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  • Urban Development, Vulnerabilities and Disasters: Social Justice and Land Reclamation in IndonesiaRita Padawangi

    Senior Research FellowAsia Research InstituteNational University of [email protected]

    I thank WatchDoc Documentary Filmmaker, particularly Dandhy Dwi Laksono and Suparta Arz who had conducted Ekspedisi Indonesia Biru that collected interviews in Bali and Jakarta. The fieldwork for this paper was funded by the Singapore Ministry of Education AcRF Tier 2 grant for the project Governing Compound Disasters in Urbanizing Asia (MOE2014-T2-1-017)

  • Social Justice in Urban DevelopmentSegregations of economic classes as manifestations

    of capitalism in the urban landscape

    Distributional justice and procedural justice

    Environmental justice

    inter-generational justice and intra-generational justice in exploitation and conservation of resources

    place-specific struggles historically connected practice and theory and potentially feed into global social mobilization

    Questioning normalization of social injustices as a product of powerful institutions and/or

    populist politics

    Does social justice matter in urban development? If so, to whom does social justice matter, and

    what are the implications on urban development?

    https://www.premedhq.com/environmentaljustice

  • Land Reclamation and Social JusticeLand reclamation has been a trend in Southeast Asias development in major cities.

    Singapore Jakarta Phnom Penh etc.

    Decentralization, urban development and coastal reclamation in Indonesia

    The local governments authority over the citys spatial plan means that they could

    become more entrepreneurial in their approaches to development, representation

    and consumption, particularly in the pursuit of being competitive in the country and

    in the region (Susilo, 2015).

  • Land Reclamation in IndonesiaLocation Area(inhectares) Planned/InProcess/CompletedSouthAceh 6,305.82 PlannedTangerang 7,500 PlannedJakarta 5,155 InProcessSemarang 204 CompletedSurabaya 600 CompletedBalikpapan 5,130 InProcessMakassar 4,000 InProcessBali 700 PlannedLombok 1,250 PlannedPalu 24.5 InProcessManado 114 CompletedBitung 2,000 PlannedKendari 17.5 Planned

    Total(Completed) 918Total(InProcess) 14,254.50Total(Planned) 12,103.32

    Total(all) 27,275.82

  • Jakartas Coastal Reclamation

    Historical port city

    Currently one of the megacities threatened by

    sea level rise

    Water as a threat (North Coast of Jakarta)

    North Jakarta has more poor population

    (48,000 households) compared to other

    administrative areas

    Most of these poor households occupy houses

    less than 50 square meters with insufficient

    basic needs infrastructures.

    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/risingseas/ificemeltedmap

  • Development of Disasters

    Notsuitedforexpansion

    Limitedurbanexpansion

    Majorurbanexpansion

    Limitedurbanexpansion

    Protecteduplands

    EnvironmentalZoning19852005

  • Development of DisastersEnvironmentalZoning19852005 MasterPlan20102030

    (JakartaBay)Jakarta is a coastal city. The only beach that is near to settlements is Ancol. We can develop Ancol to be the number one beach. It will be a golden beach. (Ciputra, ca. 1966, as quoted in Kompas).

  • Development of DisastersMasterPlan20102030

    (JakartaBay)The same sea that is now a threat will be used in many ways to benefit the National Capital, and the country as a whole. Jakarta Bay provides room for a new city district that accommodates over 1.5 million people from all income classes and a National Tangerang-Bekasi Highway that connects the provinces Jakarta, West-Java and Banten. The bay is also used to expand the port and strengthen the existing fisheries, thus stimulating economic growth. The bay will be converted into a large waduk (retention lake). It contributes to alleviate the urban floods and river floods which have affected the National Capital for so long, and will also serve as a sustainable source for drinking water for the citizens of Jakarta. (NCICD Draft Master Plan, 2014: 11)

    Presidential Decree 52/1995: the north coast was designated to be a Prime Location (Kawasan Andalan), with strategic value from the perspective of the economy and the development of the city, and that thorough planning of the area through reclamation was needed (Keppres 52/1995).

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

    0200,000400,000600,000800,000

    1,000,0001,200,0001,400,0001,600,000

    2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 n.a.

    Build

    ingCo

    verageAreaof

    Prop

    osed

    New

    Sup

    erblocks(in

    squa

    rem

    eter)

    Year

    Jakartasnewsuperblocks20002010+4.7millionsq mbuildingcoveragearea

    (Herlambang,2010)

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

    My mother and father were fishermen. I was born in Ancol, Hailai was my birthplace. From Ancol I was moved to Muara Karang, and from MuaraKarang to Muara Angke. And now in Muara Angke we will be moved again? We are not animals, Sir, we are human beings. (Woman resident of Muara Angke, Audience at DPRD DKI, 2016)

    Islets O, P, Q will be Port of Jakarta. In collaboration with the Port of Rotterdam Those who do not like reclamation, listen well, do you think Ancol was a result of the soil reproducing itself? (Governor Basuki T. Purnama, 2016).

  • Balis Coastal ReclamationPresidential Regulation 51/2014

    1) the need to revitalize Benoa Bay based

    on strategic national policies and

    internal dynamics of the area

    2) potentials to develop economic activities

    along with social, cultural and religious

    activities.

    The Presidential Regulation also cited the use

    of reclaimed land for disaster mitigation

    PT Tirta Wahana Bali International (TWBI) is

    linked to Jakarta-based businessman Tomy

    Winata.

    http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/09/risingseas/ificemeltedmap

    http://nusabenoa.com

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

    DEVELOPMENTBASEDONBALINESECULTURE

    http://twbi.co.id/

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

    http://nusabenoa.com

  • Social Justice, Development and Disasters

    http://www.solopos.com/2014/11/23/fotoreklamasibaliforumrakyatbalidemodijakarta554487

    http://www.semetonnews.com/post/read/2065/balitolakreklamasigendojawabtudingansoaldanaaksiforbali

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pb3UkYVyNpY

    First, we should see it together. Dont compare to, like you said just now, Singapore, which is already developed. Now, my question is, without what you showed to us, we have developed, Sir. Bali is still a touristic place. Maybe Singapore is still no comparison to Bali on tourist attraction. I am sure Bali is still sustained with its people who still hold tight to the traditions. (Community Representative, Environmental Impact Assessment Public Consultation, 11 March 2015).

  • Social Justice: Jakarta and Bali ReclamationJakarta Bali

    LandArea(hectares) 66,152(city/province)640,071(metropolitanregionJabodetabek)

    578,000(island/province)

    LandReclamationPlan(hectares)

    5,155 700

    Shareofpubliclandfromreclamationislets(hectares)

    773.25(15%) 300(42.86%)

    Dominantuseofreclamationislets

    Housing(middleclass&above)ThemeParkCommercialPort

    Housing(middleclass&above)ThemeParkCommercialFishermansWharfBotanicalGardenMangrove

    Jakarta BaliPopulation 10,075,300(2014) 4,152,800(2016)FisherfolkPopulation

    27,753 1,852

    LandReclamationPolicy

    Keppres52/1995 Perpres51/2014

    StatusofReclamation

    InProcess Planned

    ClimateChangeProneness

    SeaLevelRise SeaLevelRise

    EnvironmentalThreats

    LandSubsidence(10xsealevelrise)

    SeaWaterIntrusion

    Flooding

    Sedimentationofriversandthebay

  • Social Justice: Jakarta and Bali Recmalation

    Jakarta BaliResistance Ministryofthe

    Environmentlawsuit(overturned,2011)

    FishermenslawsuitonIsletG(overturned,2016,appealingtotheSupremeCourt)

    FishermenslawsuitonIsletF(submitted,2016)

    FishermenslawsuitonIsletI(submitted,2016)

    FishermenslawsuitonIsletK(submitted,2016)

    RejectionofEnvironmentalImpactAssessment(2015,2016)

    RejectionfromParisada HinduDharmaCouncilofIndonesia,October2015

    Streetdemonstrations(multiple,2014present)

    Jakarta BaliEnvironmentalReasonsinLandReclamation

    RevitalizationofJakartaBay

    CombinedwithGiantSeaWalltoprotectagainstsealevelrise

    RevitalizationofBenoa Bay

    Numberofdevelopers

    9(allJakartabased)

    1(Jakartabased)

    Priorinformationtothepeople

    No No

    SpatialPlanning InProcess(Drafttobesignedbylocalparliament)

    Planned

  • Social Justice: Jakarta and Bali Reclamation

    In Jakarta, the idea of social justice in mitigating

    inequalities is proven difficult. The poor are increasingly

    stigmatized as causes of floods and as stubborn people

    who refuse the offer to be relocated to rental flats in the

    urban periphery.

    Photocredit:IanWilson,2016

    Photocredit:Tubagus Rachmat,2016

  • Social Justice: Jakarta and Bali ReclamationThese land reclamation projects, supported by local and

    national policies, are marketed for groups of population

    that are wealthier than those whose livelihoods were

    affected as well as potentially displaced, such as the

    fisherfolks.

    However, the argument that manage to u

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