tracking in angle, range and velocity of multiple targets Phased array technology (Active as well as passive) Own missile guidance Kill assessment. Mission: Airborne Early Warning Long range and very long range (BTH) surveillance Target altitude determination All weather operation. Slide 14 13 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division S-band Requirements (4) An example of a naval Multifunction Radar Slide 15 14 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division S-band Requirements (5) S-band Requirements, highlights Increasing pulse bandwidth (Higher range resolution, NCTR) Trend toward higher duty cycles Increasing number of spot frequencies in agile mode (Interoperability, Multipath) Increasing system bandwidth (Detection of stealth targets, Multipath, ECM) Frequency diversity, up to 4 frequencies (ATC). Slide 16 15 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division C-band Requirements (1) Mission: Naval Surveillance (2D and 3D) Same as in S-band, but with shorter range, 30 km - 120 km. Mission: Instrumentation Tracking On test ranges: Very accurate tracking of space and aeronautic vehicles undergoing developmental and operational testing Large parabolic reflector antennas and high EIRP Autotracking antennas, either on the skin echo or on a beacon. Slide 17 16 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division C-band Requirements (2) Mission: Battlefield Weapon Locator Required to locate position of enemy fire and impact location Rapid horizontal scan in search mode Rapid horizontal and vertical scan in tracking mode Very agile, both in frequency and beam position Extremely sensitive, due to targets with very small RCS. Slide 18 17 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division C-band Requirements (3) C-band Requirements, highlights Frequency agility over a wide system bandwidth Pulse bandwidth increases for high range resolution needs More and more 3D radars with fast beam agility Commonalitie with S-band radars, usually with shorter range Specificity: Very sensitive long range instrumentation radar. Slide 19 18 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Requirements in an EM Polluted Environment Inter-system electromagnetic compatibility Essentially compatibility with other radars in the same band No known requirements to share with communication systems Most of the time radars are protected by a primary status When co-primary, other systems are required to avoid harmful interference to radars. Electronic protection (or ECCM) requirements Chaff, noise jamming, false target generation, deception These requirements include: Frequency hopping and automatic tuning Advanced antenna design, combined with advanced signal and data processing. Slide 20 19 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Future Requirements (1) Tactical Ballistic Missile Defence (TBMD) Detection and tracking of ballistic missiles Cueing of other sensors Will require a mix of sensors at different frequencies. Slide 21 20 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Future Requirements (2) Low Probability of Intercept (LPI) No detection from ESM, jammer receivers, ARM receivers (even with a sensitity better than 80 dBm LPI can only be realized by diluting emissions (Low EIRP) In time: Increased duty cycle, CW In space: Wide transmitted beam and digital beamforming In frequency: Multi channel concepts. Stealth Targets Improved detection and tracking performance for targets with low RCS Will require high EIRP and large bandwidth Might require multi static modes Slide 22 21 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Future Requirements (3) Multifunction Surveillance radar, Fire control radar, Terrestrial comms, Satellite comms, ESM, ECM Benefits claimed for functional integration: Common antenna system at optimum location Increased flexibility in hardware allocation Increased electromagnetic compatibility Reduced radar signature Reduced number of antennas Reduction / elimination of electromagnetic blockage Reduced handover time between functions. Slide 23 22 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Future Requirements (4) Non Cooperative Target Recognition (NCTR) High resolution range profiling (< 1 m resolution) Short pulses and thus large bandwidth wave forms Jet Engine Modulation (JEM) Emissions at shorter wavelength High sample rate / high PRF for unambiguous spectrum Good close in phase noise performance Other techniques Polarimetry Multi static radar Slide 24 Unclassified Air Systems Division Radar Modes and Architectures Slide 25 24 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Radar Modes and Architectures (1) Classical Main design issues for the selection of waveforms Range resolution, accuracy and ambiguity Doppler resolution, accuracy and ambiguity Clutter cancelling Multi target performance Narrow band pulse Doppler waveforms Variety of parameters in frequency, pulse width and PRI Major Choices on Waveforms Slide 26 25 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Radar Modes and Architectures (2) Non classical FM-CW waveforms Passive radar Use of transmission of opportunity to perform radar functions High range resolution Target separation, isolation of target points for NCTR purposes, improved detectability in clutter Short pulse, pulse compression, deramp or stretched waveform, step frequency Major Choices on Waveforms Slide 27 26 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Radar Modes and Architectures (3) Compromise between peak power and duty cycle Influenced by transmitter technology. Major Choices on Transmitted Power Transmitted RF pulses have to contain sufficient energy to: Detect a target with specified RCS at a specified range Overcome environmental noise effects Overcome path losses Overcome system losses Overcome man made noise sources Slide 28 27 Radar Seminar, Geneva 24 September 2005 Unclassified Air Systems Division Radar Modes and Architectures (4) RF filtering on multi frequency

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